Ludwig I. (Bavaria)

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Ludwig I, King of Bavaria, painting by Joseph Karl Stieler , 1826, depiction in the coronation regalia (with the collar of the Order of Hubert ). At the top right the motto Just and Persistent . Ludwig's signature:
Signature Ludwig I. (Bavaria) .PNG
Ludwig I of Bavaria as Crown Prince, painted by
Angelika Kauffmann in 1807

Ludwig I , born as Ludwig Karl August (born August 25, 1786 in Strasbourg , † February 29, 1868 in Nice ), was King of the Kingdom of Bavaria from the Wittelsbach family . He succeeded his father Maximilian I on the Bavarian throne after his death in 1825 and abdicated in favor of his son Maximilian II in the revolutionary year of 1848 after his affair with Lola Montez .

His wedding in 1810 to Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen established the Oktoberfest . During his reign, Bavaria turned to Greece as well as the establishment of numerous art collections and classical buildings. The first railway line in Germany from Nuremberg to Fürth, which opened in December 1835, bears his name. Like other German rulers, Ludwig I reacted to the freedom movements of the Hambach Festival in 1832 with repression and increased press censorship.

Origin and early years

Ludwig I, baptized as Ludwig Karl August, was born in Strasbourg as the son of Prince Max Joseph from the Palatinate-Birkenfeld family , later King Maximilian I Joseph, and Princess Auguste Wilhelmine Maria von Hessen-Darmstadt . His father was stationed here as the commander of a regiment and later as a colonel in the French army. His godfather was King Louis XVI. from France. He was the uncle of Princess Elisabeth in Bavaria , who later became Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary.

Ludwig's childhood and adolescence were determined by political instability ( French Revolution , coalition wars ) and flight. During the French Revolution, the family fled to Mannheim in August 1789. After the French bombarded Mannheim on Christmas Day 1794, the family fled again, first to Schwetzingen, then to Rohrbach, where Auguste Wilhelmine died of tuberculosis in 1796. Later father and son moved on to Ansbach. In 1799, after the death of the Bavarian Elector Karl Theodor , Max Joseph was his successor and Ludwig Elector Prince.

Ludwig I received the lawyer Joseph von Kirschbaum as court master between 1793 and 1804/05 , and religious education had been in the hands of the Catholic priest Joseph Anton Sambuga since 1797 . He had a close relationship with the educator Louise Weyland , who had looked after him until he was seven.

In 1803 he studied with Nikolaus Thaddäus Gönner and Johann Michael Sailer at the University of Landshut and then at the University of Göttingen . Apart from Ancient History, he mainly studied French, Italian and Spanish literature, and later he also learned the Russian language. A trip to Italy from 1804 to 1805 completed his training.

Crown Prince

With the elevation of Bavaria to a kingdom on January 1, 1806, Ludwig became the Bavarian Crown Prince.

According to the alliance and marriage contract concluded on October 1, 1799 at Gatchina Palace near St. Petersburg between the Electoral Palatinate of Bavaria and Russia , as the Bavarian Crown Prince he was to marry the daughter of Tsar Paul I , who was born in 1786 , Grand Duchess Catherine . In the following years, however, the marriage project met with decided opposition, particularly Napoleon , who at times intended to marry Katharina himself. At the Erfurt Prince Congress in 1808, the plan was finally abandoned against the will of the Crown Prince. On October 12, 1810, he married the Protestant Princess Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (prince wedding). This established the tradition of the Munich Oktoberfest . The venue is named after the Princess Theresienwiese . The heir to the throne, Maximilian, was born as the first child in 1811, and the marriage resulted in a total of nine children.

After the Crown Prince was appointed Governor General of the Inn and Salzach Districts in 1810, the couple resided in Innsbruck and at Mirabell Palace in Salzburg . In 1809, Ludwig had adopted a conciliatory attitude as commander of a partial force during the Tyrolean uprising . Therese preferred Salzburg, where her son Otto was born. After the district fell to Austria with the Treaty of Munich in 1816 , Ludwig and Therese moved into residence in Würzburg . At times they also lived at Johannisburg Castle in Aschaffenburg . The couple spent the summer in Bad Brückenau . The Crown Prince couple, who were considered attractive, often attended public appointments together. Between 1816 and 1825 he then spent his crown prince years in Würzburg, where another son was born, the future Prince Regent Luitpold . Ludwig also made numerous trips to Italy and acquired the Villa Malta in Rome .

As early as 1815 at the Congress of Vienna, Ludwig advocated a German national policy. In 1817 Ludwig played a major role in the overthrow of Minister Montgelas . When his father returned from Vienna, he presented him with a letter demanding that the minister be dismissed. The Crown Prince's request was granted on February 2, 1817. As a Philhellene, Ludwig generously supported the Greek struggle for freedom , providing a loan of 1.5 million guilders during the liberation war in 1821. Not least because of these merits, his young son Otto was later elected King of Greece by Great Britain, France and Russia at the London Conference in May 1832.


Accession to the throne

Crown thaler from 1828 Ludwig I.

After the death of his father Maximilian I Joseph on October 13, 1825, Ludwig was enthroned as King of Bavaria.

The spelling of the state name with "y", which is the only spelling used today, goes back to an order from King Ludwig of October 20, 1825, which replaced the previously mostly valid spelling "Baiern". This order of the king and his regulation of the “Greek” Y is related to his philhellenism. In order to promote the integration of the areas newly added to the Bavarian territory, he changed his title in 1837 and called himself from then on "King of Bavaria, Duke of Franconia , Duke in Swabia and Count Palatine near the Rhine ". The ducal titles and the office of the Pfalzgrafenamt are, however, revivals of medieval titles, as these dignities did not exist in modern Bavarian constitutional law or in German federal law, which only knew the "King of Bavaria". However, they all had a long tradition, and none of them had been touched by the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803. The king consciously tied to these titles and used them to legitimize his rule over all parts of the country. Ludwig's titulature is to be understood, among other things, as an expression of the king's romantic, historicizing understanding of government. During the regional reform initiated by King Ludwig I in November 1837, all state districts (as the districts were still called at that time) were renamed from river names to historical names, for example the Isar district became Upper Bavaria again. As early as 1835, Ludwig had also issued a new state coat of arms that reflected the regions of Bavaria.

Large coat of arms of the Kingdom of Bavaria from 1835

Political activity

King Ludwig I around 1830

At the beginning of his restoration policy , Ludwig pursued a moderately liberal policy based on the constitution of 1818 . One and a half months after taking office, he lifted press censorship . In 1826 he had the Ludwig Maximilians University relocated from Landshut to Munich. On his initiative, after several years of negotiations, the Süddeutsche Zollverein was formed in 1829 . In 1834 Ludwig joined the German Customs Union . However, many of his bills failed due to the resistance of the state parliament , such as his attempt to have titles of nobility only passed on to the firstborn son. Ludwig reorganized the state budget and secured the finances of the kingdom through savings in many areas, including the military budget. In order to keep a free hand in some areas, Ludwig put through a permanent civil list in 1834, a permanent position in the state budget, the resources of which he was free to use.

With the resettlement of Metten Monastery in 1830, which was followed by 75 new foundations by 1837, Ludwig, who was well-disposed towards the church as early as 1814, began his church restoration policy after the church had previously lost its influence under his father due to the harsh secularization .

Long after Salzburg had come to Austria politically from Bavaria in 1816, King Ludwig was able to secure the old forest rights of the Kingdom of Bavaria there forever; on March 18, 1829, the Saltworks Convention was agreed, in which the Austrian Emperor granted the neighboring state, in addition to a few other rights, rights to the forest. "The Saalforste belong to Bavaria for an irrevocable time", says the state treaty with Austria.

After the July Revolution of 1830 in Paris and the spread of the revolutionary movement to large parts of Europe, Ludwig's policy during the period of Vormärz increasingly showed reactionary tendencies. He reintroduced censorship and eliminated freedom of the press. The Hambach Festival in 1832 in the Palatinate at Hambach Castle near Neustadt an der Weinstrasse had its roots in the dissatisfaction of the Palatinate population with the Bavarian administration. Also on May 27, 1832, there were critical words against Ludwig's government at the Gaibach Festival on Constitutional Day. After the unrest as a result of the Hambach Festival, Carl Philipp von Wrede moved into the Bavarian Rhine district as commander-in-chief of an 8,000-strong Bavarian army corps. 142 political trials were initiated in connection with the unrest of May 1832. The king converted the seven death sentences into long prison sentences. There were around 1,000 political trials during his entire reign. Ludwig tightened censorship and provoked popular opposition.

His second son Otto became King of Greece as Otto I in 1832 . The civil administration of Greece was subsequently established under the direction of Bavarian officials. In the years that followed, up to 1837, the young Otto had to ask his father three times for large loans. These were subsequently never paid. The non-repayment of the loan burdened the Greek-Bavarian relations until the final negotiated solution in 1881.

In 1838 there was an upset with the Russian Tsar Nicholas I , who wanted his daughter Olga to be married to the Bavarian heir to the throne Maximilian. Ludwig I and the queen as well as Maximilian himself, who felt nothing for Olga after a meeting in Berlin, declined. In 1844 the tsar planned a cure in Bad Kissingen and wanted "no broadcasts" from the Bavarian court. The absent Ludwig instructed his wife to first draw up at least one "letter of compliments" signed by her for Nicholas, but rejected this plan again. Therese consulted with Ministers Gise and Abel on this matter .

Under Minister Karl von Abel , the relationship between Catholics and Protestants deteriorated. On August 14, 1838, against considerable contradiction, Ludwig wrote the " knee bend " decree that the military must again squat in front of the Holy of Holies during Corpus Christi processions and church services. This squat was common in Bavaria, which was almost entirely Catholic at the time, until 1803, but was then abolished with the incorporation of Protestant areas. In 1841 the funeral of the Protestant Queen Karoline von Baden , Ludwig's revered stepmother, turned into a scandal. The king then adopted a more lenient attitude.

In the same year he founded Ludwigshafen am Rhein, named after him, in the Rhine Palatinate . His goal of regaining the Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine with Mannheim and Heidelberg , which had been lost to Baden in 1803 , could not be achieved. Rather, after the main line in Baden died out in 1830, despite the Bavarian claims, a side line came to power in the entire Grand Duchy.

In March 1844 there was unrest after a bread price increase and a subsequent increase in the price of beer during the so-called Munich beer revolution . The summoned military refused all orders to take action against the insurgents, so that the king had to give in.

In 1847 a Council of Ministers was established in Bavaria, but King Ludwig reserved the chair for himself; in his absence the longest serving minister presided over the meetings, otherwise the minister of foreign affairs, from 1806 called Minister of the Royal House and Foreign Affairs , usually held a priority.

Lola Montez affair and abdication

"Der Engelsturtz" - excerpt from a satirical leaflet from Bavaria about the affair with Lola Montez (probably 1848)
The renunciation of the throne by Ludwig I. Handwritten draft of the “Royal Words to Bavaria”, March 20, 1848. Munich, Bavarian Main State Archives, State Council 1719

In 1846 the Irish dancer Lola Montez came to Munich and soon after an audience she became the king's lover. She received a luxurious villa on Barer Strasse in Munich, a title of nobility (Countess von Landsfeld) and financial support from Ludwig. He was only able to enforce their naturalization after the resignation of his minister Karl von Abel .

Queen Therese reacted tense to the relationship with the "Spaniard" and embarrassed diplomats by staying away from her husband in the theater and at the table, clearly visible to the public. She strictly refused to be awarded the Order of Theresa to the mistress. The king was annoyed by the queen's “coldness and speechlessness”, which also included the new ministers. Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Of Prussia and his wife Elisabeth , Ludwig's half-sister, who found his behavior "terrible", refrained from a planned trip to Bavaria in order not to have to meet the king.

Montez, who was visited by the king almost every day, enrolled in an approved fraternity . When riots broke out at the university because of her, the king ordered the university to be closed immediately on February 9, 1848. This led to protests, on the basis of which Ludwig reopened the university on February 10th and had Montez deported. The dancer left town on February 11th.

Nevertheless, on March 4, 1848, the attack on the armory followed , the crowd armed themselves with the war equipment stored there and headed for the residence. Prince Karl , brother of the king and field marshal general of the Bavarian army, ensured calm by his appearance and it came to a peaceful dissolution after free beer was served. Thereupon his family and the conservative circles opposed Ludwig. The ministers sympathized with the people. On March 6, King Ludwig had to sign the so-called March Proclamation (which had been dictated to him by his Minister Oettingen-Wallerstein as a reaction to the riots and demonstrations) with considerable concessions. In this proclamation he declared that he would immediately convene the assembly of estates and initiate reforms, and on the same day the army was sworn in to the constitution. Ludwig appointed the mayor of Regensburg Gottlieb von Thon-Dittmer as administrator of the interior ministry with the task of forming a March ministry and implementing the royal concessions contained in the proclamation in cooperation with the state parliament.

In Nuremberg and elsewhere, the citizens gathered to celebrate the reform announcement with jubilation. The crisis seemed to have been resolved, because after the concessions of March 6th, public opinion was once again behind their monarch. Ludwig I did not fall as a result of the revolution like Prince Metternich or Louis Philippe in France . On March 16, 1848, there was renewed unrest because Montez had come back to Munich after his exile. Ludwig had to have the police searched for her on March 17th, which was the worst humiliation for him. On March 20, 1848 , Ludwig I voluntarily abdicated in favor of his first-born son Maximilian II. Not wanting to give the impression that he was forced to resign, he wrote a few weeks later:

“I could no longer rule and I did not want to sign. Not to become a slave, I became a baron. "

It was up to Ludwig's successor to counter the revolutionary mood in Bavaria and to grant the promised reforms. With the March proclamation, the father tied his son to a program, with the implementation of which he made Bavaria a constitutional monarchy in the true sense of the word. Ludwig I is therefore referred to as the last sovereign monarch in Bavaria.


Ludwig I., photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl , ca.1860

Under King Ludwig I, Munich became a widely recognized city of art and new buildings. Ludwig began his work as a builder as the Crown Prince and remained active as a builder after his abdication in 1848. Karl von Fischer and Gustav Vorherr , who were favored as architects by Ludwig's father Maximilian I , were sidelined as early as the time of Ludwig as Crown Prince. As early as 1815 he appointed Leo von Klenze and later Friedrich von Gärtner to his most important master builders, who received his first orders in 1827 shortly after Ludwig was enthroned in 1827. It was then also Gärtner who, from 1834, directed the radical purification and regotization of Regensburg Cathedral initiated by Ludwig .

Ludwig I was - fully committed to the zeitgeist of classicism and neo-humanism - an ardent admirer of ancient Greece ( philhellenism ). This was evident in the structural redesign of Munich, where he had many important and impressive buildings erected, including Ludwigstrasse with the university, which was moved from Landshut to Munich. Other buildings were the Ludwigskirche , the Feldherrnhalle , the Siegestor , the State Library , the Königsplatz with the Glyptothek , the Propylaea , the Antikensammlung , the Alte Pinakothek , the Ruhmeshalle and the Bavaria statue on the Theresienwiese . The king had to push through some construction projects in Munich against fierce resistance in the city, he even threatened the city council at times with moving the residence from Munich to Bamberg. Among other things, the city fathers wanted to push through a shortening of Ludwigstrasse, since in their opinion Munich would not grow up to 1 km beyond the city wall at that time in 100 years. In 1828 the dispute between the heavily indebted city and the king over the construction of the Ludwig Church had escalated even further.

Ludwig was also active as a client for landscaping. He had the Walhalla and the Liberation Hall built on two ridges on the Danube at Donaustauf and at Kelheim , about 30 km apart . Halfway between these two structures, the construction of the two towers of the Regensburg Cathedral was completed with his support in Regensburg. The towers also functioned as landmarks and landmarks of the city and are easily recognizable from the Walhalla. Subsequently, the city of Regensburg had the king put an equestrian statue on Domplatz in 1902 as a thank you for these building measures . The memorial was moved to another location during the National Socialist era, but has been at the old location since 2010.

Ludwig was also the builder of the Pompejanum in Aschaffenburg. He also worked not only in Bavaria on the right bank of the Rhine, but also in the Palatinate , which had belonged to Bavaria since 1816. He had the classicist Villa Ludwigshöhe in Edenkoben and the Germersheim Fortress built. The Speyer Cathedral was purified under Ludwig in the original Romanesque style.

The largest and most expensive construction project in Ludwig's reign was the rebuilding of the Ingolstadt state fortress . Ludwig had a decisive influence on the choice of Ingolstadt as the location for the fortress and laid the foundation stone "in person" on August 24, 1828. On behalf of King Leo von Klenze, the aesthetics of the fortress buildings was ensured .

Ludwig's interest in the subject of monument protection is evident from his decree of 1826, which was valid for the entire Kingdom of Bavaria. For cities such as B. Regensburg , this decree delayed the demolition of the medieval city ​​fortifications by about 50 years. For Dinkelsbühl , the decree completely prevented the demolition of the medieval city wall with its gates and towers and in this way contributed significantly to the current appearance of the old town. In Munich, too, Ludwig prevented the demolition of the Gothic city gates and so as not to upset the king, further destruction such as B. at the medieval town hall in Straubing .

Patron of the arts

Johann von Schraudolph , Stoning of Stephen, destroyed fresco in Speyer Cathedral ; left in the green cloak, King Ludwig I as Saul.

According to Ludwig's own statement, his artistic awakening took place during his trip to Italy in 1805 in front of the lifting sculpture by the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova in Venice. The sculptor's Venus, acquired by Max I, and the sculptor's Paris, acquired by Ludwig, were placed together with numerous ancient sculptures in the Glyptothek founded by Ludwig. From 1809 Ludwig's private collection of paintings was created, which would later form the basis for the Neue Pinakothek . Artistically he later promoted the Nazarenes , who impressed him as early as 1818 during a visit to Rome with their planned renewal of art. King Ludwig had the Speyer Cathedral painted by the Nazarene painter Johann von Schraudolph between 1846 and 1853 . He depicted him as Saul on the large fresco there The Stoning of Stephen .

As early as 1819, he ensured that Peter von Cornelius was appointed to the Munich Art Academy . The commitment of the king had a style-forming effect on the Munich school .

Ludwig's predecessor, the Bavarian Elector Max Emanuel, served as a model in terms of art and construction . Ludwig had twelve paintings on the Napoleonic Wars by Wilhelm von Kobell based on the model of Franz Joachim Beich's cycle of battles in the Viktoriensaal of Schleißheim Palace , which Max Emanuel had commissioned at Beich. In addition to Beich's cycle of castles in Nymphenburg Palace , he was particularly inspired by Pierre Gobert's gallery of beauties . Ludwig continued this and other collections of the genre in his gallery of beauties , which he had created by Joseph Karl Stieler between 1827 and 1850 .

In gratitude for his support for the arts, Ludwig I was presented with the King Ludwig Album after his abdication during the celebrations at the unveiling of the Bavaria on October 9, 1850. It contains works by numerous artists that were widely used in reproductions.

Promoter of the economy

The economy and society of Bavaria remained dominated by agriculture throughout the 19th century. The emigration to North America increased especially in Franconia and the Palatinate. Around 1840 the rural population still had a share of over 65 percent. The industry was limited to the centers of Augsburg and Nuremberg, Upper Franconia and the Rhine Palatinate. Ludwig himself had great reservations about the industrialization of the country. The focus of Ludwig's economic policy was therefore on security and protection measures for the domestic economy. During the time of Ludwig, regional and national exhibitions for handicrafts, agriculture and industry became common for the first time.

The king also promoted railway construction in Bavaria, which began under Ludwig's rule. The first German railway for passenger traffic between Nuremberg and Fürth , the Ludwigseisenbahn (1835), and the railway between Bexbach and Ludwigshafen am Rhein, the Palatinate Ludwigsbahn , were named after him. Ludwig had the Hof – Nuremberg – Augsburg – Kempten – Lindau ( Ludwig-Süd-Nord-Bahn ) line built from 1843 to 1854 .

He also initiated the Ludwig-Danube-Main Canal , a connection between the North Sea and the Black Sea , the predecessor of today's Main-Danube Canal .

1836 Friedrich started by gardeners and Joseph Daniel Ohlmüller commissioned Ludwig I with the construction of the Old Saline in Bad Reichenhall . The facilities, completed in 1851, are now considered to be an industrial monument of European importance.

In 1843, as a counterpoint to the city ​​of Mannheim, which had become Baden , was built in honor of King Ludwig I. Ludwigshafen as the new Bavarian Rhine port. On July 18, 1855, construction of the velvet factory began on the site of the former gardens of the Oggersheim Palace . A year later, the abdicated king, namesake of Ludwigshafen and the owner of the property, laid a cornerstone for the new factory with his sister, the Austrian imperial widow Karoline Auguste, and his daughters Mathilde and Alexandra.

Private life

In his private life, Ludwig was, despite his royal assertiveness, modest and sociable and was even known for his often shabby clothes because of his economical private court. The queen also suffered from the greed of her husband, who on the other hand appeared publicly as a great patron and princely spoiled his mistresses. Besides Lola Montez, Ludwig had numerous other extramarital affairs and was one of the lovers of Lady Jane Digby , an aristocratic English adventurer. Another affair was the Italian noblewoman Marianna Marquesa Florenzi .

The encounter with Franz Xaver Krenkl in the English Garden and Ludwig's calm reaction became a well-known anecdote.

Ludwig was hard of hearing from birth and had a birthmark on his forehead, which was often hidden in portraits. Ludwig was also prone to quick anger and occasionally stuttered. Ludwig had a penchant for eccentricity, an expression of this was also his poetry, for which the king was even teased by Heinrich Heine . After Ludwig had not awarded him the professorship, which had already been believed to be secure, Heine later presented the monarch with a whole series of mocking verses, for example in hymns of praise to King Ludwig :

“This is Mr. Ludwig von Bayerland.
Likewise there is little;
The Bavarians revered in him
the ancestral king. "

- New poems

Ironically, Ludwig's Walhalla Temple finally added Heine's bust to its collection in 2009.

Ludwig as a poet

Goethe's arrival in the Elysium
(from the King Ludwig album)

The king wrote numerous poems and visited Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Weimar on August 28, 1827 in order to present him with the Order of Merit of the Bavarian Crown on his 78th birthday . Ludwig I was also enthusiastic about medieval literature and its artistic implementation. That is why he visited the Runkelstein Castle near Bozen in 1833 .

Ludwig's poems appeared in four volumes between 1829 and 1847. He also published in 1843 for the opening of the Hall of Fame Valhalla's Comrades and in 1866 the much-performed comedy recipe against mothers-in-law . He translated the latter from the Spanish by Don Manuel Juan Diana , as Johannes Fastenrath did later. He also wrote the three historical plays Otto , Teutschlands Errettung and Conradin between 1808 and 1820 , none of which were intended for a performance.

Late years and death

Ludwig lived as a private citizen for 20 years after his abdication and continued to promote the arts from private funds. The relationship with his successor was not free from tensions, especially since Ludwig did not give up his building program entirely.

His retirement home was the Wittelsbacher Palais , which he did not love . From 1852 Ludwig stayed at Villa Ludwigshöhe every two years in the summer months of July and August , where he also celebrated his birthday. His last visit to the villa was in 1866.

In 1854 his wife Therese died of cholera. Ludwig did not attend the funeral of his evangelical wife; Archbishop Karl August von Reisach had refused to hold the funeral ceremonies. The way the Catholic Church dealt with the burial of a Protestant queen had already ended in scandal with Queen Caroline , to which Ludwig probably did not want to expose himself again.

In 1867 he visited the Paris World Exhibition with his grandson, King Ludwig II . Ludwig I died on February 29, 1868 at the age of 81 in Nice in a villa that he had rented for the winter. According to his wishes, he is buried in the Basilica of St. Boniface in Munich. His heart was buried separately and is located in the Chapel of Grace in Altötting .

Grave of Ludwig I.

By the death of his grandfather, the young King Ludwig II could. Whose prerogative withheld, causing him extensive financial resources were available.


Ludwig's monument in the
Walhalla that he built

King Ludwig married Princess Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (1792-1854), daughter of Duke Friedrich (since 1826 Sachsen-Altenburg) and his wife Princess Charlotte von Mecklenburg-Strelitz in Munich on October 12, 1810 . The marriage had nine children:

The marriage to Therese didn't stop Ludwig from raving about other women. In 1821 he met Marianna Marchesa Florenzi (1802–1870) in Rome. It is possible that their son Ludovico († 1896), whose father Marianna's husband Ettore Marchese Florenzi appeared, was an extramarital offspring of the Wittelsbach family. Marianna and Ludwig met at least 30 times, she wrote him about 3,000 letters, about 1,500 letters have been received from him to her.

In 1831 Jane Digby was the king's mistress. She married Karl Theodor von Venningen, known as Ullner von Dieburg, in Munich in 1833 . Before the wedding, son Heribert Ludwig von Venningen, called Ullner von Diepurg (1833–1885), was born, who continued the current main line of the Lords of Venningen . For him, too, Ludwig I comes into consideration as a father.


Christian III of Pfalz-Zweibrücken (1674–1735)
Friedrich Michael of Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler (1724–1767)
Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken (1704–1774)
Maximilian I Joseph King of Bavaria (1756–1825)
Joseph Karl von Pfalz-Sulzbach (1694–1729)
Maria Franziska von Pfalz-Sulzbach (1724–1794)
Elisabeth Auguste Sofie of the Palatinate (1693–1728)
Ludwig I. King of Bavaria (1786–1868)
Ludwig VIII Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1691–1768)
Georg Wilhelm of Hessen-Darmstadt (1722–1782)
Charlotte von Hanau-Lichtenberg (1700–1726)
Auguste Wilhelmine of Hessen-Darmstadt (1765–1796)
Christian von Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg (1695–1766)
Luise zu Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg (1729-1818)
Katharina Polyxena von Solms-Rödelheim (1702–1765)


Web links

Commons : Ludwig I. von Bayern  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Ludwig I of Bavaria  - sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Putz, Hannelore: The passion of the king: Ludwig I and art . Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-67016-9 , pp. 24-32 .
  2. ^ Albrecht Liess: The marriage project of Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria with the Russian Emperor's daughter Katharina in the conflict between the great powers 1799-1808. In: Archival Journal. Vol. 88/2006 (Festschrift Hermann Rumschöttel on the 65th birthday) Böhlau Verlag, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2006, pp. 525–555 and Albrecht Liess: Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria and Napoleon / Le prince héritier Louis de Bavière et Napoléon. In: Bavaria and France: Paths and Encounters. 1000 years of Bavarian-French relations / France-Baviere: allers et retours. 1000 ans de relations franco-bavaroises. ed. by the State Archives of Bavaria and France in cooperation with the Montgelas Society for the Promotion of Bavarian-French Relations. Conception and editing: Gerhard Hetzer, Ariane James-Sarazin, Albrecht Liess (= exhibition catalogs of the State Archives of Bavaria . Vol. 47). Munich / Paris 2006, ISBN 3-921635-99-3 , pp. 203-210 and Biro éditeur, ISBN 2-35119-008-4 . (
  3. The Grand Duchy of Würzburg fell to Bavaria in 1814
  4. a b Ludwig I. (Bavaria) . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 10, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 964.
  5. "The tradition would correspond to the title" Duke of Bavaria, Franconia and Swabia, Count Palatine near the Rhine "" (Norbert Lewandowski: The family who invented Bavaria: The Wittelsbach House: Stories, Traditions, Fates, Scandals. Stiebner Verlag, 2014 , P. 17); Ingolstadt weekly paper. Vol. 39, 1840, p. 409 ( limited preview in Google book search); Ludwig von Gottes…: Our greetings before… limited preview in the Google book search
  6. Ludwig I / Builder of the Liberation Hall, accessed on March 20, 2018.
  7. Wolfgang Weiss : The Catholic Church in the 19th Century. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 430–449 and 1303, here: p. 430.
  8. ^ Wolf Seidl: Bavaria in Greece. 2nd Edition. Süddeutscher Verlag, 1970, p. 131.
  9. Bavarian Bibliography 1963, p. 339ff.
  10. Martha Schad: Bavaria's queens. Piper 2005, p. 133 f.
  11. Martha Schad: Bavaria's queens. Piper 2005, p. 155.
  12. von Maurer and zu Rhein - "Ministry of Dawn"
  13. a b Martha Schad: Bavaria's queens. Piper 2005, p. 157.
  14. ^ The German Revolution of 1848/49 House of Bavarian History, accessed on March 20, 2018.
  15. Eugen Trapp: Domplatz, The return of the king . In: City of Regensburg, Office for Archives and Preservation of Monuments (Ed.): Preservation of monuments in Regensburg . tape 12 . Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-7917-2371-6 , pp. 130-148 .
  16. ^ Christian M. Geyer: The sense of art - Canova's sculptures for Munich. Gebr. Mann, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-7861-2633-1 , p. 13ff.
  17. Ulrike von Hase-Schmundt: Joseph Stieler: 1781-1858. His life and work. Crit. Directory d. Works . Prestel, Munich 1971, ISBN 3-7913-0340-6 , p. 91 f.
  18. ^ House of Bavarian History (HdbG - Population, Economy and Technology in the Time of Ludwig I.)
  20. The complicated character of Ludwig I.
  21. From: Appendix to New Poems. quoted from: DHA, Volume 2, p. 142.
  22. ^ The longing of a King Ludwig I of Bavaria on ( Memento from September 25, 2003 in the Internet Archive )
  23. Martha Schad: Bavaria's queens. Piper 2005, p. 170.
predecessor Office successor
Maximilian I. Kingdom of BavariaKingdom of Bavaria King of Bavaria
Maximilian II