Johannes Aventinus (born July 4, 1477 in Abensberg , Lower Bavaria, † January 9, 1534 in Regensburg ) was a German historian and court historian. His real name was Johann Georg Turmair , but named himself Aventinus ('the Abensberger') using a Latinized form of his hometown . He is considered a pioneer of classical philology in Germany.
Aventinus studied from 1495 at the universities of Ingolstadt , Vienna , Krakow and Paris . He preferred humanistic subjects. In Ingolstadt and Vienna, Aventinus particularly followed Conrad Celtis , who also directed his interest to German history. He returned from Paris with the dignity of a master’s degree and from 1507 he held private lectures in Ingolstadt. In 1509, Duke Wilhelm IV of Bavaria commissioned Aventinus to educate his two younger brothers Ludwig and Ernst , which initially took place from January 15 to November 29, 1509 at Burghausen Castle . A strictly regulated daily routine, which is documented in the Burghauser Hofordnung of 1509, and an emphatically "simple" life should contribute to the "character formation" of the pupils. History lessons included trips to the surrounding area as far as Altötting and the Mondsee and Neumarkt-St. Vitus . In 1510 Aventinus traveled to the region again to conduct scientific studies and to write down all the ancient inscriptions that struck him in places like Laufen (Salzach) and Sankt Georgen near Salzburg .
Aventinus wrote a Latin grammar for the use of his noble pupils in 1512, which was very well received and widely used (Rudimenta grammaticae latinae) . When Ernst was supposed to study at the University of Ingolstadt in 1516 , he wrote a systematic description of the sciences for him, which he called the Encyclopedia and which was first published in 1517 as an appendix to his grammar. It is the first known printed encyclopedia .
In 1517 Aventinus was appointed Bavarian court historian and in this function he developed lively activities and wrote about areas in the so-called 'old Bavarian region', to which all places that had been part of the Duchy of Bavaria since the 6th century belonged. Aventinus was in a lively exchange of ideas with Martin Luther and especially with Philipp Melanchthon , but did not join the Reformation. He polemicized against the outdated church, which rejected innovations and was temporarily imprisoned in 1528 for an alleged violation of the church's fasting laws.
His main work is the Annales ducum Boiariae, written between 1517 and 1522 , in which he dealt with Bavarian history up to 1460. The Bavarian Chronicle (created 1526–1533), a German version of his annals, is written in a more popular way and impresses with its free and independent way of thinking in national and ecclesiastical questions. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe later commented on this work.
In 1523, Aventinus published the first map of Bavaria. He also wrote a textbook for music. In the field of mathematics, he wrote a thesis on Roman arithmetic. Aventin's Latin grammar became a textbook at the State University of Ingolstadt.
Aventine was buried in the monastery of Sankt Emmeram in Regensburg.
The following were named after him:
- the Johannes-Turmair-Gymnasium in Straubing
- the Aventinus high school in Burghausen
- the Aventinus Tower at Burghausen Castle
- the Johann-Turmair-Realschule in Abensberg
- the research reading room of the Bavarian State Library, opened in 2010
- the Johannes Thurmair Aventine Medal , or Aventinus Medal for short, of the Association of Bavarian Historical Societies
- Streets, squares and paths in Abensberg , Altötting , Lauterhofen , Hettenshausen , Munich , Neutraubling , Rosenheim , Triftern and Brunnthal
- Annales ducum Bavariae (1511 in manuscript, BSB Munich clm 967)
- Grammatica nova fundamentalis (1512)
- Musicae rudimenta (Augsburg, 1516)
- Annales Schyrenses (written in 1517, chronicle of the Scheyern monastery )
- Rudimenta gramaticae… Encyclopedia orbisque doctrinarum in calce… . Ingolstadt: Erhard Sampach 1517
- Letter to Leonhard von Eck about the uneducated and his own education [approx. 1518]
- Altöttinger Chronik (German version from 1519)
- Aventinus, Johannes: Bayrisch Cronick (approx. 1519, BSB Munich 4 Bavar. 145), cf. Fig. Title page
- Causes of the Turkish War (written in 1526)
- Annales ducum Boiariae (written 1516–1522, published 1554)
- Baierische Chronik , German version of the Annales (written around 1526–1533, published in 1556),
- Johannes Turmair's called Aventinus all works / published by the K. Academy of Sciences at the instigation of His Majesty the King of Bavaria . Munich: Christian Kaiser 1881–1908 (complete edition, 6 vols.) For digital full-text edition
- Karl Bosl : Johann Turmair, called Aventinus from Abensberg in his time . In: Journal for Bavarian State History 40 (1977) pp. 325-340 ( online ).
- Georg Leidinger : In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1953, ISBN 3-428-00182-6 , p. 469 f. ( ).
- Kurt Malisch: Aventinus (Turmair), Johannes. In: Karl Bosl (ed.): Bosls Bavarian biography. Pustet, Regensburg 1983, ISBN 3-7917-0792-2 , p. 34 ( digitized version ).
- Leonhard Landshamer: Aventine's depiction of the Roman Empire from Caesar to Domitian. Zielezinski, Munich 1972 (dissertation)
- Gerhard-Helmut Sitzmann (ed.): Aventinus and his time . Abensberg: Kral 1977 (review by Andreas Kraus in: Wolfenbütteler Renaissance-Mitteilungen 2 (1978) pp. 11-13)
- Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz: Aventinus (Turmair), Johannes. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 1, Bautz, Hamm 1975. 2nd, unchanged edition Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-013-1 , Sp. 307-308.
- Eberhard Dünninger : Johannes Aventinus: Life and work of the Bavarian historian , Förg, Rosenheim 1977, ISBN 3-475-52190-3
- Alois Schmid : The historical method of Johannes Aventinus . In: Blätter für deutsche Landesgeschichte 113 (1977), pp. 338–395 ( online ).
- Alois Schmid: Johannes Aventinus and the Realienkunde , in: Frank-Lothar Kroll (Hrsg.): New ways of the history of ideas. Festschrift for Kurt Kluxen on his 85th birthday . Paderborn 1996, pp. 81-101.
- Alois Schmid: Johannes Aventinus (1477-1534). Career - Works - Effect: a biography , Regensburg: Schnell und Steiner 2019, ISBN 978-3-7954-3463-2 .
- Literature by and about Johannes Aventinus in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Johannes Aventinus in the German Digital Library
- Digitized works
- Website of the Aventinum Foundation (with biography and bibliography)
- Christine Riedl-Valder: Aventinus: Pioneer of historical research , unpag.E-book
- Aventinus Medal on the association's homepage
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Turmair, Johann Georg (real name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German historian and court historiographer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||4th July 1477|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Abensberg , Lower Bavaria|
|DATE OF DEATH||January 9, 1534|
|Place of death||regensburg|