Andreas Kraus (born March 5, 1922 in Erding ; † November 15, 2012 in Greifenberg ) was a German historian . Until his retirement in 1989, Kraus held the chair for Bavarian regional history at the University of Munich . For many years he was chairman of the Commission for Bavarian State History . He mainly worked on Bavarian history and the history of science.
Live and act
Andreas Kraus came from a family of craftsmen and grew up as the oldest of four children in Erding. From 1933 to 1938 he attended high school in St. Ottilien and from 1938 to high school in Dillingen in 1941 . He was then drafted into the Wehrmacht and served in the Air Force until 1945, where he was deployed in Norway and Germany. He was briefly captured by the Soviets, from which he was able to escape by fleeing. From 1946 to 1948 Kraus studied history, classical philology and philosophy in Munich , which was followed by the scientific state examination in 1948/49 and training as a legal clerk . Between 1949 and 1955 Kraus worked at the secondary schools in St. Ottilien, Weilheim and Munich-Pasing. Parallel to his school service, he worked on his dissertation on Father Roman Zirngibl von St. Emmeram in Regensburg (1740-1816), one of Bavaria's leading scholars in the late 18th century, with whom he received his doctorate in the 1952 summer semester under Max Spindler . From the end of 1952 to 1955 he taught Latin and Greek among other things at the grammar school in Pasing . Then he received a scholarship from the Görres Society , which enabled him to stay in Rome from 1956 to 1958 to research the papal secretariat of state. There he made friends with Hermann-Joseph Busley , Ludwig Hammermayer , Heinrich Lutz , Erich Meuthen , Heribert Raab , Konrad Repgen and Hans Martin Schaller . After his return, Kraus taught again in Pasing and continued his studies in the history of science. For the 200th anniversary of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in 1959, he contributed a fundamental study of historical research at the academy. This was the first time that the research of the historical class was processed on a broad source basis in the second half of the 18th century. In 1960 he presented his work Vernunft und Geschichte , a study of the historical sciences at German academies in the 18th century, with which he completed his habilitation in Munich, once again supervised by Spindler.
In 1961, Kraus left high school and taught in the winter semester of 1961/62 as a deputy professor at the Philosophical-Theological University of Regensburg . There he was appointed extraordinary professor of history in 1962 as the successor to Ernst Klebel . In 1967 he received the chair for Bavarian national history at the newly founded University of Regensburg , where teaching began in the winter semester 1967/68. In this role he played a key role in setting up the history department in Regensburg, which was very homogeneously staffed with the Spindler students Kraus, Kurt Reindel and Dieter Albrecht as well as Heinz Angermeier, who worked on Spindler's handbook of Bavarian history . In the university political disputes since 1968, Kraus positioned himself as a conservative, was still one of the signatories of the Marburg Manifesto in 1968 and joined the Freedom of Science Association in 1970 . Kraus' involvement in university politics as well as his perception as a prominent Spindler student formed the background for the violent internal university and public disputes that flared up in Munich in 1977 over the successor to Karl Bosl at the Institute for Bavarian History . Kraus was placed first on the appointment list by the appointment committee and the faculty council, while Karl Otmar von Aretin , who had been asked to apply by Bosl , was in second place . The Senate reversed this order and voted for Aretin, but Minister of Culture Hans Maier appointed Kraus as Bosl's successor. He taught and researched at the Munich chair for Bavarian regional history until his retirement in 1989. His academic students include Egon Johannes Greipl , Ferdinand Kramer , Richard Loibl , Alois Schmid , Peter Schmid , Heinrich Wanderwitz and Walter Ziegler , who taught him at the institute for Bavarian history followed.
Kraus belonged to numerous non-university research institutions. Since 1965 he was a member of the Commission for Bavarian State History and the Commission for Contemporary History . The Academy's historiographer was appointed a full member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in 1971 . The dissertation on Zirngibl established his membership in the Bavarian Benedictine Academy since 1971. He was also a member of the Society for Research into Modern History in Bonn. When he was appointed to Munich in 1977, there were further tasks in science management: in 1979 he became a member of the Swabian Research Association and the Society for Franconian History . From 1985 to 1994 he was the second chairman of the working group of non-university research institutions in the Federal Republic of Germany . For Kraus, however, the most important membership remained that of the Commission for Bavarian State History , to which he was a member for 47 years and of which he was chairman from 1978 to 1993. Among the already established research projects, Kraus paid particular attention as chairman of the commission for the Historical Atlas of Bavaria . In addition, he founded new series of publications that placed the focus on the edition of historical sources: the materials on Bavarian regional history , the sources on the modern history of Bavaria , and the series Bavarian scholars correspondence .
Kraus' main areas of work were Bavarian history and the history of science. After his academic qualification theses and the study of historical research at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Kraus followed up with the presentation of scientific research at the academy in 1978. His most important essays on the history of science up to 1979 were published in an anthology. Kraus remained true to the subject area throughout his life, as can be seen in his late work on the Jesuit high school in Munich . During his years in Regensburg, Kraus had acquired extensive knowledge of Bavarian history, which he had to represent in his teaching. This enabled him to produce a large overall presentation of the history of Bavaria , which his teacher Max Spindler wanted to write in addition to the manual of Bavarian history “for broader circles”, but was no longer able to realize it himself. Kraus' presentation developed into a standard work, the fourth edition of which is available today (2013). After Spindler's death, Kraus took over the publication of the Handbuch der Bayerischen Geschichte and was responsible for the third edition of the third volume as well as the second edition of the second volume, to which he made contributions to late medieval and early modern history. In the revision of the fourth volume, which appeared in 2003, Kraus had taken over the epoch of Ludwig I. In addition, Kraus published on the history of Regensburg and published a biography about the Elector Maximilian I.
Kraus received the Bavarian Order of Merit in 1983 , the Federal Cross of Merit 1st Class , in 1995 the Papal Order of St. Gregorius and in 1998 the Prize of the Bavarian People's Foundation . In 2008 Kraus was honored with the silver medal of merit by the Bavarian Academy of Sciences for his fundamental works on the history of the academy. Kraus died childless in November 2012. He was buried in the cemetery in Schondorf am Ammersee next to his wife and adopted daughter. For Kraus, Schondorf was the center of life. At the end of 1948 the Kraus couple moved to Schondorf. Kraus spent many weekends and the lecture-free time there. Most of the books were written there. In 1999 he presented a study of the local history of Schondorf.
A list of publications appeared in: Konrad Ackermann (Ed.): Bayern vom Stamm zum Staat. Festschrift for Andreas Kraus on his 80th birthday (= series of publications on Bavarian regional history. Volume 140). 2 volumes. Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-10721-4 , pp. 587-600.
- History of Bavaria. 3rd expanded edition, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-51540-1 .
- (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History. CH Beck:
- Volume II: Old Bavaria. The territorial state. Munich 1988, ISBN 3-406-32320-0 .
- Volume III, 1: History of Franconia up to the end of the 18th century. Munich 1997, ISBN 3-406-39451-5 .
- Volume III, 2: History of Swabia up to the end of the 18th century. Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-39452-3 .
- Volume III, 3: History of the Upper Palatinate and the Bavarian Empire up to the end of the 18th century. Munich 1995, ISBN 3-406-39453-1 .
- Maximilian I. Bavaria's great elector. Styria et al., Graz et al. 1990, ISBN 3-222-11972-4 .
- Scientific research at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in the Age of Enlightenment. Publishing house of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Munich 1978, ISBN 3-7696-0077-0 .
- Civitas regia. The image of Regensburg in German historiography of the Middle Ages (= Regensburg historical research. Volume 3). Lassleben, Kallmünz 1972.
- The Papal State Secretariat under Urban VIII. (1623–1644) (= Roman quarterly for Christian antiquity and church history. Supplement 29 = Research on the history of the Papal State Secretariat. Volume 1). Herder, Rome et al. 1964.
- Reason and history. The importance of the German academies for the development of the historical sciences in the late 18th century. Freiburg 1963.
- Historical research at the Churbayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften 1759-1806 (= series of publications on Bavarian national history. Volume 59). Beck, Munich 1959.
- Konrad Ackermann (Ed.): Bavaria from the trunk to the state. Festschrift for Andreas Kraus on his 80th birthday (= series of publications on Bavarian regional history. Volume 140). 2 volumes. Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-10721-4 .
- Pankraz Fried , Walter Ziegler : Festschrift for Andreas Kraus for his 60th birthday. Kallmünz 1982, ISBN 3-7847-3010-8 .
- Egon Johannes Greipl: From Bavaria's History. Research as a festive gift for the 70th birthday of Andreas Kraus. St. Ottilien 1992, ISBN 3-88096-653-2 .
- Ludwig Holzfurtner : Andreas Kraus †. On the death of the regional historian. In: Akademie Aktuell 02/2013, p. 60 f. ( online )
- Alois Schmid , Ludwig Holzfurtner (Ed.): Studies on Bavarian regional historiography in the Middle Ages and modern times. Festive gift for Andreas Kraus on his 90th birthday. Munich 2012, ISBN 3-406-10724-9 .
- Alois Schmid: Andreas Kraus. Personality and work. In: Journal for Bavarian State History 76 (2013), pp. 1–39.
- Who is who? The German Who's Who. XLVII. Edition 2008/2009, p. 707.
- Walter Ziegler : Andreas Kraus March 5, 1922– November 15, 2012. In: Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Yearbook 2012, Munich 2013, pp. 161–165. ( online )
- Literature by and about Andreas Kraus in the catalog of the German National Library
- Entry by Kraus at CH Beck Verlag
- Dirk Walter: The Conservative. In: Münchner Merkur No. 265 of November 16, 2012, p. 10.
- Alois Schmid: Andreas Kraus. Personality and work. In: Journal for Bavarian State History 76 (2013), pp. 1–39, here: p. 2.
- Andreas Kraus: P. Roman Zirngibl from St. Emmeram in Regensburg. A historian of the Old Academy (1749–1816). In: Studies and communications on the history of the Benedictine order and its branches. Volume 66, 1955, pp. 61-151; Volume 67, 1956, pp. 39-203.
- Andreas Kraus: On the history of the papal state secretariat. Sources and method. In: Annual and conference report of the Görres Society 1957, pp. 5–16; Andreas Kraus: The papal state secretariat under Urban VIII. (1623–1644). Rome et al. 1964.
- Alois Schmid: Andreas Kraus. Personality and work. In: Journal for Bavarian State History 76 (2013), pp. 1–39, here: p. 4.
- Andreas Kraus: The historical research at the Churbayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften 1759-1806. Munich 1959.
- Andreas Kraus: reason and history. The importance of the German academies for the development of historical science in the late 18th century. Freiburg im Breisgau 1963.
- Alois Schmid: Andreas Kraus. Personality and work. In: Journal for Bavarian State History 76 (2013), pp. 1–39, here: pp. 7 f. with note 22.
- Alois Schmid: Andreas Kraus. Personality and work. In: Journal for Bavarian State History 76 (2013), pp. 1–39, here: p. 12 f.
- Ferdinand Kramer: The chair for Bavarian national history from 1917–1977. In: Walter Ziegler, Wilhelm Volkert (Hrsg.): In the service of Bavarian history. 70 years of the Commission for Bavarian State History, 50 years of the Institute for Bavarian History. Munich 1998, pp. 351-406, here: 401 f.
- Alois Schmid: Andreas Kraus. Personality and work. In: Journal for Bavarian State History 76 (2013), pp. 1–39, here: pp. 18 and 23–25
- Commission for Bavarian State History: Materials on Bavarian State History
- Commission for Bavarian State History: Sources for the Modern History of Bavaria
- Commission for Bavarian State History: Bavarian Scholars Correspondence
- Andreas Kraus: Scientific research at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in the Age of Enlightenment. Munich 1978.
- Andreas Kraus: Bavarian History in Three Centuries. Collected Essays. Munich 1979.
- Important about: Andreas Kraus: The image of Ludwig of Bavaria in the Bavarian historiography of the early modern period. In: Journal for Bavarian State History 60 (1997), pp. 5–69.
- Andreas Kraus: The Jesuit high school in Munich (1559–1773). State-political, social-historical, administrative-historical and cultural-historical significance. Munich 2001.
- Andreas Kraus: History of Bavaria. From the beginning to the present. Munich 1988 (foreword by Max Spindler from 1982, p. 9).
- Andreas Kraus (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History. Volume II: Old Bavaria. The territorial state. Munich 1988, here Kraus' contributions Collection of forces and upswing (1450–1508) , pp. 288–321, Bavaria in the Age of Absolutism (1651–1745). The Electors Ferdinand Maria, Max II. Emanuel and Karl Albrecht , pp. 458–532 and Bavarian Science in the Baroque Period (1579–1750) , pp. 876–918.
- Andreas Kraus: The reign of Ludwig I. (1825-1848). In: Alois Schmid (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History. Volume IV, 1. Munich 2003, pp. 127-234.
- Alois Schmid: Andreas Kraus. Personality and work. In: Zeitschrift für Bayerische Landesgeschichte 76 (2013), pp. 1–39, here: p. 39.
- Andreas Kraus: St. Martin, St. Jakob, St. Anna: History of the churches and the parish of Schondorf. In: Schondorf celebrates its churches: 850 years of St Jakob - 500 years of St. Anna. Festschrift. Schondorf 1999, pp. 19-32.
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German historian|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 5, 1922|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Erding|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 15, 2012|
|Place of death||Greifenberg|