The Wittelsbach partial duchy of Bavaria-Landshut existed from 1353 to 1503. It was created as a result of the divisions of inheritance after the death of Emperor Ludwig of Bavaria and is often referred to as the Duchy of Lower Bavaria after one of his predecessors . It fell after the Landshut War of Succession (1503–1505) to Bavaria-Munich and Pfalz-Neuburg . Besides the capital Landshut, Burghausen was the second important ducal residence.
The Roman-German Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian had six sons who, after his death in 1347, initially managed the paternal inheritance together. Just two years later, however, the Landsberg contract included the first division of the estate. Upper Bavaria , Brandenburg and Tyrol fell to Ludwig V the Brandenburger and his younger brothers Ludwig VI. and Otto V , while Stephan II. with his brothers Wilhelm I and Albrecht I received Lower Bavaria and the Netherlands . The Lower Bavarian duchy was divided again four years later in the Regensburg Treaty . Stephan II received the south of Lower Bavaria with the capital Landshut and thus founded the Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut. Wilhelm I and Albrecht I received the Dutch counties and the " Straubinger Ländchen ".
When Duke Meinhard died in 1363 , Stephan II also received Upper Bavaria. He marched into Tyrol , but had to do without it in the Peace of Schärding in 1369, but not without having brought the courts of Kufstein , Kitzbühel and Rattenberg back to Bavaria. Due to his quarrel with his half-brother Ludwig VI., Who had also registered claims on Upper Bavaria, the Wittelsbach family also lost Brandenburg in 1373, as the angry Ludwig had appointed Emperor Charles IV as heir. In the process, however, areas in northern Gau- sia fell back to Bavaria.
When Stephan II died two years later, the area he ruled was initially taken over by his three sons Johann II , Stephan III. and Friedrich and Otto V. ruled together. After Otto's death and disputes between the brothers there was another division of the estate in 1392 : Johann II received the partial duchy of Bavaria-Munich , Stephan III. got Bayern-Ingolstadt and Friedrich took over the government of the now smaller Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut.
Friedrich, called the Wise, was one of the most important advisers to King Wenceslas the Lazy and was considered the most promising candidate for his successor. However, he died in 1393. His seven-year-old son Heinrich XVI. became his successor. Heinrich, called the Rich, was able to expand the power of his duchy considerably. He suppressed unrest in the Landshut citizenship and successfully fought against his cousin Ludwig VII of Bavaria-Ingolstadt. In 1429 he received part of the Duchy of Straubing-Holland in the Pressburg arbitration award and in 1447 Albrecht III left him . from Bavaria-Munich the partial duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt. When Heinrich XVI. He died in 1450, leaving his son Ludwig IX. a consolidated and greatly enlarged duchy.
Louis IX like his father was nicknamed "the rich". He defeated Albrecht Achilles von Brandenburg-Ansbach in 1462 in the Bavarian War in the battle of Giengen and also fought against Emperor Friedrich III. , with whom he concluded the Peace of Prague in 1463 . The glamorous Landshut wedding in 1475, at which his son Georg married the Polish princess Hedwig , was one of the highlights of his reign. Louis IX However, it also expelled Jews unwilling to convert from the duchy. His son followed him in 1479. George, who is also "the rich" was called, was one of the main supporters King Maximilian I . Contrary to the house contract of Pavia , which provided for mutual succession in the absence of male descendants, Georg bequeathed his duchy to his daughter Elisabeth in a will on September 19, 1496 , who married Ruprecht von der Pfalz in 1499 . When he died in December 1503, this led to the Landshut War of Succession , which ended the history of the Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut.
Landshut War of Succession (1503–1505)
The Landshut War of Succession broke out around Georg's successor , which was only ended by the arbitration award of the Roman-German King Maximilian I on July 30, 1505 at the Reichstag in Cologne. The former Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut was divided between Bavaria-Munich and the newly created Duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg , and the imperial city of Nuremberg also acquired some areas. The largest part, including the two former residences Burg Trausnitz and Burghausen , fell to Albrecht IV of Bavaria-Munich. King Maximilian I used the opportunity and now took over Kufstein , Rattenberg and Kitzbühel . These areas have belonged to Tyrol since then , even though the Bavarian land law and the Bavarian mining law continued to exist there until modern times. The Mondseeland was also lost to the Habsburgs at that time. The last member of the Bayern-Landshut line died with Margarete von Bayern in 1531. Ludwig X. , a younger son of Albrecht IV, was the last ruling Wittelsbach resident in Landshut from October 14, 1514 until his death in 1545, when he also only ruled over the Landshut and Straubing rent offices . After Ludwig's death, the Primogeniture Act of 1506 was finally implemented and Bavaria remained undivided from then on.
Dukes of Bavaria-Landshut
|Stephan II||1347–1349 Duke of Bavaria, 1349–1353 Duke of Lower Bavaria,
1353–1375 Duke of Bavaria-Landshut, 1363–1375 Duke of Upper Bavaria
|Son of Ludwig IV.|
|Otto V.||1347–1349 Duke of Bavaria, 1349–1351 Duke of Upper Bavaria,
1373–1379 Duke of Bavaria-Landshut
|Son of Ludwig IV.|
|Friedrich||1375–1392 Duke of Bavaria with responsibility for Bavaria-Landshut,
1392–1393 Duke of Bavaria-Landshut
|Son of Stephen II|
|Henry XVI.||1393–1450 Duke of Bavaria-Landshut, until 1404 under guardianship||Son of Friedrich|
|Louis IX||1450–1479 Duke of Bavaria-Landshut||Son of Henry XVI.|
|George||1479–1503 Duke of Bavaria-Landshut||Son of Louis IX.|
The dukes of Bayern-Munich are shown in blue, those of Bayern-Ingolstadt in green, those of Bayern-Landshut in yellow and those of Straubing-Holland in red.
- Bernhard Graf : The tower full of guilders. The rich dukes of Baiern-Landshut. Documentation, Bayerischer Rundfunk 2003.
- Karl Batz et al .: Bayern-Ingolstadt, Bayern-Landshut 1392–1506. Splendor and misery of a division . Ingolstadt City Archives, Ingolstadt 1992, ISBN 3-932113-06-3 (exhibition catalog).
- Irmgard Biersack: The court keeping of the "rich dukes" of Bavaria-Landshut (= Regensburg contributions to regional history . Volume 2 ). Edition Vulpes, Regensburg 2006, ISBN 3-939112-14-3 ( summary of the work in the communications of the Residences Commission of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen; PDF, 1.6 MB).
- Beatrix Ettelt-Schönewald: Chancellery, council and government of Duke Ludwig the Rich of Bavaria-Landshut (1450–1479) (= series of publications on Bavarian regional history. Volume 97). CH Beck, Munich 1996–1999 (2 volumes).
- Bernhard Glasauer: Duke Heinrich XVI. (1393–1450) the empire of Bavaria-Landshut. Territorial politics between dynasty and empire (= Munich contributions to historical science . Volume 5 ). Herbert Utz Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-8316-0899-7 (also dissertation, University of Munich 2009).
- Christian Hesse: Office holder of the princes in the late medieval empire. The functional elites of the local administration in Bavaria-Landshut, Hesse, Saxony and Württemberg (= series of publications of the Historical Commission at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences . Volume 70 ). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-525-36063-0 (also habilitation thesis, University of Bern 2003).
- Gerald Huber : The rich dukes of Bavaria-Landshut. Bavaria's golden century . Pustet, Regensburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-7917-2483-6 .
- Karin Kaltwasser: Duke and nobility in Bavaria-Landshut under Heinrich XVI. the rich (1393-1450) . Dissertation, University of Regensburg 2004 ( PDF ).
- Irmgard Lackner: Duke Ludwig IX. the empire of Bavaria-Landshut (1450–1479). Princely policy towards emperors and imperial estates . Dissertation, University of Regensburg 2010 ( PDF ).
- Max Spindler , Andreas Kraus (Ed.): The old Bavaria. The territorial state from the end of the 12th century to the end of the 18th century (= Handbook of Bavarian History . Volume II ). 2nd Edition. CH Beck, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-406-32320-0 .
- Georg Spitzlberger among others: The Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut and its residence town 1392–1503 . Hornung, Riemerling 1993 (exhibition catalog).
- Reinhard Stauber: Duke Georg of Bavaria-Landshut and his imperial politics. Possibilities and limits of imperial politics in the Wittelsbach-Habsburg field of tension between 1470 and 1505 . Laßleben, Kallmünz 1993, ISBN 3-7847-3015-9 (also dissertation, University of Munich 1990).
- Reinhard Stauber among others: Lower Bavaria's rich dukes . House of Bavarian History, Augsburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-937974-25-5 .
- Walter Ziegler : The dukes of Landshut. The rich losers . In: Alois Schmid , Katharina Weigand (Hrsg.): The rulers of Bavaria. 25 historical portraits of Tassilo III. until Ludwig III. 2nd Edition. CH Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-54468-1 , p. 130-141 .