The royally privileged Ludwigs-Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft , based in Nuremberg , received the royal Bavarian concession to build a railway from Nuremberg to Fürth on February 19, 1834 ; the opening voyage took place on December 7, 1835; this was the first locomotive-operated railroad in Germany and heralded the age of the railways.
The first news from England about the planning of railways caused a sensation in Germany . This news was also noticed in Bavaria , where the road between the important Franconian trading cities of Nuremberg and Fürth was the most frequented road connection in the kingdom. This also applied to the publications by Friedrich List on an all-German railway system and by Joseph von Baader , whom the Bavarian king had sent to England to study. After a discussion of this topic in the Bavarian state parliament , the Bavarian king allowed the construction of a test railway in the Nymphenburg palace gardens according to the Baader system in 1825 . When his 1828 request to the Franconian merchants to start building a railway line did not provoke any activity, King Ludwig I decided on his favorite project, the construction of a canal between the Danube and the Main .
After the railway system in England ( Stockton and Darlington Railway from 1825) had already proven itself in the first few years, the Franconian merchants decided to build a railway line along the Nuremberg-Fürther Chaussee. To this end, on May 14, 1833, they sent an invitation to establish a company for the construction of a steam-powered railway between Nuremberg and Fürth to befriended business houses or it was published in large daily newspapers, from which the railway company emerged. After the calls, the shares were issued by the trading house Platner. Within six months, the two main initiators of Nuremberg, the businessman and market manager Georg Zacharias Platner and the head of the Polytechnic (forerunner of today's Technical University of Nuremberg ) Johannes Scharrer , received the subscription of the estimated share capital of 132,000 guilders . The announced return of 12⅔% on the capital was often questioned. The company was able to pay a dividend of 20% in 1836 . The lawyer, district judge, non-fiction author, writer and shareholder Michael Ludwig Wellmer , who was a member of the board of directors until 1835, was commissioned to draw up a first draft of the statutes of the new company .
On November 18, 1833, 76 shareholders of the share capital (out of a total of 207 shareholders who subscribed to shares amounting to 132,000 guilders) appeared in the upper hall of the Nuremberg town hall and declared the Ludwig Railway Company in Nuremberg to be founded. The Ludwigseisenbahn-Gesellschaft (LEG) asked the royal family for a privilege to operate their railway line. They were not limited to the Nuremberg-Fürth route, but “possibly” included the whole kingdom, and a “permanent use of the same with the exclusion of third parties” was applied for. LEG saw the 6-kilometer-long railway line not only as a German test route, it was assumed that the rail line would be extended to the Danube and Main in the future. However, King Ludwig I did not approve this, and he also limited the privilege to 30 years (50 had been applied for) and then granted the privilege on Feb. 19, 1834. From now on the company was called Königl. privileged Ludwigs-Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft in Nuremberg .
Platner was looking for a technician for railway construction based on the model of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway . Originally, his partner Scharrer wanted to send a German technician to England to study English railways in 1833 . For cost reasons, contact was made with Robert Stephenson's company via the trading house Suse und Libeth in London . However, he demanded an annual salary of 600 pounds sterling (at that time about 7,200 guilders) for his employee . In addition, the travel expenses and expenses for an interpreter would have been around 2,400 guilders. Platner was a member of the state parliament in Munich in 1834 and met Paul Camille von Denis , the royal district engineer for water and road construction , who had familiarized himself with the latest achievements of the railroad while traveling through North America and England .
Because of his preference for the construction of the Ludwig-Danube-Main Canal from the Main to the Danube, King Ludwig was reluctant to support the construction of the railway. He allowed the railway to be named and authorized his government to buy the symbolic number of two shares for the state. Of great importance for the railway construction, however, was that the later builder of the Taunus Railway, Paul Camille von Denis, was released from the king for the construction of the railway . During construction, he took over the English gauge of 1435 mm for the almost dead straight, 6.04 km long, single-track line next to Fürther Straße from Nürnberger Plärrer to Fürth.
Difficulties in opening a business
Originally, the king's name day, August 25th, was considered for the opening, but at this point the land acquisition was not even fully completed. Later the opening had to be postponed several times for various other reasons.
A quick agreement was possible with the majority of the approximately 90 owners of the required properties. However, some purchase negotiations dragged on from March 1834 to September 1835. One property owner, the widow Sperr, who was finally able to negotiate a completely exorbitant price for her property in Nuremberg Castle, was particularly persistent. It was the same with an owner in Fürth, who sold “one and a half acres of bad land” for 1000 gulden .
At the end of September, weeks later than planned, packed in 19 boxes and dismantled into over 100 individual parts, the steam car was shipped to Rotterdam. The circumstances of this transport to Nuremberg provided conclusive evidence of how urgently Europe needed a modern transport system: the 1,500 kilometer journey from Newcastle in England to Nuremberg, first by sailing ship, then by barge and finally on carts, took almost nine weeks.
Different units of measurement were used in Nuremberg, Bavaria and England . The Bavarian foot and the English foot were different. The gauge was set to that of the Stockton and Darlington Railway , as Stephenson insisted on the measure of 4 English feet and 8.5 inches (1435 mm). The tracks already laid in Nuremberg were 5/8 inches too narrow. The distance between the rails had to be adjusted accordingly.
When the steam car arrived on site on October 26, 1835, work on the Ludwig Railway was considerably behind schedule. The first test drives with the cars produced by domestic companies (the first of which had been operational since the end of August) had already taken place on a section of the route, but the entire route was not yet finished. For example, the brakes had to be tested: on October 21st, 23 passengers drove in a horse-drawn railroad car to find out whether the brake designed by Paul Denis was working as desired. The steam car also had to be assembled and tried out, which could be done from November 16. More journeys followed three days later, this time with five fully occupied cars. The train drove to the neighboring city of Fürth in 12 to 13 minutes. Brake tests were then carried out on the return journey. From then on, test drives took place almost every day, which caused a large number of visitors. For 36 cruisers, anyone (who wanted or could afford it) could take the train once. The proceeds went to the poor fund of both cities. The rush and curiosity were so enormous that the people resisted the orders of the police authorities because they wanted to see everything up close. This in turn hindered the completion of the railway construction, which meant that engineer Denis had a hard time. Another problem arose in the eagle's lighting: Here too, attempts had to be made to determine which material was best suited. The first attempts at heating only with wood were soon ruled out, as the clothes of some passengers were scorched by flying sparks during the test drives. Initially, more expensive Saxon coal was used, but even after it opened, experiments were carried out with different types of coal. William Wilson could not give any indication of the best possible way of lighting. For reasons of cost, it was finally decided to use a mixture of coke, hard coal and hard wood. On its three double trips a day, the eagle devoured an average of 509 pounds of mixed coal and 246 pounds of wood.
Another opening date was set on November 24th, but it could not be kept and so the opening finally fell in December 1835. At this time, King Ludwig I was on a trip to Greece to see his son Otto . A proper schedule in the royal house was therefore not possible and the king was absent from the celebration.
On the opening day in December 1835 there was an enormous influx of people who waited in the tents, stalls and pavilions built especially for this purpose or along the whole road, the “ Fürther Chaussee ” of the new theater. The localities of the railroad were richly decorated with the national colors of Bavaria and blue and white flags fluttered and waved on all wagons. On December 7, 1835, the privately-owned, royal privileged Ludwigs-Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft was able to open the first German railway line with the regular use of steam power for passenger transport in front of a large audience: at 9 o'clock a cannon shot rang out at Nuremberg's Ludwigsbahnhof and the train left.
At the beginning of the festivities, everyone had gathered at 8 a.m., the Kgl's Landwehr music was playing. Landwehr regiment of the city of Nuremberg. A fenced-in area of the train station in Nuremberg was specially marked out: the invited representatives of the local authorities and other guests were gathered on a stage. The regional president of the Rezatkreis (Middle Franconia) Joseph von Stichaner had come from Ansbach as the highest representative of the state . The gentlemen shareholders, the royal military and civil authorities, then the city authorities were invited and took their seats partly on the erected stands and partly in the courtyard of the social premises. Mayor Binder climbed the dais and gave the ceremonial speech in which he appropriately pointed out the importance of the company if this railway were to be regarded as the beginning and center of a railway system that could one day extend across Bavaria, even across Germany. The very simple memorial stone, made according to a Heideloff drawing, with the inscription "Germany's first steam-powered railway 1835" on one side and King Ludwig I's name on the other, was unveiled and then Sr. Majesty gave the king a cheer . Then you got on the train. At 9 o'clock a cannon shot rang out and William Wilson set the procession in motion to music and gunfire. The “eagle” brought around 200 invited guests to Fürth in its nine wagons decorated with flags. There the train was received by royal and municipal authorities. The company went to the Crown Prince's inn of Prussia and had breakfast. The return journey to Nuremberg took place at 10 a.m. The festivities with the invited guests continued in the afternoon with a gala dinner in the hall of the Museum Society in Nuremberg. Master bookbinder Schnerr recited a celebratory poem after the meal, after which the opening ceremony ended. The Ludwigseisenbahn-Gesellschaft received numerous letters of congratulations from noble houses, including from Consul David Bartels from Cologne, who was involved in the project from the start. This shows the great attention that was paid to the project.
The train for the premiere journey consisted of three first-class passenger cars, four second-class cars and two third-class cars. The steam wagon driver, Mr. William Wilson, was particularly festive on that day in a tailcoat and wore a top hat on his head, his stoker on this trip was Johann Georg Hieronymus from Nuremberg. The trip was repeated twice that day at 11 a.m. and 1 p.m. The fourth trip of the day, a free trip for the general public, left the Nuremberg Ludwigsbahnhof at 2 p.m.
The Adler steam locomotive and its driver , engineer William Wilson , had been sent from Newcastle by Stephenson . The rails made of rolled wrought iron , which are only 15 feet long , were supplied by Remy & Co. (now Rasselstein ) near Neuwied ; the wagons were built by local wagon builders .
The Ludwigseisenbahn-Gesellschaft was the first railway in Germany designed for passenger transport that regularly used a steam locomotive. The narrow-gauge Prince Wilhelm Railway , which opened on September 20, 1831 between the Hinsbeck an der Ruhr and nine yard , was a private horse-drawn coal railway that was not perceived by the public in the same way as the steam-powered, passenger- carrying standard-gauge Ludwig Railway .
From December 8th, the railway started its regular and scheduled operation.
However, King Ludwig I did not have time until August of the following year to look at the built railway that bore his name. On August 16, 1836, he visited the nymph Noris and on the following morning also Germany's first railway line. Gates of honor were built in front of the Ludwigsbahnhöfe in his honor, designed by Professor Heideloff from Nuremberg. After the usual poetry, music and dignitaries' presentations had ended, the king drove in the decorated train at normal speed from the Plärrer to Fürth. On the way he got information about the canal construction at the so-called “ Fürth Crossing ”. After the usual ceremonies of honor had also been completed in Fürth, at the express request of the regent, the return journey took place as a high-speed journey . The Adler train reached its departure station in Nuremberg in just three carriages in 5¾ minutes. Engine driver William Wilson probably had to increase the steam pressure by 1 to 2 bar in order to reach the speed of approx. 60 km / h. The engine drivers were not squeamish about it at the time. Ludwig I also expressed the wish to see the train pass by at a rapid pace. From a vantage point, he watched the train, filled with cheering passengers, drive past him at a rapid pace.
The construction, estimated at 132,000 guilders, actually cost 170,000 guilders. Due to the lack of experience in railway construction and the expropriation laws that were not in place at the time, this price increase occurred. Bavaria reacted and, after Baden (1835), passed its own expropriation laws in 1837.
From December 8, 1835, a horse-drawn train ran every hour from Nuremberg to Fürth and back. Only at 1 p.m. and 2 p.m. did the eagle pull the train every day . The high price of consisting Saxony introduced coal , yet initially by wagon , prevented in the first years of frequent use of the eagle. Since the acquisition of further locomotives, only the early and late trains have been operated with horses as draft animals . It was not until 1862 that the horse business (they were only used for maneuvering in Doos (city limits)) was given up and the last three horses were sold, among other things for maintenance (running surface for the horses ), but also for reasons of speed (braking factor horses) .
The reason for the initial use of the horses was the high price of coal, the desire was also to protect the sinfully expensive locomotive and - perhaps the most important reason: the locomotive took two hours to heat up. The horse trains consisted of either one horse and two carriages or two horses harnessed one behind the other with four to five carriages. With the horse-drawn train, however, the passengers were en route for around 24 minutes.
From the beginning, the railway was a complete success: on the one hand because of the time savings and on the other hand because the fares were 12 cruisers for the 1st class, 9 cruisers for the 2nd class and 6 cruisers for the III. Class by Scharrer were cleverly calculated. The first class was just as expensive as the much slower Fiaker ride and the III. Class so cheap that almost everyone could afford it. In addition, the locomotive itself initially attracted a lot of curious passengers, just like train driver William Wilson: the long Englishman soon became a real attraction. In 1835/36 449,399 passengers were carried by 2,364 steam and 6,100 horse rides and 37,381 guilders were earned as a surplus, in 1836/37 there were 467,304 people - about twice as many as expected. The shareholders in particular were delighted with this huge response, as they received an even higher return (20 percent) than the 12 percent promised. In 1836 the arrow was purchased as a reserve machine, also supplied by Robert Stephenson & Co. under the serial number 148, it was sold in 1853. Whether the two steam wagons were marked with nameplates "ADLER", "PFEIL" or "DER ADLER", "DER PFEIL" or with symbols cannot be clearly clarified or proven at the moment, as there are various references to this in the literature Find topic. Locomotives in Bavaria had names until 1891.
"The sixth report on the Nürnberg-Fürther-Eisenbahn provides the gratifying proof that this company continuously exceeds even the wildest expectations."
Synchronization of clocks
The time now also played a role, since Fürth had a different local time than Nuremberg. This became a problem for the first time with the railroad, because the exact departure time was now important. When it was discovered that the clock of the Catholic Church in Fürth was wrong , there was great outrage. The trips weren't on time. The magistrate therefore issued instructions to set the church clock after the railway clock.
The Ludwigsbahn was conceived and laid out for passenger traffic from the start. This is why there were no freight wagons in the stock in the first few years (the highest stock of freight wagons was 10 of 44 passenger wagons). The railway company's statutes of 1836, however, explicitly listed the transportation of goods as one of its purposes. However, those responsible still rejected the first request for goods transport from a Nuremberg merchant in May 1836.
For the first time on June 11, 1836 there was an initially one-time freight transport (two barrels of beer unspectacularly in third class). Director Scharrer wrote to Bierbrauer Lederer : “The brewer Herr Lederer is allowed to send two kegs of beer to the innkeeper at the railway with the first car going to Fürth in return for payment of six kreuzers per keg for transport wages, on the condition that each Time to be removed by the host immediately upon arrival of the car. The director's commissioner Dr. Löhner is therefore instructed to see to it that this small beginning of the transport of goods takes place in due order, in order to be able to expand it later on into greater dimensions. Since there are not many people being transported to Fürth anyway, it will be all the easier to carry out this. "
For the time being, “regular” freight traffic did not arise. The Ludwigseisenbahn took some copies of the "Correspondents from and for Germany" to Fürth in the following years (in exchange for two free copies), but it was not until October 1837 and May 1838 that a planned freight transport was discussed.
In August 1839, two butchers from Fürth came and asked for weekly cattle transports; now they agreed to carry out this. From then on, after the conversion of two discarded passenger cars, regular freight traffic began. The majority of the profits, however, came from the third class, which was always fully occupied. The profit situation shows how brisk use of the railway was in the first decades: until 1855 dividends below 12% were never paid. Another expansion of the route, u. a. to Würzburg , the society was denied by the state.
In 1844 the Fürther Kreuzung was built , a railway junction at the intersection of the Ludwigseisenbahn with the state-built Ludwig-Süd-Nord-Bahn . It was the first transfer station between two railways in southern Germany. The opening of the "Fürth Crossing" took place on October 15, 1844.
Passengers between Fürth and the Nuremberg Central Station of the state railway had to change between the passenger trains of the two railways. Since the Ludwigseisenbahn had the privilege of transporting passengers between the two cities until 1865, it was not possible to run direct trains. Freight wagons, on the other hand, could be transferred directly between the state railroad and the Ludwigseisenbahn via a connecting track. For this purpose, the locomotive shed in Fürth for shunting locomotives, which still exists today, was built near the Fürth intersection around 1860 . The heavy weight of the freight wagons made it necessary to reinforce the superstructure.
Gas works connection
Not far from the Nuremberg terminus at Plärrer, a gas factory was opened in 1852 , which had its own siding. It initially received around 400 wagonloads of coal per year via the tracks of the Ludwigsbahn; in 1855 there were already over 7,000 freight wagons. In 1904 the gasworks moved to another location.
With the construction of the Nuremberg-Fürth horse tram along the Ludwigsbahn, however, there was noticeable competition, especially when it was electrified in 1896. The expansion of the Ludwigsbahn to two tracks from 1893 onwards didn't help. Usage, and thus the yield, were now falling steadily.
The Ludwigseisenbahn ceased operations on October 31, 1922 due to inflation . After it became clear that operations would no longer be started, the remaining rolling stock was disposed of on June 5, 1925, the equipment was sold and the tracks demolished. The Nuremberg scrap iron dealer Hermann Hirschmann bought the remaining rolling stock and had it brought to the iron recycling company at Dutzendteich . Therefore a train with everything was put together, which was pulled by the poorly repaired LEG locomotive “Bavaria”. It consisted of three cold locomotives, 22 passenger cars and 2 baggage cars. On one of the locomotives was written in chalk: “The First Railway's Last Run”.
The old station building in Fürth was demolished in 1938, the one in Nuremberg in 1951 because of the road construction in front of the new Plärrer high-rise . The properties of the former route were leased to the Nuremberg-Fürth tram for the construction of an express tram line and sold on July 1, 1964 to the cities of Nuremberg and Fürth. The Ludwigseisenbahn AG was dissolved in 1967 by decision of the head office. The city of Fürth held more than 50% of the remaining share capital of 400,000 marks, while the city of Nuremberg held around 25% of the shares. On August 18, 1967, the Süddeutsche Zeitung noted in its edition: “With the dry resolution to dissolve the company, a chapter of German railway history is over.” In the early 1970s, Ludwigseisenbahn AG was finally deleted from the commercial register.
The route led from the train station in the immediate vicinity of the Plärrer in Nuremberg via today's Fürther Straße over the city limits to Fürth and followed the avenue currently known as the Hornschuchpromenade to the Ludwigsbahnhof on Fürther Freiheit. The Nuremberg Ludwigsbahnhof as the starting point of the route was at the beginning of the “ Fürther Straße ” to the Spittlertor and not in the “Südliche Fürther Straße”. The Nürnberg-Muggenhof, established in 1862, and the Nürnberg-West and Fürth-Ost stops, opened in 1895, were located at the level of today's Muggenhof , Maximilianstraße and Jakobinenstraße underground stations . The Fürther Kreuzung stop, built in 1844, was the first transfer station in Germany until 1876. It was roughly level with the Nürnberg-Doos station, which was built in 1876 as a replacement .
The Nuremberg station building, as in Fürth, was built in 1835. The terminus in Fürth was also named after King Ludwig I. There were also other Ludwig train stations in Bavaria. The two facilities represent the first train stations in Germany. In 1836 the Nuremberg Ludwigsbahnhof was described as follows:
“In Nuremberg there are two sheds on the sides of the railway, each 51 feet long and 28 feet wide for the installation of the cars, which can be brought from one shed to the other via four turntables and the American plate rail connection. The beam of the roof of the coach house is 17 feet above the ground so that the steam car with its aligned chimney does not touch it. Each of these sheds rests on 14 pieces of 16 foot and 5 inch long, 10 inch diameter pillars. The roof is covered with slate, the sides are closed with slats, these rest on oak base sleepers. The flat rails on which the wheel flanges run are made of rolled iron. There are notches on the sides of these rails to accommodate the wheel flanges of the cars. In the coach house there is a bricked-up hole 14 feet long, 4 feet wide and 3 feet high between the railway tracks, over which the steam and other wagons are placed if the same work has to be done. "
The original facility in Nuremberg am Plärrer was replaced by a larger new building in 1872.
The train station in Fürth used to stand on what is now Fürther Freiheit, it suffered an extremely sad fate: the Nazis needed space for their marches and later a location for an anti-aircraft gun . Reason enough to demolish the traditional building in 1938 without further ado. On the occasion of the construction of the subway station “Stadtbegriff” , the last guard house of the old Ludwigsbahn, also known as the oldest guard house in Germany , was demolished. Due to the difficult shape and location, however, the square has remained undeveloped to this day, which makes the loss all the more painful. The last monument on the route fell victim to the pickaxe when it was demolished on August 10, 1967. As one of the few remnants from the operating time, the locomotive shed from 1860 , located southwest of the city limits underground station, ekes out a sad existence and is in a desolate state. It served as a stand for shunting locomotives of the state railway, which initially ensured the exchange of wagons of the Ludwig-Süd-Nord-Bahn and the Ludwigseisenbahn. It is included in the list of monuments in Fürth. After a fire several years ago, it was exposed to the elements with the roof open. In July 2018 the roof was provisionally covered with foil.
Locomotives and wagons
During its 87 years of operation, the Ludwigsbahn not only owned the Adler machine, but a whole series of locomotives . Some of them had been bought second-hand, many were sold when they were closed.
|Surname||design type||Manufacturer /
|Eagle||1A1||Stephenson 1835/118||1835||1857 sold|
|arrow||1A1||Stephenson 1836/148||1836||Shut down in 1852,|
|Nuremberg-Fürth||1A1||Henschel 1852/14||1852||1889 +|
|Phoenix||1A1||Maffei 1853/127||1853||1889 +|
|Eagle ii||1A1||Maffei 1857/279||1857||1889 +|
|Johannes Scharrer||1A1||Henschel 1865/108||1865||1887 +|
|fist||1A1||Maffei 1845/6||1872||1881 +|
|Henlein||1A1||Maffei 1845/8||1873||1880 +|
|Wallenstein||1A1||Kessler 1845/30||1875||1885 +|
|Bavaria||Bn2t||Maffei 1879/1204||1879||1923 sold|
|Pegnitz||Bn2t||Maffei 1880/1224||1880||1923 sold to the Tafelwerk Nürnberg|
|Franconia||Bn2t||Maffei 1881/1248||1881||1923 sold|
|Daniel Ley||1Bn2t||Maffei 1886/1414||1886||1923 sold|
|Johannes Scharrer II||Bn2t||Maffei 1887/1453||1887||1923 sold|
|Nuremberg-Fürth II||Bn2t||Maffei 1889/1538||1889||1923 sold|
|Germania||1Bn2t||Maffei 1906/2511||1906||1923 sold|
|Ludwig||1Bn2t||Maffei 1906/2549||1906||1923 sold|
The locomotive eagle came despite its railway history lost importance. It was retired in 1857 as technically obsolete and sold without wheels at scrap price. The locomotive "Adler" used in 1935 for the 100th anniversary of the German Railways was a new build for this anniversary according to old documents. It was severely damaged in 2005, along with many other museum locomotives, in the fire in the roundhouse in the Nuremberg West depot . The reconstruction of the roadworthy replica in the Meiningen steam locomotive works was completed at the end of 2007. The passenger car No. 8 from 1835 (second car class ) was preserved, as Ludwig I is said to have driven with it in 1836.
Since April 2008, the replica of the eagle has taken place irregularly. The train often runs between Nuremberg and Fürth, but sometimes also on other routes, such as in 2010 on the grounds of the DB Museum in Koblenz-Lützel .
- Asmus, Carl: The Ludwig Railway. The first railway line in Germany , Orell Füssli Verlag Zurich and Schwäbisch Hall, 1984. ISBN 3-280-01525-1
- DB Museum Nürnberg (Hrsg.): History of the Railway in Germany - Volume 1: A Century under Steam, The Railway in Germany 1835-1919 , Nürnberg, 2005
- DB Museum Nürnberg, Jürgen Franzke (ed.): The eagle - Germany's most famous locomotive (object stories from the DB Museum, Volume 2) , Tümmel Verlag, Nürnberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-940594-23-5
- Deutsche Reichsbahn: The German Railways in their Development 1835–1935 , Berlin, 1935
- Heigl, Peter: Adler - Stations of a Locomotive Over Three Centuries , Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg June 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1
- Klee, Wolfgang: Bavarian Railway History Part 1: 1835–1875 , in: Bayern Report, Fürstenfeldbruck, 1993
- Mück, Wolfgang, An idea and its realization: The Nuremberg-Fürther Ludwigseisenbahn from 1835 in: Communications of the Association for the History of the City of Nuremberg, Vol. 72, 1985, pages 232-262
- Mück, Wolfgang: Germany's first steam train. The royal privately owned Ludwig Railway between Nuremberg and Fürth . ( Dissertation at the University of Würzburg ), Fürth 1985 (2nd revised edition)
- Wolff, Gerd: German small and private railways , part 6, Bavaria, Gifhorn, 1978
- Zitzmann, Peter: Company history of the Ludwigs-Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft from 1835-1969 , in: Communications of the Association for the History of the City of Nuremberg, Vol. 60, 1973, pages 250-295
- Nürnberger Nachrichten - In the footsteps of the Ludwig Railway
- Reconstruction of the Ludwigsbahnhof in Fürth
- Wellmer was appointed district judge in Markt Erlbach in 1812 , after he had previously been the city court director in Wunsiedel ; See Königlich-Baierisches Regierungsblatt , Issue XIV, Saturday, March 7th, 1812, column 405 .
- Michael Ludwig Wellmer : Secret lecture for the next general meeting of the Ludwig Railway Society . Nuremberg 1836, p. 8 .
- Michael Ludwig Wellmer : Report to the gentlemen actionaries and to the public about the Ludwig Railway matter . Nuremberg 1835 ( e-copy )
- Mück, Wolfgang: Germany's first railway with steam power. The royal privately owned Ludwig Railway between Nuremberg and Fürth . ( Dissertation at the University of Würzburg ). Fürth 1985 (2nd revised edition), pp. 85-86
- https://www.fr.de/panorama/eroeffnung-eisenbahn- 11464763.html
- Archived copy ( memento of October 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Performance of steam power in comparison with horse power on the Nuremberg-Fürth railway and the yield of this railway. In: Polytechnisches Journal . 63, 1837, Miszelle 3, p. 311.
- Stefan Ebenfeld: Turnstile for goods . In: Railway in Nuremberg . Eisenbahn Journal, special edition 1, 2010, p. 44 ff .
- One hundred years of German railways , author: Verkehrswwissenschaftliche Lebenmittelgesellschaft mbH at the Deutsche Reichsbahn, published by the Verkehrswwissenschaftliche Lebenmittelgesellschaft mbH at the Deutsche Reichsbahn in 1935
- Goods, beer and cattle transport on the Ludwig Railway. Retrieved June 1, 2015 .
- Rainer Mertens: Bavaria's first long-distance railway line . In: Railway in Nuremberg . Eisenbahn Journal, special edition 1, 2010, p. 18th ff .
- Alexander Mayer: On water, on land and in the air. A traffic story in Fürth . Erfurt 2010. ISBN 978-3-86680-594-1 . P. 59 ff .; Wiltrud Fischer-Pache: Fürth intersection . In: Michael Diefenbacher , Rudolf Endres (Hrsg.): Stadtlexikon Nürnberg . 2nd, improved edition. W. Tümmels Verlag, Nuremberg 2000, ISBN 3-921590-69-8 , p. 316 ( online ).
- Pfeil, Bavaria & Co. The other locomotives of the Ludwig Railway. Retrieved June 1, 2015 .
- "The railroad carries us in flight", exhibition of the Nuremberg City Archives 2010
- Hollingsworth, Brian and Arthur Cook: Das Handbuch der Lokomotiven, p. 34. Bechtermünz / Weltbild , Augsburg 1996. ISBN 3-86047-138-4 .