LEG - eagle and arrow


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LEG - eagle and arrow
The eagle, photograph from the early 1850s
The eagle, photograph from the early 1850s
Numbering: 118 and 148 ( serial numbers of the manufacturer)
Number: 2
Manufacturer: Robert Stephenson & Co. , Newcastle
Year of construction (s): 1835-1836
Retirement: 1857
Axis formula : 1A1 n2
Type : Patent tea
Gauge : Standard gauge (1435 mm / 4 8.5 )
Length over buffers: 7620 mm
Total wheelbase: 5504 mm
Empty mass: 11.4 t ( replica from 1935: 15.2 t)
Service mass: 14.3 t ( 31,500 lb )
Friction mass: 6 t (13 250 lb )
Top speed: approx. 65 km / h
Indexed performance : 21 PSi
Driving wheel diameter: 1372 mm
Impeller diameter front: 915 mm
Rear wheel diameter: 915 mm
Number of cylinders: 2
Cylinder diameter: 229 mm
Piston stroke: 406 mm
Boiler overpressure: 4.2 kp / cm² (60 psi ) / 3.3 bar , (replica from 1935: 6 bar)
Number of heating pipes: 62
Grate area: 0.48
Evaporation heating surface: 18.20 m² (196 SqFt )
Fuel supply: Coke , later hard coal
Drive: 2 steam operated inner cylinders
Locomotive brake: no. (mechanical handbrake with effect on the two right wheels only available on the tender)
Cruising speed 24 to 28 km / h (according to the order of the board of directors of the Bavarian Ludwig Railway).

The eagle was the first locomotive to be commercially successful in passenger transport and later also in freight transport in Germany . He and his sister machine Pfeil were operated as steam cars . The railway vehicle in 1835 from the company founded in 1823 Robert Stephenson and Company in English Newcastle designed and built to the Royal privileged Louis Railway Company in Nuremberg (LEG) to operate on its route between Nuremberg and Fürth delivered. The official opening run of the railway finally took place on December 7th, 1835 after several postponements (the first date was Ludwig I's birthday on August 25th, another on November 24th). Regular operations began on December 8, 1835. The Adler was a steam engine of the type Patentee with the 1A1 wheel arrangement ( Whyte notation : 2-2-2) and was equipped with a Schlepptender equipped to type 2 T 2.

history

Former German locomotives

The eagle is often considered to be the first locomotive on a railway on German soil. However, as early as 1816, the Royal Prussian Iron Foundry in Berlin constructed an operational steam car . The so-called Krigar locomotive pulled a car laden with 8,000 pounds on a test drive . However, the vehicle never went into commercial use. The eagle was undoubtedly the first successful locomotive in Germany to be used regularly.

Emergence

Bill for the eagle, issued August 27, 1835 by the Robert Stephenson and Company Locomotive Works

When a suitable locomotive was being sought during the construction of the Ludwig Railway, which was founded by Georg Zacharias Platner , the first request went to the Stephenson locomotive factory and to Braithwaite & Ericsson in England via the London company Suse und Libeth . The locomotive should be able to pull a weight of ten tons , cover the distance between Nuremberg and Fürth in eight to ten minutes and be heated with charcoal . Stephenson replied that a locomotive of the same design as that of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway could be supplied with four wheels and a weight of 7.5 to 8 tons. A lighter machine would not have the necessary adhesive force in all weather conditions and would be more expensive than a heavier machine. Nevertheless, on June 16, 1833, Johannes Scharrer asked for a cost estimate for two locomotives weighing 6.5 tons and the necessary accessories. Stephenson's estimate of July 4, 1833 was £ 1,800  . The German company Holmes and Rolandson in Unterkochen near Aalen made an offer for a steam car with two to six hp for 4,500  guilders . However, these negotiations were delayed and did not lead to any useful result, whereupon they were broken off. Another offer came from Josef Reaullaux from Eschweiler near Aachen . At the end of April, Platner and Mainberger from Nuremberg were in Neuwied near Cologne to place the order for the rails with Remy & Co. in Rasselstein. At that time, Remy & Co. was the only German factory that was able to deliver rails of the required quality in terms of length, straight, made of rolled steel and cut at an angle. The rails, which were only 15 feet long, were then delivered cut, which was severely criticized by the German designer Denis and some of them still had to be straightened. In addition, a possible high import duty and the not inconsiderable freight costs for a possible order in England played a role in daring to take this step here. On April 28, they traveled to Cologne to meet with Platner's friend Consul Bartls. He recommended them the Belgian mechanical engineering company Cockerill . Platner and Mainberger traveled there to Liège , but discovered that Cockerill had not built a single locomotive up to that point. However, they learned that Stephenson would be in Brussels . They reached Brussels on May 1st and lodged in the Flanders inn . There also lived Stephenson arriving at the opening of the railway from Brussels to Antwerp had arrived on May 5, with several engineers. On May 3, 1835, a preliminary contract was signed with Stephenson for a six-wheeled patentee locomotive weighing six tons for 750 to 800 pounds sterling. On May 15, 1835, the new locomotive was ordered from the Stephenson locomotive works in Newcastle on these terms. In addition, a tender and a frame each for a passenger and a freight car were ordered. However, it later emerged that contrary to what was agreed in Brussels, the locomotive would cost £ 900. Stephenson originally promised in Brussels that the locomotive would be delivered to Rotterdam by the end of July .

Different units of measurement were used in Nuremberg and England . The Bavarian foot and the English foot were different. The gauge was set to that of the Stockton and Darlington Railway , as Stephenson insisted on the measure of 4 English feet and 8.5  inches (1435 mm). The tracks already laid in Nuremberg were 5/8 inches too narrow. The distance between the rails had to be adjusted accordingly. The delivery of the vehicle with all accessories to Nuremberg at a price according to the invoice of 1140 pounds sterling, 19  shillings and 3  pence (equivalent to 132,000 pounds in today's purchasing power) consisted of over 100 individual parts in 19 boxes weighing 177 quintals . The boxes were delayed on September 3, 1835, on the ship Zoar from London to Rotterdam. The freight wages from Rotterdam to Cologne were 700 francs, from Cologne to Offenbach 507 guilders and 9  cruisers, and from Offenbach to Nuremberg 653 guilders and 11 cruisers. On April 23, 1835, the directorate of the Bavarian Ludwig Railway sought an exemption from import duty . The locomotive was declared as a model for a previously unknown product for the factories of possible manufacturers in Germany. After various difficulties, on September 26, 1835, the Ministry of Finance approved the requested duty-free import with the manufacturer Johann Wilhelm Spaeth as the recipient of the delivery.

With the barge van Hees of the skipper van Hees, which was towed upstream by the steamboat Hercules , the transport crates were transported from Rotterdam on the Rhine to Cologne on September 23, 1835 . Because of low water levels of the Rhine he had to from Emmerich for further transport instead of the steam boat of Treidelns with draft horses use. On October 7th the tow arrived in Cologne. From October 13, 1835, the rest of the route had to be covered by horse and cart , as the Main was not navigable due to the low water . This trip on land was interrupted by a strike by the carters in Offenbach , which resulted in a change of the forwarding agent . The transport reached Nuremberg on October 26, 1835. The steam locomotive was assembled in the workshops of Johann Wilhelm Spaeth's machine factory. The construction took place under the supervision of the accompanying engineer and locomotive driver William Wilson and the specialist teacher Bauer with the help of local carpenters .

On November 10, 1835, the board of directors of the Bavarian Ludwig Railway expressed the hope that the locomotive would soon be operational. The locomotive was a symbol of strength, daring and speed.

Caricature from 1835

The two car frames supplied by Stephenson turned out to be too heavy for the conditions in Nuremberg. Denis, on the other hand, assumed in his planning that the wagons would be pulled by both horses and steam locomotives, and for this reason considered a lighter design to be necessary. The construction of the wagons was carried out by several companies, the underframes were made by Späth, Gemeiner and Manhard. The wooden superstructures were supplied by the master magician Stahl from Nuremberg. Due to the high capacity utilization of the companies mentioned with other orders, three car frames and 16 wheels were manufactured by the Stein company in Lohr near Aschaffenburg . Denis threatened the companies involved with a future contract award to England if they did not accelerate the work. The first car was completed at the end of August 1835. The completion of the remaining cars was foreseeable in the second half of October. By the time the Bavarian Ludwig Railway opened, nine cars had been produced: two of the third class , four of the second and three of the first class. On 21 October 1835, the first public road test took place with a drawn by a horse cars held and 23 people. The designer Denis had developed a brake for the car, which was tested on this occasion. The car could be brought to a safe stop in any situation.

On November 16, 1835, the first test drive with the steam locomotive from Nuremberg to Fürth and back was carried out with great participation by the population. Because of the prevailing cold, it was driven at moderate speed . Three days later, in another test drive, five fully occupied cars were transported over the route in 12 to 13 minutes. On the way back made brake tests , and getting in and out of the passengers was rehearsed. Subsequent daily tests showed, among other things, that when wood was used as heating material, flying sparks caused the clothes of several passengers to be scorched. Participation in a test drive cost 36 cruisers , the proceeds were donated to the welfare of the poor .

Construction and construction

locomotive

The Adler was laying on a sheet misted frame of wood constructed. The two internal horizontal cylinders operated with wet steam drove the drive axle located in the middle . The drive wheels did not have a flange so that they could negotiate tight curve radii . The forged wheel spokes were riveted to the wheel rim . The original wheels were made of cast iron and were surrounded by a forged wheel tire . They were later replaced by more stable wrought iron wheels . The hollow spokes contained a core made of wood to better cushion unevenness . All of the locomotive's wheels were unbraked. A spindle brake acted on the two wheels of the tender on the right side of the heater . The connection between the locomotive and the tender was rigid. The buffers were made of wood. The horseshoe-shaped water tank contained the tender's coal supply. Initially, coke and later hard coal were used as fuel .

dare

The cars were in the coach-carriage boxes used responsive to a chassis made of iron were mounted. The two-axle coupé car with three separate compartments placed one behind the other formed the basic principle of the first German railroad cars. Special chassis for passenger cars were not developed until 1842 by the Great Western Railway . All the wagons were painted in the yellow color of the stagecoaches . The third class cars originally had no roof, three compartments with eight to ten seats, and the entrances had no doors. The second class cars, on the other hand, were fitted with a canvas roof and had doors, and curtains made of silk , later of leather, were attached to the unglazed windows . With the same width of the cars, the number of seats in the more expensive classes per row was reduced by one. The first class cars were lined with a precious blue cloth , had glass windows, the door handles were gold-plated and all fittings were made of brass . The 2nd class car no. 8 is still preserved today and is on display in the Nuremberg Transport Museum.

Operation and retirement

Car number 8 of the Ludwigseisenbahn-Gesellschaft from 1835, 2nd class, in the Nuremberg Transport Museum

On December 7, 1835, the eagle officially drove the 6.05 kilometer distance in nine minutes for the first time - with 200 guests of honor and the 26-year-old Englishman William Wilson in the driver's cab . Two more test drives were carried out every two hours . The locomotive ran with up to nine cars with a maximum of 192 passengers. In normal operation, the journeys were carried out at a maximum of 28 km / h in order to protect the locomotive. The normal driving time was about 14 minutes. Demonstration drives without a car could be carried out at up to 65 km / h. In most cases, however, horses still replaced the steam engine as draft animals . Because the price of coal was still high , most of the trips on the Ludwigsbahn were made with horse-drawn trams . In addition to passenger transport , goods were only transported from 1839 onwards. The first goods to be transported included beer barrels and cattle . In 1845 there was already a brisk freight traffic .

The eagle had eleven years of operation fundamentally overhauled and repaired, as was the arrow rehabilitated. As noted in the director's report, these machines were in 11 resp. 10 years back 32,168 journeys with more than 2½ million people, consequently a distance of approx. 64,000 miles (103,000 km) without showing any loss of strength.

The locomotive was retired after 22 years of operation. Together with its sister locomotive Pfeil (it was sold in 1853), it was now the smallest and weakest locomotive on the European continent . In addition, the coal consumption of newer steam locomotives had meanwhile decreased significantly. The locomotive was then used as a stationary steam engine in Nuremberg . In 1857 the railway company sold the locomotive with the tender, but without wheels and other attachments, to Ludwig August Riedinger from Augsburg . The annual report of the Ludwigseisenbahn-Gesellschaft (LEG) in 1857 states:

“… We sold the older Adler and Tender to Director Riedinger in Augsburg, but without bikes and other parts that were sent to our reserve supplies. (...) Received 1050 guilders for the old eagle from Riedinger. "

Probably the only photograph that shows the eagle in 1851 or 1856 is in the possession of the Nuremberg City Archives . However, there is no clear evidence of the age of the photograph or whether the picture shows the original locomotive or just a model .

Replicas

Working replica from 1935

Replica of the eagle at Sprendlingen station during the 50th anniversary of the Dreieichbahn , 1955
Adler in Nuremberg, 1999

In connection with the establishment of the Nuremberg Transport Museum , it was planned in 1925 to reconstruct the eagle . However, exact plans no longer existed. Only a engraving from the time of the original locomotive gave information. In 1929 the Great Depression ended this project.

For the 100th anniversary of the railway in Germany in 1935, a largely true-to-original replica was created by the Deutsche Reichsbahn in the Kaiserslautern repair shop from 1933 . The original idea of ​​the director general of the Reichsbahn Dorpmüller and his staff was to use the eagle as a propaganda instrument of the so-called " new era " in the city of the Nazi party rallies (Nuremberg). The plan was to contrast the Adler with locomotive giants such as the 05 series . The plans from 1925 could be used to realize the replica. In addition to deviating technical data, the replica differed from the original mainly in terms of thicker boiler walls, additional cross braces and steel spoked wheels. The replica achieved an average speed of 33.7 km / h in test drives on an 81-kilometer route. The route had gradients between 1: 110 and 1: 140. From 14 July to 13 October 1935 visitors to the reconstructed could Adler - train on a track of 2 km around the site of the Jubilee Exhibition in Nuremberg drive. The Reichsbahn general director Julius Dorpmüller and the Gauleiter of Franconia Julius Streicher rode in the driver's cab . The replica of the Adler then drove at the Cannstatter Wasen in Stuttgart and at the Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936 . On the 100th anniversary of the first Prussian railroad in 1938, the Adler train ran between Berlin and Potsdam . Then he came to the Nuremberg Transport Museum. Just like the original, the replica was run as a steam car . With this classification, he was not affected by the steam locomotive ban (at that time, however, and afterwards it was not operational in the Adlersaal in the Nuremberg Transport Museum ) and nothing bureaucratic stood in the way of his use for the 150th anniversary in 1985 .

In 1950 the Adler -Zug was driven through the city on a street scooter during a pageant for the 900th anniversary of Nuremberg .

For the 125th anniversary of the German Railways in 1960, the train was used on the route of the Nuremberg-Fürth tram between the Plärrer in Nuremberg and Fürth main station . The inside of the wheels had to be turned off for driving on tram tracks .

In 1984 it was repaired by the Deutsche Bundesbahn in the Offenburg repair shop for the 150th anniversary of the German Railways . Among other things, the inside of the wheels, which had been turned off in 1960 for travel on tram tracks, had to be welded on again. The steam boiler has been checked according to the current safety regulations. The eagle took part in the big anniversary exhibition in Nuremberg and in numerous events in what was then Germany, for example in Hamburg , Constance and Munich . On May 22, 1984, public trips between Nuremberg Central Station and Nuremberg East were offered.

Replica of the Adler and ICE mock-up in the Nuremberg Transport Museum, 2011

The locomotive was not operated between late 1985 and 1999. Several months of restoration work were required for the trips planned in 1999. On September 16, 1999, the Federal Railway Authority issued the operating license. 1999 of the former. Drove to the 100-year celebration of the Royal Bavarian Railway Museum and the Transport Museum Nuremberg as the successor to the Eagle bandwagon on three Sundays in October and participated in the Great Vehicle Parade in marshalling yard Nuremberg part. In the following years the replica of the Adler was used on several nostalgic trips in Germany. It was in the Nuremberg Transport Museum until 2005 .

During a fire in the depot of the transport museum ( roundhouse of the railway depot Nuremberg West ) on October 17, 2005, in which 24 locomotives were, u. a. the replica of the eagle, which was roadworthy to the end, was badly damaged. The board of directors of DB decided to have it repaired. The wreck was on November 7, in four hours of work by a rescue team of Preßnitztalbahn with a mobile crane lifted from the ruins of the engine shed and then with a special low loader for Meiningen Steam Locomotive Works brought. It turned out that at least the boiler had remained relatively undamaged thanks to the filling with water, although its entire wooden paneling was burned and many metal sheets had melted. It could therefore be used for the 2007 reconstruction.

Operational reconstruction from 2007

The eagle on one of its first journeys after the reconstruction in 2008 shortly before the main station in Fürth

The reconstruction of the eagle , which was damaged in 2005 , started in mid-April 2007 and was completed in October 2007. The metal-clad wooden frame was so badly damaged that it had to be completely rebuilt. A third-class carriage, which was exhibited in a different location and thus survived the fire unscathed, served as a template for the new carriage-like wagons that were made by a carpenter's workshop in Meiningen . The costs amounted to around one million euros, of which 200,000 euros were raised from donations from the population. Before the reconstruction began, the director of the DB Museum Nuremberg made it clear that the remanufacturing would be carried out with all the burnt details and stated that no compromises would be made. The work was done even more precisely according to historical drawings, for example the chimney, which was also damaged in the fire, was not made in the form that was different from the 1935 replica, but in its original form. The one-piece drive axle of the locomotive , designed as a crankshaft , posed a problem ; it could not be forged in the Meiningen steam locomotive works. The Sächsische Schmiedewerke in Gröditz were entrusted with this work. They were able to carry out the forging work on the crankshaft and the wheel tires . The subsequent turning was carried out by Gröditzer Kurbwelle Wildau GmbH . For the frame of the locomotive, ash wood that had been seasoned for eight to twelve years was used, which is elastic enough to withstand the vibrations caused by the power transmission during the journey. The substructure of the tender was made of hard oak .

Since November 23, 2007, the restored "old" eagle has been back in the DB Museum in Nuremberg with one old (1935) and two new (2007) associated passenger wagons of the third class . In the main building there, the only rollable eagle from 1950 and the original, second car class No. 8 of the Ludwigsbahn, built in 1835 and converted in 1838 and 1846, which is no longer put on the rails for conservation reasons, have their place. On April 26, 2008, the replica drove again between Nuremberg and Fürth for the first time. Special trips followed in May in Nuremberg, Koblenz and Halle an der Saale . In April 2010, as part of the 175th anniversary of the railway in Germany, trips with visitors were carried out on the grounds of the DB Museum in Koblenz- Lützel . In May and June 2010, trips took place between Nuremberg Central Station and Fürth Central Station . The operational eagle has also been on view in the Nuremberg DB Museum since 2013 ; it is parked in Vehicle Hall II.

The tender and the three passenger cars of the Adler train are among the last railway vehicles in Germany that were still hand- braked.

Non-operational replica from the 1950s

Another example, which, in contrast to the replica from 1935, is not operational, was created in the 1950s on behalf of the advertising office of the Deutsche Bundesbahn in the Munich-Freimann repair shop . This replica was used for public relations work at exhibitions and trade fairs. It is also in the DB Museum in Nuremberg.

Other replicas

Motorized replica in the Nuremberg Zoo

A motorized replica on a scale of 1: 2 has been running on the Nuremberg Zoo since 1964 . It was manufactured in the MAN apprentice workshop in 1963/1964 . The train started near the entrance and commuted to the children's zoo. In the course of the new construction of the dolphin pools, this route had to be shut down in 2008. In the meantime, an extension or relocation of the route has been implemented. It leads along the giraffe enclosure below the dolphin lagoon to the children's zoo and is a good kilometer long. After a three-year break, the railway has been open to the public again since March 31, 2012.

Diesel engine-powered replica of the Görlitz Park Railway

A replica with a gauge of 600 mm runs on the Görlitz Park Railway . This replica is a diesel locomotive .

TV prop and advertising object

For the TV miniseries The Iron Way on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the German Railways in 1985, a mobile replica was created for the shooting. The steam was generated chemically, with the front end of a Renault 5 clad in the tender providing the drive .

As part of the 1000th anniversary of the city of Fürth , a bus was decorated with the eagle , it advertised an exhibition where donations were collected for the reconstruction.

Locomotive eagle on German postage stamps and coins

In the postage stamps of the Reichspost 1935 , the Bundespost 1960 and the Deutsche Post 1960 as well as the Bundespost 1985 the eagle was honored on the anniversaries “100”, “125” and “150 Years of the German Railroad”. The 175th anniversary was published November 11, 2010 again a special stamp of Deutsche Post AG worth 55 euro cents with this design and also a 10 Euro -silver- commemorative coin of mint Munich (Germany) with the edge inscription: On United rails 1835 - 2010 .

See also

literature

  • Stephan Deutinger: Bavaria's way to the railroad. Joseph von Baader and the early days of the railway in Bavaria 1800 to 1835 . EOS, St. Ottilien 1997, ISBN 3-88096-885-3 (= research on state and regional history . Volume 1, also master's thesis at the University of Munich 1995).
  • DB Museum Nürnberg, Jürgen Franzke (Ed.): The eagle - Germany's most famous locomotive (object stories from the DB Museum, Volume 2). Tümmel, Nuremberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-940594-23-5 .
  • Colin Garratt, Max Wade-Matthews: Steam. The great encyclopedia of the most beautiful steam trains in the world. Eurobooks Cyprus Limited, Limassol 2000, ISBN 3-89815-076-3 .
  • Markus Hehl: The "Adler" - Germany's first steam locomotive. Weltbild, Augsburg 2008.
  • Peter Heigl: Adler - stations of a locomotive over the course of three centuries. Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1 .
  • Peter Herring: The history of the railway. Coventgarden at Doring Kindersley , Munich 2001, ISBN 3-8310-9001-7 .
  • Brian Hollingsworth, Arthur Cook: The Handbook of Locomotives. Bechtermünz / Weltbild , Augsburg 1996, ISBN 3-86047-138-4 .
  • Wolfgang Mück: Germany's first steam train. The royal privately owned Ludwig Railway between Nuremberg and Fürth. 2nd revised edition, Fürth 1985, pp. 115–126. In: Fürth contributions to history and local studies . Book 3, also a dissertation at the University of Würzburg in 1968.
  • Georg Rebenstein: Stephenson's Locomotive on the Ludwig Railway from Nuernberg to Fuerth. Nuremberg 1836.
  • Eberhard Urban : 175 years of the German railway. From the Adler in 1835 to the ICE today . Podszun, Brilon 2010, ISBN 978-3-86133-556-6 .

Web links

Commons : Adler (Locomotive)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. All other technical information (unless otherwise stated) from: B. Hollingsworth, A. Cook: Das Handbuch der Lokomotiven. Weltbild, Augsburg 1996, ISBN 3-86047-138-4 .
  2. Maximum and cruising speed according to the information board in the Nuremberg Transport Museum
  3. a b Peter Heigl: Adler - stations of a locomotive over the course of three centuries. Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1 , p. 30, p. 46.
  4. The first locomotive in Germany - the eagle on deutschebahn.com
  5. hdbg.de (PDF)
  6. Report on the Berlin steam car that was to be used in a coal mine | coal mine on the Saar
  7. fuerthwiki.de
  8. Markus Hehl: The "Adler" - Germany's first steam locomotive. Weltbild, Augsburg 2008, p. 32.
  9. a b c d Wolfgang Mück: Germany's first railway with steam power. The royal privately owned Ludwig Railway between Nuremberg and Fürth . Fürth 1985, pp. 115-126.
  10. Peter Heigl: Adler - stations of a locomotive over the course of three centuries. Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1 , pp. 37-38
  11. Peter Heigl: Adler - stations of a locomotive over the course of three centuries. Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1 , p. 30
  12. Peter Heigl: Adler - stations of a locomotive over the course of three centuries . Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1 , pp. 25-26
  13. Georg Rebenstein: Stephenson's Locomotive on the Ludwig Railway from Nuernberg to Fuerth . Nuremberg 1836
  14. Ulrich Scheefold: 150 years railways in Germany. Munich 1985, p. 9.
  15. nuernberginfos.de
  16. Peter Heigl: Adler - stations of a locomotive over the course of three centuries. Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1 , p. 54.
  17. nuernberginfos.de
  18. Historical pictures ( memento of December 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) and Der "Adler" ( memento of November 9, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) on: Nuremberg online.
  19. Peter Heigl: Adler - stations of a locomotive over the course of three centuries. Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1 , pp. 57–59.
  20. Peter Heigl: Adler - stations of a locomotive over the course of three centuries. Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1 , p. 69.
  21. Peter Heigl: Adler - stations of a locomotive over the course of three centuries. Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1 , p. 77 ff.
  22. Peter Heigl: Adler - stations of a locomotive over the course of three centuries. Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1 , pp. 99–123.
  23. Return of the eagle . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . Issue 11, year 1999, ISSN  1421-2811 , pp. 456f.
  24. Peter Heigl: Adler - stations of a locomotive over the course of three centuries. Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1 , p. 125
  25. railway magazine 1/2008, p. 9
  26. ^ Fire in the railway depot of the DB Museum, October 17, 2005 . feuerwehrmuseum-nuernberg.de
  27. Destroyed locomotive should steam again In: Nürnberger Nachrichten. November 24, 2007.
  28. The "Adler" - pilot project with obstacles on br.de
  29. The rebirth of the "eagle". ( Memento from November 17, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) In: Nürnberger Nachrichten. April 19, 2007.
  30. Peter Heigl: Adler - stations of a locomotive over the course of three centuries. Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1 , p. 148.
  31. Peter Heigl: Adler - stations of a locomotive over the course of three centuries. Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-935719-55-1 , p. 73.