Running (Salzach)

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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Laufen
Running (Salzach)
Map of Germany, position of the city of Laufen highlighted

Coordinates: 47 ° 56 '  N , 12 ° 56'  E

Basic data
State : Bavaria
Administrative region : Upper Bavaria
County : Berchtesgadener Land
Height : 405 m above sea level NHN
Area : 35.29 km 2
Residents: 7316 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 207 inhabitants per km 2
Postal code : 83410
Area code : 08682
License plate : BGL, BGD, LF , REI
Community key : 09 1 72 122
City structure: 74 officially named municipal parts

City administration address :
Rathausplatz 1
83410 Laufen
Website :
Mayor : Hans Feil ( CSU )
Location of the city of Laufen in the Berchtesgadener Land district
Berchtesgaden Eck (gemeindefreies Gebiet) Schneizlreuth Schellenberger Forst Ainring Anger (Berchtesgadener Land) Bad Reichenhall Bayerisch Gmain Berchtesgaden Bischofswiesen Freilassing Laufen (Salzach) Marktschellenberg Piding Ramsau bei Berchtesgaden Saaldorf-Surheim Schneizlreuth Schönau am Königssee Teisendorf Landkreis Traunstein Österreichmap
About this picture

Laufen is a town in the Berchtesgadener Land district in Upper Bavaria . It is located about 17 km north of Salzburg on the Salzach Alpine River , which is the border between Germany and Austria . On the other side of the river is the former suburb of Laufens, Oberndorf near Salzburg . Until the district reform, Laufen was the district town of the district of Laufen , which was dissolved on July 1, 1972 . The official name of the city is Laufen , to distinguish it from other places Laufen an der Salzach or Laufen (Salzach) or Laufen in Oberbayern or Laufen (Obb) is often used. In the local dialect the place is called Laffa .


The area around Laufens belongs to the Alpine foothills and represents a moraine landscape with heights of 400 to 460 m and some moors . The next mountain and Laufen's local mountain is the Haunsberg (836 m), five kilometers southeast of the city in the Salzburg region. Opposite his foot the Sur flows into the Salzach. Laufen has the lowest point in the Berchtesgadener Land district at 383 m .


Geologically, the municipality is located on the edge of the Freilassing Basin in the pre-Alpine lake and moraine region . When Laufen, the direction of flow of the Salzach is diverted by a near-surface Nagelfluh threshold, creating the double loop of the river . The old town of Laufens lies in the bend of the river . The surrounding area is gently hilly, in large parts densely forested, in the west partly boggy. On both sides of the Salzach there is a wide belt of alluvial forest above Laufen, which continues below on the left bank as a comparatively narrow strip of forest.

Rehabilitation of the Salzach and alluvial forests

The previously strongly meandering, sediment-rich river was regulated and straightened after 1820 according to a state treaty between Bavaria and Austria. In addition to flood protection , the state border was also to be fixed and shipping was to be secured, which, however, had no longer had any economic significance since the 1870s. This work was completed in 1909 between the mouth of the Saalach and Laufen.

In the meantime, the negative effects of this largely pointless action have become clear: increasing deepening of the river bed into the soft subsoil, the lowering of the water table and the drying up of the floodplains . In the longer term, even the bridge abutments would be at risk. For this reason, a concept for gentle dismantling has been developed for several years in German-Austrian cooperation . It is supposed to stabilize the river and the flowing stream beds , reactivate the foreland and rehabilitate some dikes .

The water quality in the lower reaches of the Salzach has been improved since 1977 by wastewater treatment above Salzburg from quality class III – IV to II (moderately polluted). In the long term, drinking water quality is the aim.

Neighboring communities

Salzach loop with the Laufens peninsula, opposite is Oberndorf near Salzburg

Laufen borders on the following municipalities, from the north counterclockwise:
Fridolfing , Kirchanschöring , Petting (in the Traunstein district ); Saaldorf-Surheim ( district of Berchtesgadener Land );
Anthering , Nußdorf am Haunsberg , Oberndorf near Salzburg and Sankt Georgen near Salzburg (all in the Austrian district of Salzburg-Umgebung ).

City structure

The medieval old town is protected on three sides by the previously untamed river, in the Salzach river loop. Despite this natural protection, the entire city was fortified by a defensive wall. The "Lower City Gate" formed the entrance from the direction of the bridge, the "Upper City Gate" the direction of Salzburg and Tittmoning. Both city gates are still preserved, the old town is now a listed building as a whole.

Most of the rest of the urban area was built on in the 20th century.

Run expanded by the incorporations of Heining and Triebenbach 1970 and the above Abtsdorfer lake situated Leobendorf (Pfarrdorf) 1978th

Further districts are the Kirchdorf Niederheining; the suburbs of Abrain and Obslaufen; the villages of Arbisbichl, Burgfeld, Daring, Dorfen, Froschham, Gastag, Haiden, Kulbing, Mayerhofen, Moosham, Niedervillern, Oberheining and Triebenbach; the wasteland Abfalter; the hamlets of Abtsee, Biburg, Bubenberg, Eheoosen, Emmering, Esing, Fisching, Haarmoos, Harpfetsham, Höfen, Hötzling, Hungerberg, Kafling, Kletzling, Lepperding, Letten, Oberhaslach, Obervillern, Pfaffing, Röderberg, Steinbach, Stögen, Straß, Thannberg, Thannhausen and Wiedmannsfelden; Lebenau-Forstgarten and the desert areas of Arzenpoint, Au, Au b.Stögen, Baumgartenöd, Berg, Birnau, Daxmühle, Erlach, Friedelreut, Geisbach, Hagmühl, Hasenhaus, Heiningermühle, Knall, Neuarbisbichl, Oed i.Moos, Osing, Rudholzen, Schnapping, Tischbaum, Seebad, Seethal, Steinbachl, Stockham, Streitwies, Sturz, Unterhaslach and Wiedmais.



The historical running

The place name "Laufen" can be traced back to the old high German loufa , which means rapids. The city is first mentioned in documents in 748 , and people settled in the area as early as prehistoric and Roman times. Emperor Ludwig of Bavaria ordered that the salt from Hallein (15 km above Salzburg) could only be transported on the Salzach. Since a rock at Laufen, the so-called Nocken , hindered shipping, the cargo in Laufen was reloaded from small to larger ships; hence the name: castellum ad louffi (the fort on the rapids ). The people of Laufen benefited from the income from overnight stays, customs duties and shipbuilding.

The city originally belonged to the Salzburggau of the Duchy of Baiern . The Salzburg archbishops were able to acquire the area of ​​the later Rupertiwinkel , in which Laufen is located, in the 13th century . In 1275, Salzburg's western border (Rupertigau) to the Chiemgau was confirmed by the Duke of Landshut . This marked the beginning of the separation of the state of Salzburg from the motherland of Bavaria. In 1328, Salzburg had become a largely independent state through the enactment of its own regional order.

The cam was blown up in 1773. With the Treaty of Munich in 1816, Laufen and the so-called Rupertiwinkel were separated from Salzburg and Bavaria was added. This made it a border town between Bavaria and Austria . Oberndorf on the right bank of the river , which previously belonged to Laufen, became Austrian. With the construction of the railway, shipping on the Salzach continued to decline. The last salt transport took place in 1866. During a flood in 1899 the bridge was torn away; a new one was built elsewhere and inaugurated in 1903. After 1945 the population grew due to Sudeten Germans and other expellees .

The history of the now separate places Laufen and Oberndorf must be considered together until 1816.

Prehistory and early history

In the foothills of the Alps and thus in Laufen and Oberndorf, it cannot be assumed that pre-glacial finds will be made because of the Ice Age glaciation. There was no evidence of early settlements in the urban area, but in the immediate vicinity and further afield: In the Schlenken cave in Bad Vigaun , stone tools that were 40,000 years old were found. A post-glacial storage site from the Middle Stone Age , which was used around 7,500 to 10,000 years ago, was found near Mattsee .

However, tools from the younger Stone Age have been found. A stone ax was found in 1893 on a Salzach gravel bank on the Oberndorf side near the (old) bridge, i.e. where the Europasteg now crosses the river. In 1930 there was a find on the Laufen side of the Salzach.

Three approximately 5000 years old copper axes, similar to Ötzi’s , were found in the Abtsee near Laufen. Thanks to the copper deposits, large parts of Central Europe were supplied with copper from the Salzburg region during the Bronze Age . Both in 1843 in Saaldorf-Surheim in the Reit district there was a deposit of copper ring bars and in 1892 in Laufen in the Biburg district there was one of bar bars. Some of the bars are archived in the Archaeological State Collection in Munich . Copper trading took place along the Salzach even then. In the immediate vicinity of Laufen-Oberndorf there were a number of other important finds from the depot. Settlements of the Straubing culture were found in Obereching (municipality of St. Georgen near Salzburg ), three kilometers from Oberndorf and at the Lindachhöhe in Oberndorf. Finds of presumably sacrificed bronze objects in the surrounding moors as well as several Bronze Age grave finds in the vicinity are interesting, including urn fields with several hundred urns.

Several settlements and fortifications in the wider area of ​​the city are documented for the Iron Age . a. on the Haunsberg. Some are also suspected to be on the Lindachhöhe near Oberndorf. Barrows from this period were found in Laufen near Niederheining and Letten.

Salt mining near Hallein began around 600 BC. And with it the salt trade with ships on the Salzach. An Etruscan bronze bucket from around 400 BC found on a gravel bank near Laufen. BC shows trade contacts across the Alps .

In the vicinity of Oberndorf a Keltenschanze from the 2nd to 1st century. v. According to reports from the 19th century, there was also one in Laufen Biburg, which, however, can no longer be precisely localized. The Alpine Celtic tribe of alums settled in the Salzburg basin up to the Inn. The emerging Roman Empire maintained close trade ties with the Celtic Kingdom of Noricum , to which the Laufen area also belonged.

The city's beginnings from Roman times to the Middle Ages

View from Oberndorf to the Gothic parish and collegiate church

From 15 BC The Roman Empire expanded under Augustus, partly through conquests. The Celtic Kingdom of Noricum was peacefully integrated. Under Emperor Claudius Noricum became a Roman province , the Roman settlement Iuvavum , today's Salzburg, received city rights. In the early Middle Ages there was a Roman fort on the peninsula in the Laufen river loop, the Salzachknie. Although these ancient buildings fell victim to medieval building activity, there were coin finds from the 2nd to 4th centuries. There were several Roman manors in the vicinity of Laufens. In 1925 the foundations of a Roman grave temple were excavated on the Lindachhöhe in Oberndorf. A Roman grave altar walled up in the castle was found in Laufen in 1807. It was dedicated to a Marcus Proculeius Martialis, councilor and mayor, who presumably held office in Iuvavum. A second grave altar was discovered in a wall of the collegiate church. Both date from the 2nd century. Several Roman barrows are known in the vicinity of Laufens.

During the reign of Marcus Aurelius (161 to 180), the Marcomanni invaded the area. From around 230 onwards, the Romans were increasingly attacked by the West Germans . The Alemanni invaded Salzburg area 236. The Roman manors were used until the 4th century, but were abandoned after new incursions by the Alemanni. A Roman side road ran along the Salzach on the German side , and another is suspected on the Austrian side. The Laufen area was part of the Roman Empire until 488.

The first Germanic settlers came at the beginning of the 6th century. Around 540 Laufen became part of the Franconian Empire. Shortly afterwards, the settlement began by the Bavarians , whose first settlements were in what is now the center of the area.

Although the Salzachknie is strategically located, it had no other advantages to offer. In particular, there was no drinking water of their own . The first medieval settlement was therefore on the other side of the Salzach in what is now Oberndorf. Thanks to a stream there were several mills and drinking water there. The Nikolauskirche was also the first church on site. The wider area of ​​the city, i.e. H. the current municipal area, however, shows a number of early medieval traces of settlement, in particular several graves. The many place names of parts of the community that end in -ing or -ham indicate settlement between the 6th and 9th centuries.

Around 1050, the Archbishop of Salzburg, Balduin, acquired around 35 yokes in Laufen as part of an exchange deal. The area was intensively built on in the following decades by the Salzburg Archbishops in cooperation with the Hallingers, the salt leaseholders upstream. At that time, salt shipping was already of considerable economic importance, at the turn of the millennium Laufen was of supraregional importance and the most important place north of Salzburg. In the middle of the 12th century, today's Laufen took over the leading role and Oberndorf (first mentioned as a name in 1141), the "village above the city", became a suburb.

In the early 12th century, Archbishop Konrad I set up a mint in Laufen instead of Salzburg , where pfennigs were minted according to the Regensburg standard until the end of the 12th century. Around this time the city walls were built and Laufen became the city. The archbishop held a provincial council in Laufen on July 31, 1129, to which a number of important clerics from the dioceses of Eichstätt , Freising , Passau , Regensburg and Salzburg came. Another important church meeting was under Archbishop Eberhard I in 1160 , others took place around 1200.

On March 29, 1166, the Staufer Emperor Friedrich I. Barbarossa held a court day in Laufen in a castle, in the place of which the Laufen Castle was later built. The Princely Court imposed on Konrad II the imperial ban , a consequence of the disputes between Barbarossa and Pope Alexander III. Unfortunately, no details about the stay have been received.

A separate city seal can be proven for the year 1280. On the seal there is a tower that has been preserved in a similar form on the city arms.

The collegiate church was built from 1330 .

Salt shipping from the Middle Ages to the 19th century

Laufen's history is inextricably linked with the salt shipping industry. The city owes its rise to salt.

Rivers were up to the modern era to transport into the main transport routes and only way to big and heavy loads, as well as the to the 19th century poorly regulated Salzach, 50 km downstream from running in the Inn flows, which in turn in Passau in the Danube flows.

The alpine salt played an important role, as you can see from the names of different places in the wider Laufen area: It was mined in Bad Reichenhall (rich Hall) and Hallein (small Hall), transported via the Salzach and the local capital was Salzburg .

Salty springs were used in Hallein as early as the Stone Age around 2000 to 2500 BC. Salt mining began around 600 BC. BC, the Celts were already trading long-distance salt across the Salzach. In Roman times, the brine springs in Bad Reichenhall were used, so that they were shipped via the Saalach to the Salzach. From the 6th century, the Bad Reichenhaller saltworks belonged to the Agilolfinger family. There was a ship landing in Bad Reichenhall before 1200. Around this time Hallein again became the most important place in the Eastern Alps for salt extraction.

The salt was shipped downstream. The ships were u. a. hauled upriver laden with grain and wine . Since the Middle Ages, there have been paths, towpaths or towpaths, for countermeasures along the Salzach. The pulling was done partly by horses, partly by humans. Between Laufen and Hallein, the return train by horses was forbidden until 1426, so that poor people from Laufen could also find a livelihood. The ships could be pulled 20 to 40 km in one day; in the 15th century , the route Laufen- Passau and back took around two weeks.

Laufen was strategically located. There was a rock, the cam, which was blown up in 1773, which, together with the rapids in the river, made it impossible to steer the ships through the river bend without help from the bank by securing them with ropes and planks. Some of the cargo was also reloaded from smaller ships to larger ones. This also enabled the salt transports to be controlled well. With the ship owner's order of July 4, 1267 it was regulated that on the route upriver from Laufen the salt could only be transported on ships rented by the ship owners. On the other hand, private entrepreneurs, the pavers, could use their own ships downstream, although they were also responsible for ship and cargo. The pavers were citizens from Laufen as well as Hallein , Salzburg , Burghausen , Schärding and Passau . At the end of the Middle Ages, salt transport was regulated by pavers; a paver was allowed to transport around 400 to 500 tons per year. The number of ships per master was regulated as well as their size: each master was allowed to have two large ships with a crew of nine (ashes) and a small one with six men (six).

27 Laufeners became ship owners due to the ship master's order and Laufen thus became the center of salt shipping. The ship owners belonged to the Laufen patriciate and thus had roughly the same position as the knightly nobility. The impressive mansions have been preserved along with the entire medieval old town. Archbishop Pilgrim II began at the end of the 14th century to build up an archbishop's monopoly on ships. He and his successor bought the shipping rights, in 1417 all 27 shipping rights had changed into episcopal ownership. The pavers stayed in business as tenants of the ships. The Salzburg bishops only had power of disposal over the stretch from Laufen to Hallein, since the Salzach downstream from Laufen belonged to Bavaria.

Archbishop Friedrich II issued an order for Ausfergen on January 31, 1278. Ausfergen were shipmen with episcopal officials who drove as guides on the ships themselves, whereby they were liable for the ship. The background to all these regulations was that the salt transport should be ensured. The parties involved should not compete too much, nor should unqualified personnel or unusable ships be used.

There were a total of 40 Ausfergen in Laufen, whose social position was mostly (but not necessarily) below that of the ship owners. They also had to deploy half a dozen lightly armed men or crossbowmen to attack the Salzburg area. The Laufen-Oberndorf ship's rifle corps that still exists today probably has its roots there. The Ausfergen were initially only responsible for the shipping traffic upstream from Laufen. After the shipping rights were bought back from the shipowners, the Ausfergen slowly took over the position of the paver, they rose socially, became entrepreneurial and finally became the organizer of shipping between Laufen and Hallein together with the archbishop's administration. The Ausfergen expanded their position of power over the next few decades. Their business methods became so rigorous that Cardinal Matthäus Lang stepped in in 1530 and reorganized the office. Until then, 30 families had made 40 Ausfergen, after that there were only four families who acted exclusively as entrepreneurs. These families rose to become the Salzburg nobility. The title Erbausferge existed until the beginning of the 19th century.

For the Bavarian route downstream, the Naufergen had existed since the 14th century and performed roughly the same tasks as the Ausfergen. On behalf of the pavers, they steered the ships, which were often traveling in convoys, standing on top of the salt cargo on the largest ship and giving signals.

The simple boatmen had a hard life. Shipping was idle between the end of December and the end of March, so there was no source of income. The archbishops therefore allowed fishing between Laufen and Tittmoning and the gathering of driftwood between Laufen and Salzburg. The sale of Schiffleut-Fuder, salt domes, was also allowed, 13 of which per ship could be brought to Laufen and sold there. Another additional income was possible in the context of customs, e.g. B. as a carol singer . Presumably the custom of boat stabbing that still exists today goes back to this.

Prince Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau granted the city of Laufen a grant of 2000 guilders in 1598. Original in the Laufen city archive

Salt shipping experienced its heyday in Laufen in the 16th century. In 1575 a total of 3327 ships passed through Laufen, the larger ships with almost 15 tons. During this time, the archbishop's regulations were revised again and again (and the minutes of the city council meetings of the city of Laufen that have been preserved go back to this time). In 1590, 32,870 tons of the 39,200 tons of salt produced in Hallein were transported in 2,260 shiploads. It was also during this period that the political differences between Salzburg and Bavaria worsened because of the profitable business and the increasing competition from the Habsburg saltworks. In a new contract between Bavaria and Salzburg dated November 22, 1594, Duke Wilhelm V of Bavaria guaranteed the acceptance of all Hallein production sold by ship together with the acceptance of 1500 Hall trips per year. This marked the beginning of Bavaria's dominance in the salt business, which manifested itself in Laufen through the institution of the Bavarian salt keeper based there as the Duke's personal representative. His duties included the maintenance of ships, the recruiting of shipmen for trips downriver and the supervision of the Naufergen. The tensions between Salzburg and Bavaria finally escalated in military actions and an attack on Salzburg with the capture of Archbishop Wolf Dietrich , who died in 1617 in the fifth year of his imprisonment. In 1611, following a new treaty, the dominant position of Hallein salt ended, which led to a significant decline in salt shipping with corresponding consequences for Laufen. The new contracts also put an end to the independent entrepreneurship of the pavers, but not of the building sods.

The salt shipping was now under sole Bavarian control. The salt rides were better organized. While larger convoys used to be the exception, there were now ship trains with 12 to 30 ships from Laufen. Up until Laufen the Salzach was more difficult to navigate, which is why there were more individual and not so heavily loaded ships on the way. Political tensions and disputes continued over the next 200 years. The Thirty Years' War had a negative impact on the salt trade. The Habsburgs hindered the import of Hallein salt into Bohemia, and in 1706 it was blocked. At the end of the 18th century, only 9800 tons of salt were shipped through Laufen. The price of salt had also fallen, with Hallein salt reaching the lowest price in all of Europe. Profits were difficult to make, which is why the pressure on the wages of ordinary shipmen increased. Around 1700 the salt transports were at a low point, poverty among the Laufen boatmen became a social hotspot and even led to a marriage ban for men without their own apartment, who could possibly be a burden for the community.

At the end of 1803, the spiritual rule in Salzburg and with it the salt monopoly there ended . Shortly afterwards, the Erbauergen lost their privileges. In 1816 Laufen, which became part of Bavaria , was separated from Oberndorf, which became part of Austria . The salt shipping was regulated again. From now on Austria took care of the transport routes, i.e. the fairway and the paths for the return train, the shipping communities, including those in Laufen, were responsible for the ships and the salt transport. The shipping business continued to decline. In the middle of the 19th century the Laufen magistrate tried to find shipmen in other professions, including a. the apprenticeship fee for another training was taken over for 43 sons from boatman families.

With the advent of the railroad in the first half of the 19th century, salt shipping finally lost its importance. The new means of transport was cheaper and more reliable, and the expensive return train was no longer necessary. For some time, single-use plates made of untreated stone pine were used, which were disassembled at the destination and sold as coveted firewood. The last salt transport from Hallein to Passau took place on August 23, 1866. In 1871 salt shipping came to an end with the connection of Hallein to the railway network.

Today tourist trips to the Platten and various Laufen and Oberndorfer customs, including the Schifferstechen, are a reminder of the salt shipping.

Selected events

Running in the Second Coalition War

The Second Coalition War (1798 / 99–1801 / 02) was waged by an alliance around Russia , Austria and Great Britain against the revolutionary France, which was successful in the First Coalition War . Laufen was directly affected. The Austrians, defeated in the Battle of Hohenlinden on December 3, 1800, retreated south towards Salzburg, pursued by the French. On December 12, 1800, the Prince Liechtenstein Division crossed the bridge to Oberndorf in Laufen. The bridge was demolished to prevent the French from advancing. The Austrians holed up on the Totenberg.

The French arrived a day later. Some soldiers managed to swim across the wintry Salzach, then captured a few ships on the other bank and crossed a few hundred men. As a diversion, the Austrians were fired at with cannons from Arbisbichl and from Burgfeld. The Austrians had to withdraw. The French took 150 to 200 prisoners, including 4 officers. Both sides had several dozen casualties, e.g. Some were simply thrown into the Salzach.

From then on, more and more French troops moved by running. On December 14, 1800, Chief General Jean-Victor Moreau took up residence in Laufen Castle . In the city, 4,000 men were initially quartered with 100 bourgeois families, who were also responsible for catering. In Laufen there were looting and attacks on the population. Many people from Laufen left their homes and hid in the surrounding forests. Documented are u. a. 57 rapes, several tortures to get cattle and money, 24 wounded by looters and 7 dead. Until the withdrawal of the French on March 22, 1801, the number of quarters in the Laufen district court totaled around 100,000 men and 25,000 horses.

Changing governments from 1803, the separation of Laufen and Oberndorf in 1816

Although the Salzach represents a geographical border between Laufen and Oberndorf, the two places were only politically separated in 1816 after the place had been culturally and politically a unit for centuries.

Laufen and Oberndorf originally belonged to the Prince Archbishopric of Salzburg . In the wake of the Napoleonic wars and the Congress of Vienna , the area in which Laufen and Oberndorf are located changed hands several times. In 1803 the last reigning Prince-Bishop, Hieronymus von Colloredo, abdicated.

From 1803 to 1806 the areas were part of the Electorate of Salzburg under Ferdinand III. , this was part of the Treaty of Paris (1802) . The Peace of Pressburg 1805 regulated that the province of Salzburg became part of Austria on May 17, 1806 as a duchy. With the declaration of war by Emperor Franz II against Napoleon , the Flachgau a . a. because of the bridge from Laufen over the Salzach the deployment area of ​​the Austrian troops. Salzburg and the associated lands were occupied by the French in the further course of the war and were under French administration in 1809/1810. With the Peace of Schönbrunn and the Paris Treaty , Salzburg became part of Bavaria on September 30, 1810. Laufen and Oberndorf were thus incorporated into the newly founded Salzach district.

This also reorganized the administration, which had survived the previous events without significant changes. The judiciary was reorganized, the newly formed district court Laufen , a district court I class, took over most of the tasks of the former nursing court. A separate rent office was created for finances , as the new government now required cash benefits instead of services and benefits in kind. In 1811 the Oberndorfer Salzfertigeramt was abolished and replaced by a salt factor that resided in Laufen Castle.

With the loss of Napoleon's Russian campaign in 1812 , Bavaria changed sides and joined the anti-Napoleonic coalition with the Treaty of Ried in 1813. The Congress of Vienna did not lead to a solution of the territorial issue of the former Salzburg lands including Laufen and Oberndorf. In order to avoid an Austrian occupation of Salzburg by the troops returning from France, Bavaria in turn moved troops to Salzburg in 1815. The nurse in Laufen received the order to demolish the bridge if Austrian troops should penetrate.

A war could be avoided in 1816. In the Treaty of Munich , Bavaria renounced Salzburg. The areas to the left of the Salzach and thus Laufen remained with Bavaria, the areas on the right with Oberndorf went to Austria. The choice of the border was dictated by the military and took no account of the common economic and cultural area.

Laufen and Oberndorf, which historically had been a place for over 1,000 years, were politically divided.

The now Bavarian Laufen was after the division on the edge of the kingdom. Laufen lost large parts of its hinterland and the district court lost most of its jurisdiction. Before the division, 24 tax districts with 14,159 inhabitants came under the jurisdiction of the Laufen district court, afterwards there were only 8 tax districts with 4,888 inhabitants. A Beizollamt was set up in Laufen, which was responsible for ship traffic and border traffic across the bridge. Smuggling flourished through the Laufen skippers. In 1818 the communities belonging to the Laufen district court were reorganized.

City fires

In addition to the recurring Salzach floods, Laufen and Oberndorf were also hit several times by catastrophic city fires that destroyed large parts of the city.

In 1618 14 houses burned down in Altach. Originally intended for the construction of the castle, 800 logs of wood from the princely forest in the Lebenau were used for the reconstruction.

In 1663 58 houses burned down in Laufen, which was half the town. As if by a miracle, the corner house on Marienplatz, today's Pauli department store in Schloßstrasse, remained. 18, intact. The mistress of the house at the time, Sophia Tettenpacher, had vowed on her escape from the fire that she would donate half of the value of the house to the poor if the house was not damaged. According to another source, there were 65 houses, including the upper city tower. As a result of this disaster, two fire engines were purchased in 1665. The reconstruction took several years.

In 1757, 101 buildings burned in Oberndorf, mostly residential buildings, but also stables and the St. Nikolaus church with sexton's house and the Schifferspital. The reconstruction was not finished in 1802.

Late 19th century, World War I to Weimar Republic

The time up to the First World War was relatively calm. The city was a local administrative center. In 1890, Laufen was connected to the railway network via a branch line to Freilassing , the former station was on today's Gottfried-Dachs-Straße. The route was extended to Tittmoning . In 1908 the Mühldorf – Freilassing railway was completed and the station was moved to its current location on the outskirts.

From the 16th century until 1889, water was mainly supplied to Laufen via a pipe from Oberndorf. The many high waters of the Salzach repeatedly interrupted the water supply. In 1889 Laufen got its own water supply from a spring near Lauterbrunn near the Abtsee . There were three car owners in the city in 1923, and the number has grown steadily over the years. The radio spread slowly but steadily. In 1902 there was the first public telephone box at the post office.

Laufen-Oberndorf state bridge

The construction of the new state bridge is remarkable . At least since 1278 there was a wooden bridge over the Salzach where the Europasteg is today; the old remains of the bridge piers can still be seen at low tide. Over the centuries, Laufen and Oberndorf suffered repeatedly from floods that damaged or completely destroyed the bridge. In the last decade of the 19th century alone, there were four severe floods. The planning work for a new "stable bridge made of stone and iron", as it was called at the time, began in 1896, construction was completed between December 1901 and May 1903 and on June 2, 1903 the bridge was inaugurated. The bridge was already considered to be one of the most beautiful in Germany at the time, and a joint German-Austrian special stamp with the bridge motif was issued for the centenary.

With the outbreak of World War I, the executive passed to the military authorities. The border traffic to Austria was severely restricted. Several hundred men were called up for military service, 64 did not return from the front. The war memorial with the names of the dead reminds of this and also of the war of 1870 and the Second World War. Russians, Serbs and French prisoners of war were interned in Laufen Castle.

From 1916 to 1923 Laufen issued its own emergency money of stable value. The Laufen found work in these tough times in various construction projects, including a. the agricultural school, the Lebenau hydropower station, the hospital or the flood protection dam on the Salzach.

The political unrest in Bavaria around 1920 hardly reached Laufen.

Period of National Socialism and World War II

There were supporters of National Socialism in Laufen as early as the 1920s. With the seizure of power by the Nazis on 30 January 1933, the city council was dominated National Socialist. The mayor Franz Fuchs and a number of democratically-minded city councilors resigned. On March 31st of that year Max Kammerer was appointed acting mayor, on the same day u. a. Adolf Hitler the honorary citizenship . Today's Schlossstrasse and Rottmayrstrasse were renamed Hindenburgstrasse, and the town square was renamed Adolf-Hitler-Platz .

Like many other German towns and cities, Laufen was clearly dominated by the National Socialists. If they did not yet exist, NS organizations were quickly founded. The usual measures for the time followed. Employees and civil servants were only allowed to work in National Socialist organizations. The dismissal of the director of the electricity company, Haid, was welcomed by the city council. At the plebiscite to unite the offices of the Reich President and the Reich Chancellor in the person of Adolf Hitler ( "Yes to the Führer" ), according to the "Laufener Tageszeitung" on August 20, 1934 in the district of Laufen I, 1,339 voters voted yes, 97 no, and two votes were invalid. In the district of Laufen II there were 44 yes-votes, in the district of Laufen III 91, each without a vote against.

Units of the Reich Labor Service were active in the regulation of the Sur and in the construction of the Brodhausen open-air swimming pool and in the Schönramer Filz in peat cutting. There were the usual marches and celebrations. The reintroduction of compulsory military service in 1935 was celebrated with a torchlight procession and swastika flags. In 1938 the seaside resort at Abtsdorfer See , built in collaboration with the Laufeners, was completed. The organization Kraft durch Freude also organized trips to Laufen.

In the 1930s, National Socialism was initially still illegal in Austria. Propaganda material was secretly smuggled into the neighboring country across the border river Salzach . A loudspeaker was set up on the banks of the Salzach at the height of the zinc tower, with which Oberndorf was exposed to propaganda. A large and illuminated swastika that could be seen from Oberndorf was set up on the Sapplhöhe. With the annexation of Austria to the German Reich , German troops also moved into Austria over the land bridge on March 13, 1938.

National Socialist anti-Semitism was also practiced in Laufen. Most of the members of the Friedmann family, Laufen's only Jewish family, perished in concentration camps. The Jewish lawyer Julius Charig , who was born in Laufen but moved away with his family before starting school, died in the Warsaw ghetto .

In the years before the outbreak of war, especially the younger Laufen had been prepared for war. B. with the Hitler Youth with target practice or hand grenade throwing at the shooting range in Mayrhofen. For the supplementary battalion of the  100 Mountain Infantry Regiment barracked in Laufen , the Second World War began on September 7, 1939 with the departure from the station. At the same time, consumer goods were rationed and food receipts were issued. Fallen soldiers were honored at the war memorial with propaganda events. With the bombing raids on Munich from 1942 onwards, people who had been bombed out were also evacuated from there to Laufen. Laufen pupils who went to school in Freilassing also served as FLAK helpers in Salzburg .

Memorial plaque to the internees who died in World War II.

There were a number of air raid shelters and air raids from time to time. Laufen was not bombed and survived the war unscathed. This may also have been due to the fact that the castle was used as a POW camp Oflag  VII-C for around 1000 British and American officers. In May 1942 the officers were transferred to another camp and the castle was used as internment camp Ilag VII for a few hundred men who came from the Channel Islands of Jersey and Guernsey , as well as for some American civilians who were brought to the Japanese by the United States' sudden entry into the war Attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 could not leave Europe fast enough. In Ilag some were temporarily called back then. Preferred Jews interned. In the “old cemetery” a memorial plaque commemorates those who died there.

In Laufen Lebenau, the death march of the concentration camp prisoners from the Regensburg subcamp Colosseum of the Flossenbürg concentration camp ended on May 1, 1945 after nine days. Of the 500 prisoners, fewer than 50 survivors were freed by the Allies. The guards fled from the advancing enemy troops. Local residents spoke of the shootings among the prisoners, 13 were buried in the forest. Shortly afterwards, former party members had to dig them up again. The dead were buried on the corner of Tittmoningerstrasse and Teisendorferstrasse, where a small memorial commemorates them. In 1958, the bodies were exhumed to identify them.

Shortly before the end of the war, the Volkssturm was proclaimed and 164 men with completely inadequate armament were set up for defense. The state bridge was prepared for demolition, and defensive lines and anti-tank barriers were erected at the approach roads. On April 30, 1945, men who would not fight were threatened by an SS leader from Oberndorf to be shot dead. On May 1st, the Volkssturm informed the men of the situation, the mayor Nikolai instructed the Volkssturmführer to do everything to save the bridge and the city, whereas the Oberndorf SS lieutenant threatened to close the explosive charges on the bridge with a bazooka if necessary detonate. On May 4th, when the Allies were in sight, Oberndorfer and Laufener defused the explosives in good time. On the same day, parts of the 106th Cavalry Group and the 7th American Infantry Regiment moved into Laufen. The mayor had expected them at the city gate and surrendered the city without a fight, which ended the war for Laufen.

post war period

Displaced persons monument within the "old cemetery"

A military headquarters was established in Laufen at what is now Poststrasse 3. Immediately after the war, supplying the population with food and housing refugees was a major problem. Life slowly returned to normal, the prisoners of war returned, and the first meeting after the war was held in Laufen Town Hall on May 28, 1945. The military government appointed Dr. Binapfl was appointed 1st Mayor, the pharmacist Franz Fuchs became 2nd Mayor. As part of the denazification , former party members were dismissed from the service of the city.

During the war there were evacuations from other cities to Laufen. Already at the end of the war, refugee flows began from the former German settlement areas in Central and Eastern Europe towards the west, which culminated in the ethnic cleansing at the end of the war. In total, Germany had to take in twelve million displaced persons, four million of them in the former GDR, eight million in the former West Germany, of which two million in Bavaria. Georg Lakner became a refugee commissioner at the Laufen district office on November 20, 1945. Several refugee camps were set up by the beginning of 1946, the largest reception camp was on the site of today's grammar school (built in 1965/66) and Franz-Fuchs-Strasse, plus temporary hospitals, old people's homes and children's homes. The Sudeten Germans made up the largest proportion of the refugees from Laufen . In 1946, 15,000 refugees were distributed to the district. The population statistics for the beginning of 1947 give Laufen a population of 4503, refugees 1118, evacuees 330 and foreigners 331. The district of Laufen was one of the districts that received the most refugees.

Housing construction was a priority, on November 1, 1947, the self-help building cooperative Salzachkreis was founded, the first houses were built in 1948 on Franz-Fuchs-Strasse and Tittmoninger Strasse. The building cooperative is still an important institution in Laufen, having built almost 400 apartments by the turn of the millennium. A number of refugees founded their own businesses, which are still run by their successors today. Some refugees also settled down as doctors, and there was also a lasting impact on local cultural life.

At the end of the war, the border with Oberndorf, Austria, was closed. From 1948 there were transfer permits for " small border traffic ", from 1950 German passports were issued again, and Austria was required to have a visa until 1956. Smuggling was a problem for several years. There were also trends that the Rupertiwinkel should be slammed back to Salzburg, which was described by the then Bavarian Prime Minister Wilhelm Hoegner as high treason.

Incorporation and territorial reform

On January 1, 1970, the previously independent communities Heining and Triebenbach were incorporated.

On May 1, 1978 Leobendorf was incorporated.

As part of the regional reform in Bavaria , the district of Laufen was dissolved on July 1, 1972. In the premises of the former district office today's district court housed. The Laufen tax office became a branch of the Berchtesgadener Land tax office.

Historical old city

Salzburg Gate
Old Town Hall
The Marienplatz with the Marienbrunnen

Due to the demarcation of 1816, the city found itself in an unfavorable peripheral and border situation, which was reinforced by the construction of the railway line between Munich and Salzburg from 1860 onwards. When Laufen was connected to the main route in 1890, the place finally lost its former importance as a traffic junction and trading center on the Salzach River.

The economic stagnation favored the preservation of the historic cityscape. Due to the location on the peninsula in the Salzach loop, building on the outskirts was almost impossible. The city expansions of the 20th century could only spread to the south. The former suburb of Oberndorf developed into an independent market place on the new road and bridge connection to Bavaria.

The old “Salzburg Gate” is still the main southern entrance to the historic old town. To the east of the gate tower is the sober functional building of the former city palace, modified in the 19th century, to the west a short section of the city ​​wall is still preserved. Through the archway of the city tower you get to Marienplatz (Oberer Stadtplatz), today's main square, on the short Schlossstrasse. The eastern side of the square was only opened for the construction of the New Steel Bridge at the beginning of the 20th century . Before that, traffic ran north through Rottmayrstrasse to the old market square (Rupertusplatz) and further down through the preserved “Lower Gate” over the original Salzach bridge to the north bank of the river.

In the northeast of the old town rises dominantly the monumental parish church and later collegiate church with its ridge-like west tower. Between the large buildings of the castle and the main church, the historical main axis is lined with partly quite stately town houses. Most of the buildings are built in the typical Inn-Salzach style as moat roof houses with projecting walls. Some large Gothic pointed arch portals indicate that most of the buildings were built in the late Middle Ages, while other houses date from the 17th and 18th centuries and partly represent the Salzburg-Italian palazzo style. The residential and trading houses of the wealthy patricians are up to four storeys high and are often closed off by prominent coves with inscriptions.

The old town hall with its simple baroque facade is located on the east side of Rupertusplatz. The monumental conclusion of the former main street is formed by the unplastered block building of the town and collegiate church with its vestibule, Michael’s chapel and the open, cloister-like arcade as the burial place of the rich bourgeoisie and the Salzburg monastery nobility.

In the south of Rottmayrstrasse, some classicist houses in the style of Munich's Ludwigstrasse are reminiscent of one of the numerous city fires (1843). Three narrow, eastern side streets are spanned by supporting candle arches. Behind the facades of the large patrician estates, spacious rear buildings take up the space almost completely.

In contrast to the ravine-like main street with its representative patrician and trading houses, the west side of the old town is much looser and more irregular. A few alleys lead from Rottmayrstraße down to the Salzach. The historical ensemble of the west bank has been missing its counterpart on today's Austrian side since the devastating flood of 1899. The bank, which is now largely undeveloped, was densely packed with boatmen's houses before the flood disaster. In the early 20th century, the former suburb of Oberndorf was rebuilt south and east of the new steel bridge in the east. The historical context of the city, which was undivided until 1816, can only be experienced in the west through some slightly higher buildings in the south of the river bend and the baroque Kalvarienbergstiege. The new Europasteg was only inaugurated in 2006, which has since given pedestrians and cyclists direct access to the Kalvarienbergstiege again. The footbridge was built a few meters next to the former wooden bridge, the foundations of which are easy to see at low tide. The small Baroque pilgrimage church of Maria Bühel (Oberndorf) above the Salzach, which can be reached from Kalvarienberg in about ten minutes on foot, must also be included in the overall Laufen ensemble .

The large Marienplatz on the new Salzach Bridge was partially rebuilt after the great fire of 1843. While the north and west side are still built with large corner buildings in the Inn-Salzach style, the other walls of the square show the simple style forms of the 19th century without the typical moat roofs of the historic cities of this region. The Marienbrunnen in the middle of the square is surmounted by a larger than life Marian column .

From the strong city fortifications with formerly 26 defense towers, the two gate towers, some remains of the wall, the zinc tower and the tower at the former prison are preserved today. To the west of the Salzburg Gate, a small city park was laid out on the "Glacis" in front of the former city wall. By expanding with further properties, a generous green lung was created in the old Schifferstadt over time. After extensive redesign, the facility was completed in July 2011 and handed over to the public in a festive ceremony with a church blessing.

In the east, the formerly heavily fortified castle served as an additional bulwark to protect the old shipping and trading town.


City council

The Laufen city council consists of 20 city councilors and the mayor and has been composed as follows since the local elections on March 15, 2020 :

Local election 2020
Turnout: 54.7% (2014: 50.7%)
ufb g
Template: election chart / maintenance / notes
g independent-fair-close to the citizen
Political party Seats
CSU 6th
Free Citizens List Laufen (FBL) 4th
ödp 2
The Left - Alternative List 1
independent-fair-citizen-friendly (UFB) 2
total 20th

Compared to 2014, the Greens received a seat that UFB had to give up.


In March 2014, Hans Feil (CSU) was confirmed in office with 63% of the votes; he has been in office since May 2008. On March 15, 2020, Feil was re-elected for a further six-year term with 55.6% of the vote.

City and local partnerships

Culture and sights

Hall of the parish and collegiate church
  • The Laufen Trachtenverein D'Grenzlandler (since 1908) plays an important role . The traditional costume association tries to preserve old customs and manners with the intention of being true to the guadn oidn custom .
  • The Salzachhalle is the central location in the surrounding area for cultural events. It has a relatively large hall and a cabaret.
  • Smaller events and concerts take place in the hall of the old town hall .
  • The Laufen collegiate church is the oldest Gothic hall church in southern Germany.
  • St. Oswald in Leobendorf
  • The medieval old town is almost completely preserved. The so-called Inn-Salzach construction method ( Inn-Salzach style ) dominates above all at Marienplatz : the houses have false facades to protect the roofs behind them from the fire from spreading if the fire comes from the front.
  • The city park represents the green lung of the city and a popular recreational area. It extends with ancient trees on the former Glacis site outside the city wall (remains are preserved) between the upper city gate (the "Salzburg Gate") and the former Fronfeste, in which today houses the city archives, among other things.
  • At the eastern entrance to the city park is the artistically designed war memorial with the names of the citizens of Laufen who died in the war of 1870/71 and in the First World War.
  • Next to the former Capuchin monastery church is the “Old Cemetery ” of Laufens, which is now a listed building and invites you to linger in its park-like structure.
  • The Salzach Bridge from 1903: Magnificent building made of stone pillars and an Art Nouveau iron construction with artistic decorations. A German-Austrian postage stamp was dedicated to her in 2003. The urgent renovation was carried out between 2005 and 2007.
  • Next to the place where a wooden bridge used to connect the lower Laufen city ​​gate with Oberndorf, the Europasteg was built in 2006 as a pedestrian bridge over the Salzach, it was blessed on December 8, 2006 and opened to the public. On the Austrian side, in the former Laufen suburb of Altach , there is a statue of St. Nepomuk created by the Laufen baroque artist J. A. Pfaffinger . It is the starting point of a long, stone staircase up to the so-called Kalvarienberg , from which a path leads through fields and meadows to the two-tower pilgrimage church of Maria Bühel .
  • Laufen Castle
  • In Castle Triebenbach , about two kilometers from the Old Town, was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart several times as a guest. The castle is the remainder of a medieval castle complex; in the 16th century it got its present appearance.
  • The annual Salzach Festival

Economy and Infrastructure


Salzach bridge from Oberndorf to Laufen
  • Road network: local roads around 19 km, communal roads around 49 km.
  • The federal road 20 leads through Laufen, the slope between the area of ​​the former agricultural school and the Arbisbichl district is one of the largest (inner-city) in the entire street. The planning of a bypass has entered the route-finding phase, a new Salzach bridge as a connection from the The B 20 to the Austrian B 156 is intended to supplement the bypass.
  • Station on the Mühldorf – Freilassing railway line .
  • Border crossing to Oberndorf, there stops of the S1 and S11 of the S-Bahn Salzburg on the Salzburg – Lamprechtshausen railway line . A relatively large number of trains and buses run from Salzburg Central Station, including to Salzburg Airport .
  • Laufen is integrated into the bus network of Regionalverkehr Oberbayern (RVO) and also offers a city bus.

Public facilities


  • Rottmayr-Gymnasium Laufen with school observatory
  • Primary schools in Laufen and Leobendorf, middle school in Laufen.
  • Agricultural School, Housekeeping Department


Laufen is a member of the EuRegio Salzburg - Berchtesgadener Land - Traunstein .

In 2017, the city recorded 23,381 overnight stays with an average length of stay of 2.7 days in accommodation establishments with ten or more guest beds, and 4,364 overnight stays with an average length of 8.9 days in smaller accommodation establishments.

There are good cycle paths along the Salzach and in the Bavarian and Austrian parts of the Rupertiwinkel.

Folkloric events reminiscent of the earlier salt shipping take place on the river ( Himmelbrotschützen , pirate battles , boat rides, trips with platters , etc.).

A popular local recreation destination is the small Abtsdorfer See with a lido (about 1  km² ), three kilometers in the southwest of the city.

Together with the surrounding communities, Laufen forms the Abtsdorfer See tourist association.

The lantern city tours after nightfall are popular not only with tourists from all over the world, but also with many locals, during which a guide disguised as a medieval night watchman brings the special sights of the historic shipping town to the audience.

Population development

Since the census on May 25, 1987 with 5634 inhabitants, the population grew by 1535 to 7169 inhabitants by December 31, 2017 (+ 27.2%).


Sons and daughters of Laufens

Konrad Krafft from Dellmensingen

People with a relationship to running

  • Gordian Guckh , sculptor and painter of the late Gothic, lived in Laufen from 1506 to 1541 (1545)
  • Konrad von Parzham (brother Konrad, 1818-1894), spent two years of his novitiate in the Capuchin monastery in Laufen, which has now been closed. A marble plaque from the time between his beatification in 1930 and his canonization in 1934, next to the former monastery gate on the facade of the Capuchin Church, reminds of this.
  • Cesar Bresgen (1913–1988), Austrian composer, performed some of his works here in collaboration with the Laufener Liedertafel
  • Michaela Krinner (1915–2006), painter, lived in Laufen since 1974
  • Wolfgang Hein (1924–1999) composer, since 1965 organist and choir director at the Collegiate Church of the Assumption of Mary in Laufen


  • Walter Brugger, Hans Roth: running and Oberndorf. Art and history. Pustet, Tittmoning-Traunstein 1970.
  • Heinz Dopsch, Hans Roth (Ed.): Laufen and Oberndorf: 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach. Laufen / Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 .
  • Helga Reindel-Schedl: Running on the Salzach. The old Salzburg nursing dishes Laufen, Staufeneck, Teisendorf, Tittmoning and Waging. Munich 1989, ISBN 3-7696-9940-8 . (Historical Atlas of Bavaria, Altbayern, 55)
  • City of Laufen - Ensemble Laufen. In: Georg Paula (arrangement): Ensembles in Upper Bavaria. Munich 1997, ISBN 3-87490-575-6 , pp. 224-230. (Monuments in Bavaria, Volume IA)

Web links

Commons : Running  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
  2. Short chronicle of the city of Laufen an der Salzach ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , online at @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  3. ↑ Annual report of the Carolino Augusteum municipal museum in Salzburg for 1892, p. 47
  4. ^ Find chronicle for the years 1961 and 1962, in: Bayerische Prognistorblätter 27 (1962), p. 178
  5. ^ W. Irlinger, Neolithic copper axes from the Abtsdorfer See, in: Das Salzfaß, NF24 (1990), no. 2, p. 85 ff
  6. M. Menke, Studies on the Early Bronze Age Metal Depots in Bavaria, in: Annual Report of the Bayerische Bodendenkmalpflege 19/20 (1978/79), p. 5ff and p. 269
  7. M. Hell, Early Bronze Age dwelling finds near Oberndorf ad Salzach, in Germania 38 (1960), p. 131 ff
  8. T. Stöllner, The Hallstatt Period and the Beginning of the Latène Period in the Inn-Salzach Area, Archeology in Salzburg 3 / IIm 1996, p. 129 f
  9. G. Kossack, Southern Bavaria during the Hallstatt Period, Römisch-Germanische Forschungen 24 (1959), p. 210
  10. ^ Find chronicle for the years 1965–1967, in: Bayerische Prognistorblätter 37 (1972), p. 167
  11. N. Heger, An Etruscan bronze bucket from the Salzach, in: Bayerische Prognistorblätter 38 (1973), p. 52 ff
  12. ^ A. Reichenberger, Celtic sanctuaries in southern Germany. To the status of the Viereckschanzen research. Lectures of the 12th Lower Bavarian Archaeological Day, Deggendorf 1994, p. 169 ff.
  13. W. Irlinger, Hallstatt and Latène times in the Rupertiwinkel, in: Archeology on both sides of the Salzach, soil finds from the Flachgau and Rupertiwinkel, Salzburg 1996, p. 56 ff
  14. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach . Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 40 ff .
  15. ^ The coins found in the Roman period in Germany I / I, Berlin 1960, no. 1153
  16. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach. Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 42
  17. A. Obermayr, Römersteine ​​between Inn and Salzach, Freilassing 1974, p. 80f; CIL III, 5597 and 5598
  18. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach . Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 40 ff .
  19. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach . Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 42 ff .
  20. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach . Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 47 .
  21. Salzburger Urkundenbuch I, p. 238 No. 14
  22. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach . Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 52 .
  23. Salzburger Urkundenbuch II, p. 433f No. 310a; Bernhard Koch, the Salzburg Pfennig, in Numismatic Journal 75, 1953
  24. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach . Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 58 f .
  25. Copy of a certificate, s. Land register of St. Peter's Abbey from 1525, fol. 19r. Office Weildorf.
  26. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach. Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 38.
  27. ^ Fritz Koller, Die Salzachschiffahrt bis zum 16. Century, in Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Salzburger Landeskunde, 123 (1983), pp. 65–67; Franz Heffeter, Die Salzachschiffahrt and the city of Laufen, part I, in communications from the Society for Salzburg Regional Studies, 129 (1989), p. 52ff
  28. ^ Salzburger Urkundenbuch Volume II, edited by Willibald Hauthaler and Franz Martin, Salzburg 1910–1933 p. 253 no. 732 and p. 271 no. 745
  29. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach. Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 65 f.
  30. ^ Salzburger Urkundenbuch, Volume IV, p. 101 f. No. 94
  31. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach. Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 66.
  32. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach. Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 177 ff. For the entire section.
  33. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach. Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 180 ff. For the entire section.
  34. City Archives Laufen, Az. 6412
  35. ^ Franz Dückher von Haßlach zu Winkl, Salzburgische Chronica, Salzburg 1666, p. 10
  36. ^ Stadtarchiv Laufen, B 25, Az. 1
  37. ^ Stadtarchiv Laufen, Az. 7747
  38. Stadtarchiv Laufen, B 40, Az. 1
  39. Johann Andreas Seethaler, attempt to describe the high princely Salzburg nursing, city and district court of Laufem at the end of the 18th century, manuscript in the Laufen city archive, p. 48
  40. Stadtnachrichten der Stadt Laufen, July 2017 page 4
  41. Alexandra-Eileen Wenck: Between human trafficking and the “final solution” - The Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Paderborn 2000, ISBN 3-506-77511-1 , p. 84
  42. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach . Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 244 ff .
  43. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach . Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 247 f .
  44. 50 years of self-help in the Salzach district 1947–1997, Laufen 1997
  45. Heinz Dopsch and Hans Roth (eds.): Laufen and Oberndorf - 1250 years of history, economy and culture on both banks of the Salzach . Self-published by the city of Laufen and the market town of Oberndorf, Laufen and Oberndorf 1998, ISBN 3-00-003359-9 , p. 255 .
  46. ^ Wilhelm Volkert (ed.): Handbook of Bavarian offices, communities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 510 .
  47. ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart and Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 597 .
  48. Local elections 2014 - Laufen , notification on March 17, 2014, online at
  49. Website of the Salzach Festival
  50. Bavarian State Office for Statistics, Municipal Statistics 2018, City of Laufen 09 172 122, p. 16
  51. Bavarian State Office for Statistics, Municipal Statistics 2018, City of Laufen 09 172 122, p. 6