Topography of the Bavarian Forest
Low mountain range of the Bavarian Forest with partially dead forest
|Highest peak||Großer Arber ( )|
|part of||Upper Palatinate-Bavarian Forest|
|Classification according to||Institute for Regional Studies|
|Type||Low mountain range|
|rock||Gneiss , granite|
The Bavarian Forest or the Bavarian Forest is an approximately 100 km long and up to low mountain range on the border between Bavaria and the Czech Republic . The largest part of it is in the administrative region of Lower Bavaria . The northern part belongs to the Upper Palatinate , in the south the Bavarian Forest extends to the border of Upper Austria .high
Geologically and geomorphologically it belongs to the Bohemian Forest - the highest rump mountains of the Bohemian massif - and has been distinguished from it by name since around 1830, when the area became continuously Bavarian after the incorporation of the Regensburg and Passau monasteries .
Along the Czech border, the mountains were rededicated as the Bavarian Forest National Park , the dense vegetation of which is slowly developing into a native primeval forest. The protected area has several information centers and a network of hiking trails and continues across the border in the larger Šumava National Park.
The Bavarian Forest, together with the north west, beyond the Cham-Further sink subsequent Upper Palatinate Forest and the south of Passau and beyond the Danube situated Neuburger forest , the largest contiguous forest in Bavaria and this together with the Bohemian Forest (Czech Šumava ) and the Sauwald ( southeast continuation to Upper Austria ) one of the largest in Europe.
The highest mountains in the Bavarian Forest are the Great Arber with and the Great Rachel ( ). Germany's first national park, the Bavarian Forest National Park, was created in the eastern part of the mountains in 1970 . It was expanded in 1997 and, together with the Czech Republic's Šumava National Park, forms one of the largest protected areas in Europe.
In older cartographic and lexical works, the term “Bavarian Forest” only includes the mountainous region of the Vorderen Wald between the Danube and the Regen, which has its highest elevation in the Einödriegel . The back forest (between rain and the Bohemian border) with the mountains Arber, Rachel, Lusen u. a. used to be part of the Bohemian Forest. The language used by the German-Bavarian authorities, tourism and the earlier Iron Curtain contributed to the fact that the term “Bavarian Forest” was increasingly extended to the entire low mountain range on this side of the border between Bavaria and Bohemia. As a result of the political developments after 1989, most recently with the accession of the Czech Republic to the Schengen area , there is a noticeable trend towards seeing the low mountain range on the German-Czech border as a single unit, especially in terms of tourism.
The tourism has a high priority in the Bavarian Forest. There are also several ski areas between nature, hiking and forest culture . The Bavarian Forest is also known for its glassblowing art in the Zwiesel area as well as in the geosciences through the Fundamental Station Wettzell near Bad Kötzting .
The core area of the Bavarian Forest (in the broader sense) is divided into the Rear Bavarian Forest in the center of the Bohemian Forest, the Rain Valley and the Front Bavarian Forest. There are also the roofs of the two main mountain ranges to the south-east and that of the front to the north-west. Almost all the comb-like mountain ranges run from northwest to southeast; In the following, the most important partial landscapes are roughly characterized according to natural and especially geomorphological conditions:
Rear Bavarian Forest and rain depression
The center of the Bohemian Forest lies between Zwiesel in the west and Vimperk in the Czech east. It is a low relief plateau area that is almost everywhere above . To the northwest, towards the Großer Falkenstein ( ), the relief energy increases; beyond the valley of the Großer Regens , this line continues like a ridge to a ridge into the Künisches Gebirge with Seewand / Zwercheck (up to ) and Osser (up to ), which lie directly on the German-Czech border. The lower Fahrenberg ( ) finally leads over to the Hohen Bogen (up to ), which runs out into the Cham-Further valley .
However, the low mountain range reaches its highest heights on a second ridge line, which is offset southwest of the main ridge and also strikes from northwest to southeast. The Arber (up to ) is connected to the sea wall to the north by a ridge; to the northwest, its ridge line continues over the Schwarzeck ( ) to the Kaitersberg ( ); the upper valley of the Weißer Regen , the so-called Lamer Winkel , separates this ridge from that of the Künischen Mountains. From the Arber to the southeast, this bar is initially interrupted by the Zwieseler basin with the city of Zwiesel, but on its line, beyond the basin, with Rachel (up to ), Lusen ( ) and Dreisesselberg ( ), there are more highest mountains in the Bavarian Forest and the Bohemian Forest as a whole. The ridge continues outside Bavaria, on the border between the Czech Republic and Austria, through Plöckenstein ( ) and Hochficht ( )
The Zellertal , which stretches from Bad Kötzting via Bodenmais and north-east of Langdorf to Bettmannsäge and which extends in relief as far as Spiegelau , finally separates a third, somewhat lower ridge line that closes the rear Bavarian Forest to the south-west. Immediately southwest of this depression, the ridge line extends from Wurzer Spitz ( ) over Weigelsberg ( ) and Wolfgangriegel ( ) to Kronberg ( ) and, behind the valley of the Schwarzen Regen , over Eschenberg ( ) to Kreuzberg ( ) near Oberkreuzberg .
The hilly landscape of the rain depression borders this third ridge to the southwest . Many of the most important places in the inner Bavarian Forest, such as Viechtach , Teisnach and Regen, and, further south-east, Rinchnach and Kirchdorf im Wald are located on the course of the Black Rain . On average, roughly in the middle, the post runs through the depression in its main Hercynian direction.
Front Bavarian Forest
Southwest of the rain depression is the up to Front Bavarian Forest , whose ridge also runs roughly south-east, but which is clearly divided into individual ridges, each with a different crest direction.high
The far north-west is occupied by the Elisabethszeller Mountains near Elisabethszell , whose ridge direction points to the south-southeast. At Hadriwa you reach . Immediately to the east are the Hirschenstein Mountains with an analogous ridge direction. Starting from the Zeller Höhe ( ), the northernmost mountain of the Vorderen, this ridge extends to the Hirschenstein ( ). To the southeast of the Hirschenstein lies the Vogelsang Forest with the Vogelsang ( ), which consists of just one ridge, oriented from north to south. On the northern extension of this ridge and already in the rain depression lies the Hornbergwald , which reaches on the Abendberg and thus clearly towers above the interior of the depression.
Immediately to the east of the Vogelsang, from north to south, along the Kollbach - Teisnach valley ridge, which also frames the Hornberg Forest to the east, the Graflinger pass valley runs between Gotteszell in the north and Grafling in the south. It represents the most distinctive incision in the Upper Bavarian Forest and is passed from the federal road 11 to a maximum of . Immediately to the east of it rises in the Riegel Mountains with the Einödriegel ( ) north and the Breitenauriegel ( ) south of the center, the center of gravity of the Upper Bavarian Forest. To the south of it and separated by the state road St 2135, a chain of peaks, the Haussteinberge and the Leopoldswald , extends to the east. The Hausstein reaches , the Fürberg in the extreme east still .
The southernmost part of the mountain range, the Sonnenwald , is a chain of individual peaks running from west to east; it is only connected to the Leopoldswald southwest of the Fürberg by a narrow ridge. To the west of the center the Brotjacklriegel reaches another , to the east of it the Aschenstein ; the western and eastern fringes of the train also reach well over . South of the Brotjacklriegel, the isolated Stierberg ( ), southwest of Zenting, frames the Lallinger Winkel (see below) from the east; it is commonly counted as part of the Passau Vorwald (see below).
The extreme west of the Bavarian Forest is occupied by the Falkensteiner Vorwald , which adjoins the Vorderen to the west . It has an unspectacular, humped relief. Of the few mountains that exceed , the Gallner ( ) is the most spectacular. It is located immediately west of the Elisabethszeller Mountains and is still characterized by the relief of the Upper Bavarian Forest. Even higher, but much less prominent, are a nameless hill northwest of Zinzenzell with and one southeast of Wiesenfelden with . In the south near the Danube, in the Waxenberger Forest , the Kobelberg ( ) barely reaches this height threshold.
Between Roding and Wiesent , the Falkensteiner Vorwald is divided centrally by an only slightly deepened depression that follows the south-south-west course of the Regen near Roding. In the north it is used by the Perlbach and in the south by the Wiesent . To the west of this depression, the Hadriwa is the highest elevation at . All the mountains mentioned so far, except for the Gallner, are located around the Falkenstein market, which gives it its name .
The western part of the forest flows in the south and flows into the Jura rocks of the Franconian Alb on this side of the rain; Regenstauf is located directly on the rock boundary . Below Nittenau , the rain breaks impressively through the forest in a 90 ° knee and various smaller loops. The “main mountain” of this part of the landscape, which is more moving in relief, is the youth mountain ( ) immediately southwest of Nittenau, but the slopes of the high Gailenberg directly at the rain knee are more spectacular . On the right, the western side of the rain reached Schwarzenberg , just east of Maxhütte-Haidhof still .
In the north of the western part of the Falkensteiner Vorwald there is a second, somewhat less striking rain breakthrough valley: The Reichenbacher Regental begins directly at the rain bend below Rodings, runs through Walderbach and ends immediately below Reichenbach . In contrast, the wider Regental section between the two breakthroughs from Treidling to the core town of Nittenau, just like the Rodinger Regental, belongs to the neighboring Upper Palatinate hill country , while the valley section at Cham is part of the Cham-Further Senke.
Southeast Bavarian Forest
To the southeast of the rain basin and the front Bavarian Forest, the landscape continues through the Passau Vorwald in the historical compartment , which has little more relief energy than the rain basin. In the north of the landscape lie Grafenau and Freyung , in the south the landscape continues south of the Danube between Vilshofen and Passau through the Neuburg Forest . In the east, from about Waldkirchen , the compartment merges into the Wegscheider plateau , which continues flowing into the Mühlviertel of Upper Austria. This reaches at the Frauenwald . To the west, the Passau Vorwald merges south of the Rear Bavarian Forest into the Lallinger Winkel ( Deggendorfer Vorwald ), which is 400 m deeper than its northern and northeastern peripheral mountains .
Remnants and types of weathering
In many geological units where the granite predominates, one finds exposed large boulders rounded at the corners . They are called leftovers (incorrectly also foundlings). The gradual rounding takes place because the weathering has a stronger effect on the corners of the blocks than on the surfaces. In geology it is also called wool sack weathering .
Some boulders are even more rounded, for example in the shape of an ellipsoid . It can also be caused by pressure relief when the rock comes to the surface. These rounded or sometimes even ball-like boulders can also be found in the Mühlviertel and Waldviertel as well as in other areas of the Bohemian Massif .
The Bavarian Forest is continued in the north-west and then in the north-east through the Upper Palatinate Forest , Fichtel Mountains , Ore Mountains and Sudetes . Geologically, as the southwestern edge of the Bohemian Massif , it is indistinguishable from the Bohemian Forest on the other side of the Czech border and the Sauwald on the Austrian side. In terms of nature , it is combined with the Upper Palatinate Forest to form the main unit group Upper Palatinate-Bavarian Forest .
For the sake of simplicity, a distinction is not made between the Bohemian Forest (originally the Inner Bavarian Forest) and the Bavarian Forest and instead the local name Bavarian Forest is used for the entire area of the low mountain range on the German side, as the term Bohemian Forest is now more common in the usage of the Bavarian population is equated with the areas in the Czech Republic . A distinction is only made between the front and rear Bavarian Forest, with the lineament of the Bavarian stake as the borderline between them . In the north-south direction, a distinction is made between the upper and lower forest.
The Bavarian Forest is the root zone of an ancient Paleozoic mountain range, the parent rocks of which are classified as late Proterozoic to Silurian . After several phases of deformation and metamorphosis , the mostly sedimentary , but also partly plutonic and volcanic parent rocks were transformed into the gneisses that are pending today over the course of millions of years . Above all in the Carboniferous and Early Perm , the gneisses were penetrated by massive granite bodies . Only in the north the Künische Gebirge, made up of mica schist , and the gabbro - amphibolite massif around Eschlkam and Neukirchen near the Holy Blood with the Hohe Bogen as the southernmost branch have a special position .
An important line that divides the Bavarian Forest into two parts is the approximately 150 km long fault of the pile . Originally laid out as a large-scale fault in the Upper Devonian to Upper Carboniferous , it was reactivated as a cracked fissure system in the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic times . which was filled with quartz through the ingress of hydrothermal solutions. Due to the strength of the rock, this quartz wall protrudes up to about 30 m above the surroundings over long stretches. To the north of the pile you will mainly find gneiss, south of it more granite and migmatite .
Between Regensburg and Passau there is a clear difference in altitude between the north-eastern foothills of the forest and the south-western Danube plain (" Gäuboden "). This dividing line between the Tertiary hill country and the Bavarian Forest is caused by the Danube rim break , a geological disturbance between the sunken and crystalline basement lying under tertiary or Quaternary overlays of the Molasse basin and the part still visible to the northwest of this line, which belongs to the Bavarian Forest.
The difference in altitude between the 300 to Einödriegel at , which means at least 800 m difference in altitude over a horizontal distance of just a few kilometers, is quite striking . Was affected due to the uplift of the Bavarian Forest, which also the Neuburger forest and the Sauwald, there was an antecedent cutting the rivers Inn and Danube in this area of the crystalline basement and thus to form a narrow valley zone from Pleinting down the Danube to the Austrian and south from Passau, where the Inn has created a deeply cut bed.high Danube plain and the highest peaks of the forest, for example the
Ice Age forms
While the Front Bavarian Forest only reaches a little over in the summit regions ( e.g. Brotjacklriegel , Einödriegel , Breitenauriegel , Vogelsang , Hirschenstein and Pröller ), the summit regions in the Rear Bavarian Forest are often above 1300 to ( Plöckenstein , Dreisesselberg , Lusen , Großer Rachel , Kleiner Rachel , Kaitersberg , Großer Falkenstein , Großer Osser , Zwercheck , Großer Arber ) .
These regions of the Upper Bavarian Forest in particular were covered by snow and ice fields during the Ice Age , which also left their mark. Here, on the extensive plateaus, there were more extensive varnishes than long glacier tongues . The thickness of the glacier ice at altitude of was around 125 m. Where the glaciers forced their way into the valley, you meet today at glacial-related forms, such as Kare , Karoide and cirque lakes ( Big Arber , Kleiner Arber , Rachelsee ) and moraines .
The end of the glacier, for example, was near the large Arbersee at approx. 850 m altitude, the tongue end of the north-facing glacier down to the small Arbersee at approx. 830 m altitude. According to this, there was a considerable difference in altitude of over 600 m from the summit regions to the terminal moraines . More glacier tongues flowed down from the Great Rachel. Here, too, there are cirques and karoids, which suggest the ice age glaciation.
The old folk adage "three quarters of a year winter, a quarter of a year cold" gives the climate in the Bavarian Forest too much lump sum. It comes from a time when predominantly agricultural interests shaped people's thinking. In reality, the region's climate is very complex and depends heavily on the altitude, which ranges from 300 to over Bohemian Forest in the east is drier and colder, the Bavarian Forest has higher rainfall and higher temperatures overall.. There are snow depths of up to 3 meters in the Bavarian Forest. On the other hand, east of Regensburg is the smallest wine-growing region in Bavaria. Another influencing factor is the prevailing general weather situation. The Bavarian Forest lies in the transition area between Central European and continental climates. If the continental type predominates, this means cold and dry locations in winter with temperatures below -30 ° C. Summers are then dry and warm with occasional thunderstorms on the main ridges. With a predominantly Atlantic influence, low pressure weather conditions dominate in winter, which often have enormous amounts of fresh snow in their luggage on the slopes facing south-west. In summer it is moderately warm with lots of thunderstorms. In general it can be said that the continental influence increases from west to east. The
At the edges of the Bavarian Forest up to the peaks, the average rainfall increases rapidly in the summer months due to the uphill rain and increased thunderstorms and reaches 1300 to 1400 mm per year at high altitudes. In the higher-lying rear Bavarian Forest, the precipitation of around 1500 to 1600 mm is even higher than in the front.
In general, however, the precipitation values measured here are lower than, for example, in the comparable regions of the Vosges and the Black Forest due to the more eastern, more continental location of the Bavarian Forest . Because of the lee position of the rain valley, only between 800 mm and 900 mm are reached there. On the southwest side of the Front Bavarian Forest it is between 1000 mm and 1200 mm. Another reason is the direction of the mountain range, which only rarely leads to real slope precipitation with wind directions running at 90 ° to it.
The air throughout the area is exceptionally dry; Values around 35% relative humidity occur frequently.
The annual mean temperatures are between 3 ° C and 4 ° C in the peaks and between 6.5 ° C and 8 ° C in the valleys. A special feature are regional cold air lakes in sheltered valleys. It is not uncommon for night frosts to occur there even in early summer. This effect can be regularly observed at the Meteomedia weather station Klingenbrunn -Bahnhof in the community of Spiegelau and at the Haidmühle station . The high number of summer days with temperatures above 25 ° C is also typical of the continental climate. The long-term average in the valleys is between 35 and 45 such summer days.
The Bavarian Forest was known for its abundance of snow . This was especially true for the middle altitudes over and the higher altitudes over 1000 m. In the ridges of the (front) Bavarian Forest, the snow cover lasted up to 120 days and in the Bohemian Forest up to 180 days. In snowy winters, the snow depth could be over 250 cm. In the valley locations below 600 m and especially in the Regental, however, only 60 (Viechtach area) to 100 days (Zwiesel area) were recorded with a blanket of snow. The snow depths rarely reached more than 30 cm there. For the first time in 2020, apart from the high altitude, there was almost no permanent snow cover.
The sphere of influence of the Alpine Foehn often extends as far as the course of the Danube and the Bavarian Forest. The chain of the Alps can therefore be seen from the mountains of the Bavarian Forest, especially on clear autumn days with a strong foehn.
The largest cities in the Bavarian Forest (according to the natural spatial structure) are:
- Passau (52,469 inhabitants)
- Deggendorf (33,585 inhabitants)
- Cham (16,907 inhabitants)
- Waldkirchen (10,534 inhabitants)
- Hauzenberg (11,649 inhabitants)
- Rain (11.001 inhabitants)
This forest area extends into three countries: the Bohemian Forest in the Czech Republic , the Bavarian Forest or Bavarian Forest and part of the Mühlviertel in Upper Austria. Before the history of this forest area is examined in more detail, it must be stated in advance that the term “Bavarian Forest” was first coined in the early 19th century (it is assumed that it was used for tourism purposes in order to be able to define a defined area more precisely). Before there were no different names for this forest region, it was for residents here and over there the Bohemian Forest, or even more common, simply "the Woid".
Celtic and Roman times
The area of the Bavarian Forest is mentioned by various authors in antiquity. The Greek geographer Ptolemy calls the wooded area Gabreta hyle . The majority of this name is celt. * kapr traced back for Capricorn. Archaeological finds from the Hallstatt and Latène periods are almost completely missing in the area of the Bavarian Forest, and no Roman settlements have been identified.
The current name and the designation Bavaria can be traced back to the tribal name of the Bavarians , germ. * Baio-warioz , which in turn comes from the Celtic tribe of the Boier . Proven names of persons and places are Boiorix ("King of the Boier") as well as Boiodurum and Boiotro (a Celtic oppidum and Roman fort in today's Passau ). Another echo can be found in the area name Bohemia (from Germ. * Boio-hemum > Latin. Boihaemum = home of the Boier). The Roman historian Tacitus wrote in his Germania (88 AD): “manet adhuc Boihaemi nomen significatque loci veterem memoriam quamvis mutatis cultoribus”, translated: “The name Boihaemum has remained and thus preserves the memory of the country's past , albeit with changed residents ”. Because the Boier tribal part of what is now Eastern Bavaria was probably already assimilated by the Marcomanni at that time .
Although a continuous settlement of the area can be considered secure, today's inhabitants cannot simply be traced back to the indigenous population.
Originally "Bohemian Forest"
So the name Bohemian Forest is ancient and a thousand years earlier than the Slavic name “Čechy”. The Bavarians themselves originally called the large border forest in the north of their new settlement area only "North Forest", which is evident from a document from King Ludwig the German in 853. This is later also mentioned in the Niedernburg deed of donation from 1010, where the phrase "silva quae vocatur Nortuualt" can be read. But gradually the concept of the northern forest disappeared and was, as can be seen in all early maps, referred to as “Bohemica silva”. A map of Germany from the year 1491 by Nikolaus Cusanus should be singled out, in which the area of Passau and its northern border mountains is generally referred to as “silva et montes Bohemia” (forest and mountains of Bohemia). And Johannes Thurmair , called Aventine (1477 to 1534), draws in his map of “Obern vnd Nidern Bairn” from 1523, the first map of all of Bavaria, the “behemisch wooded” north of the Danube, with the addition “ Hercynie et Boiernie pars ”from which it follows that the Bohemian Forest in this document is not just a part of Bohemia. Then the cartographer Sebastian Münster reported in the well-known description of the world "Cosmographey" from 1544 that the Bohemian Forest even means the entire diamond-shaped ring mountain that surrounds the Bohemian Basin around Prague like a wall (but this is not undisputed among today's historians).
The Bavarian side has settled the jungle since the Middle Ages, primarily through the Danube monasteries, such as Niederaltaich or Metten . These extended their sphere of influence beyond the later border line into the Bohemian Forest. The eastern part of the Bavarian Forest (east of Ilz and Sagwasser ) had been in Passau's possession since around 1010. In the 13th century, the Passau Monastery was able to break away from the Duchy of Baiern and from then on was a largely independent spiritual state within the Holy Roman Empire . Only as a result of secularization in Bavaria did the area fall to Bavaria in 1805. The Goldene Steig was an important lifeline in the Passau region . On it, Bohemia was supplied with salt from the salt pans of the Eastern Alps. The mule track starting from Passau developed into the most important trade route in southern Germany in the 16th century. Glass production has also been important in the Bavarian Forest since the Middle Ages. It experienced a heyday in the 18th and 19th centuries through its connection with the glassworks in the Bohemian Forest .
The Bavarian Forest
It was not until the 19th century, when, after secularization, the Hochstift Regensburg and the Hochstift Passau fell to Bavaria and the region of the forest mountains from Regensburg to Passau had become continuously Bavarian, did the term Bavarian Forest , which Johann Daniel Albrecht Höck in 1829 his description of the Unterdonaukreis as a landscape name was introduced. The authoritative book The Bavarian Forest (Böhmerwald) by Bernhard Grueber and Adalbert Müller from 1846 already contained the terminological uncertainty that still exists today. There the Bohemian Forest is initially described as a unified mountain range, of which Austria owns the actual Bohemian Forest and the Austrian, while Bavaria owns the Upper Palatinate and Bavarian forests. This separation of the Bavarian Forest from the “actual” Bohemian Forest by the state border has always been a problem, as there is no geomorphologically any dividing line following the state border.
The "German School Atlas", published in 1910, therefore makes the following distinction in this question: Only the landscape between Regensburg and Passau is called the "Bavarian Forest" there. The region on both sides along the border to today's Czech Republic is - explicitly and clearly also the areas on German territory - exclusively called "Bohemian Forest".
However, since the First World War there has been increasing insistence on a distinction. On May 12, 1930, the Bayerische Waldzeitung criticized the crossword puzzle of an unspecified Munich weekly under the heading “Lack of geographic knowledge”, which asked for a “Mountain in the Bohemian Forest”, to which the word “Arber” was the answer: “The author This riddle doesn't know either that the Arber, the King of the Bay. Forest, located on Bavarian territory, or he doesn't know the difference between the Bavarian Forest and the Bohemian Forest. "
Especially after the Second World War, the term Bohemian Forest was consistently avoided by the Bavarian authorities for the area on this side of the border. The Office for Regional Studies, which was located in Landshut from 1948 to 1951, played an important role in this , and its classification in the Handbook of Natural Spatial Structure in Germany , which was published from 1953, is still the authoritative basis for all natural and similar structures. An official agreement was reached on November 15, 1950, according to which the name Bohemian Forest was to be restricted to those parts of the mountains lying outside the German state borders. Within Bavaria, the area in question should be called the Hinterer Bayerischer and Hinterer Oberpfälzer Wald . This linguistic rule has become particularly prevalent in Bavaria, while it is accepted with reservations for geographical and geological reasons. Especially on supra-regional maps, the term Bavarian Forest is mostly limited to the foothills (which, according to another view, is the Front Bavarian Forest), thus physically distinguishing the Bavarian Forest from the Bohemian Forest.
In the area of the "Inner Bavarian Forest" between Lusen and the Großer Falkenstein lies the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany's first national park. It was founded in 1970 by the Free State of Bavaria with an initial 130 km² and expanded in 1997 with the state forest region between Großer Rachel and Großem Falkenstein to 240 km². The park includes some areas with dense "primeval forest" (in Central Europe there are only two small areas that are still primeval forest , but not in Germany), small lakes and rain bogs (which are often called raised bogs) and extends from around upwards in the high altitudes around .
Together with the Czech Šumava National Park , it forms the largest contiguous forest area in Central Europe. The protection and climate allowed unfamiliar, diverse natural forests to grow in 35 years, after the high mountain spruce forests on the south-western slopes were largely destroyed by air pollution and the bark beetle in the middle of the 20th century .
As a tourist attraction, the national park therefore provides an insight into natural history , environmental protection and cultural history . The two visitor information centers "Hans-Eisenmann-Haus" in Neuschönau and "Haus der Wildnis" in Ludwigsthal at the foot of the Großer Falkenstein with their spacious outdoor enclosures where visitors and a. Bears, lynxes, wolves, wild boars, wild horses or ancient cattle.
The Bavarian Forest Nature Park covers an area north of the Danube to the border ridge to the Czech Republic and is largely determined by the Regen district. The supporting organization is the “Naturpark Bayerischer Wald e. V. ”based in Zwiesel. It has existed since 1967, making it one of the oldest nature parks in Bavaria. It is not to be confused with the Bavarian Forest National Park. The Upper Bavarian Forest Nature Park connects to the northwest .
Sights in the Bavarian Forest include:
Observation tower / platform :
- Almberg (1139 m)
- Alzenberg (1100 m)
- Arber, Great (1456 m)
- Arber, Little (1384 m)
- Aschenstein (945 m)
- Bernhardsnagel (896 m)
- Bistand (865 m)
- Büchelstein (831 m)
- Breitenauriegel (1116 m)
- Brotjacklriegel (1016 m)
- Burgstall (976 m)
- Dreisesselberg (1333 m)
- Dreitannenriegel (1090.2 m)
- Eckstein (1073 m), see Hoher Bogen
- Eschenberg (1043 m)
- Einödriegel (1120.6 m)
- Gentian (1285 m)
- Falkenstein, Großer (1315 m)
- Falkenstein, Kleiner (1190 m)
- Farrenberg (1203 m)
- Friedrichsberg (934 m)
- Fürberg (880 m)
- Geißkopf (1097.4 m)
- Geißlstein (920 m)
- Goat bar (1046 m)
- Grandelberg (1010 m)
- Gsengetstein (952 m)
- Guntherstein (approx. 700 m)
- Hahnenbogen (1257 m)
- Hahnenriegel (1108 m)
- Haibühler Spitz (1047 m)
- Haidel (1165.6 m)
- Haidstein (742 m)
- Harlachberger Spitz (913 m)
- Hausstein (917 m)
- Hennenkobel (965 m)
- Hessenstein (878 m)
- Heugstatt (1261 m)
- Hindenburgkanzel (1049 m)
- Hirschberg (1039 m)
- Hirschenstein (1092 m)
- Hochberg (Sankt Englmar) (1025 m)
- Hochberg (Bayerisch Eisenstein) (943 m)
- Hochstein (Arber massif) (1132 m)
- Hochzellberg (1208 m)
- High arch (1079 m)
- High Filzberg (1279 m)
- Hoher Stein (1042 m), see Kaitersberg
- Hohlstein (1196 m)
- Hörndl (1015 m)
- Kaitersberg (1133)
- Pulpit (1011 m)
- Cheese platter (979 m)
- Kiesruck (1265 m)
- Klausenstein (1048 m)
- Knogl (1056 m)
- Kreuzfelsen (998.5 m)
- Kronberg (984 m)
- Lackenberg (1337 m)
- Lichtenberg (1030 m)
- Lusen (1373 m)
- Mittagsplatzl (1340 m)
- Mittagstein (1034 m)
- Mühlriegel (1080 m)
- Oberfrauenwald (948 m)
- Ödriegel (1156 m)
- Osser, Großer (1293 m)
- Osser, Kleiner (1266 m)
- Plattenhausenriegel (1376 m)
- Bavarian Plöckenstein (1365 m)
- Predigtstuhl (1024 m)
- Pröller (1048 m)
- Rachel, Great (1453 m)
- Rachel, Little (1399 m)
- Rauher Kulm (1050 m)
- Riedelstein, Großer (1132.9 m)
- Riesberg (Bavarian Forest, Lindberg) (934 m)
- Riesberg (Bavarian Forest, Viechtach) (882 m)
- Riesberg (Bavarian Forest, Rattiszell) (602 m)
- Rollmannsberg (1042 m)
- Rote Höhe (1050 m)
- Ruhmannsberg (863 m)
- Rukowitzberg (1269 m)
- Rusel (856 m)
- Schwarzeck (1238 m)
- Schwarzkopf (1060 m)
- Schwarzriegel (1079 m), see Hoher Bogen
- Scheuereckberg (1196 m)
- Siebensteinkopf (1263 m)
- Silberberg (955 m)
- Staffelberg (793 m)
- Steinberg (830 m)
- Steinbühler Gesenke (1044 m), see Kaitersberg
- Steinfleckberg (1341 m)
- Sternknöckel (818 m)
- Sulzberg (1146 m)
- Sulzriegel (1261 m)
- Teufelstisch (901 m)
- Vogelsang (1022 m)
- Wagensonnriegel (959 m)
- Wagner peak (1125 m)
- Waldhäuserriegel (1151 m)
- Weigelsberg (898 m)
- Wolfgangriegel (876 m)
- Zwercheck (1333 m)
- Forest societies of Central Europe
- Upper Bavarian Forest Nature Park
- Künisches Mountains
- Eastern Bavaria
- List of low mountain ranges in Germany
- Franz X. Bogner: Bavarian Forest and Bohemian Forest from the air. Lang Edition, Freyung 2011, ISBN 978-3-942509-06-0 .
- Karl-Friedrich Sinner, Günter Moser: Forest wilderness without borders. Bavarian Forest National Park , Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2007 (2nd edition), ISBN 3-935719-37-X .
- Bernhard Grueber, Adalbert Müller: Der Bavarian Forest (Böhmerwald) , Regensburg 1846, reprint 1993, Grafenau, Morsak Verlag, ISBN 3-87553-415-8 .
- Georg Troll: Mineral deposits in the eastern Bavarian Forest , exposure, special volume 31, 152 p. Plus geol. Map, VFMG, Heidelberg 1981
- Adalbert Stifter : Der Hochwald , first edition 1841, on the Internet: Der Hochwald Original text in the Gutenberg-DE project
- Adalbert Stifter: Witiko , first edition 1865
- Emil Meynen , Josef Schmithüsen (Editor): Handbook of the Natural Region Divisions of Germany . Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Remagen / Bad Godesberg 1953–1962 (9 deliveries in 8 books, updated map 1: 1,000,000 with main units 1960).
- Dietrich-Jürgen Manske: Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 164 Regensburg. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1981. → Online map (PDF; 4.8 MB)
- Klaus Müller-Hohenstein: Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 165/166 Cham. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1973. → Online map (PDF; 4.4 MB)
- Willi Czajka , Hans-Jürgen Klink: Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 174 Straubing. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1967. → Online map (PDF; 4.3 MB)
- Willi Czajka , Udo Bodemüller: Geographical land survey: The natural spatial units on sheet 175 Passau. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1971. → Online map (PDF; 4.7 MB)
- Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ( information )
- The text part of the manual of the natural spatial structure of Germany explicitly includes the Zellertal and the Weigelsberg-Kronberg-Zug as part of the rear Bavarian Forest. In the associated maps from 1954 and 1960, on the other hand, only the parts beyond the Black Rain are counted as the rear, while Weigelsberg and Kronberg are counted as the rain sink, and the Zellertal again as the rear. The detailed breakdown on sheet 165 Cham , which counts the Kronberg to the rear, but Weigelsberg and Zellertal to the rain sink , is different again . For the sake of simplicity, we follow the text of the manual here.
- Sheet 174 Straubing counts the Stierberg and its surrounding area under the name Ranfelser Bergland to the rear Bavarian Forest; However, the mappings for the manual as well as the popular assessment see it differently.
- Bogenberg board . Bavarian State Office for the Environment. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
- Keil and Riecke: German School Atlas , 50th edition, Berlin 1910, map no. 22nd
- Der Bayerwald-Bote, May 13, 2010.
- Ulrich Pietrusky: The Bavarian Forest rediscovered in flight , Grafenau 1985, p. 14.
- Mineral deposits in the eastern Bavarian Forest , on handle.net (PDF; 18.91 MB)