The pound (abbreviation pfd. , Pf. Or lb ; mhd. And ahd. Pfunt, phunt, borrowed from Latin pondo in libra pondo '[Roman] pound of weight', to pondus ' weight ',' load ',' mass ') is an old unit of mass - determined differently according to time and place .
In today's parlance, a pound is half a kilogram and a hundredth of a hundredweight is 50 kg. The historical measurements deviate from this, as does the pound, which is commonly used as the “English pound” in the existing Anglo-American system of measurement, at approximately 454 grams, as well as the pharmacist's weight troy pound at approximately 373 grams.
Today's units of mass
Pound in German usage
In Germany, according to the definition of the former customs union from 1858, the pound is still understood today as 500 grams. In Germany in particular, and less so in Switzerland, this pound, which is adjusted to the metric measure, is still used in everyday language , especially for food (half a pound, quarter pound), and in Germany also for body weight. However, this pound is neither an SI unit nor is it permissible in commercial and official transactions according to the German " Einheit- und Zeitgesetz ".
In Austria the expression pound is rarely used; instead, kilograms and decagrams (10 grams) - commonly known as kilos and deca - are common.
- as commercial weight ([short] Avoirdupois Weight): 1 pound = 1 lb. av. = 16 ounces (oz. av.) = 453.592 37 g (exact, defined) ≈ 0.454 kg (rounded)
- ⇒ 1 kilogram ≈ 2.204 622 6 lb. av. (converted, rounded)
A distinction must be made between the troy pound, a unit of measurement for fine pharmaceutical weighing,
- as Troy and Apothecaries' Weight: 1 pound = 1 lb. t. = 1 lb. ap. = 12 ounces (oz. Ap.) = 144 ⁄ 175 lb. av. ≈ 0.373 kg (rounded)
- ⇒ 1 kilogram ≈ 2.681 lb. ap. (converted, rounded)
The abbreviation lb (from Latin libra , 'scales', 'pounds'), synonymous with lb m or lbm , often appears in the plural form in the United States as lbs (1 lb , 2 lbs , etc.). For pipelines according to the US American standard, the compressive strength is given in psi or lbs , which means lbs per square inch , more precisely pound-force per square inch . The tire pressure is also indicated in this way.
Historical units of mass
The pound of the Carolingian Empire goes back to the ancient Roman libra (to which the abbreviations Lb., lb., lb, ℔. Or ℔ [
U+2114] are based). The Roman measure of weight libra , which was weighed against in equilibrium, corresponded as as to the counterweight of 12 ounces ( unciae ). It measured with a mass of approximately 327 g (in the literature values between 322.6 g and 328.9 g are assumed). The ancient Roman mina , on the other hand, was equivalent to 16 ounces, which is a third heavier (around 436 g). Under Charlemagne , the usual unit of measurement for weight was redefined. The Karl pound (pondus Caroli) was about 406.5 grams.
In the Middle Ages , the pound was widely used as a measure of weight across Europe , but its weight often varied from city to city. While the pound in Nuremberg was a good 510 grams , it was 480 grams in Würzburg and only about 467 grams in Berlin .
As a pharmacist's weight in medicine and pharmacy , the Nuremberg pharmacist pound was able to establish itself at around 358 g, in the subdivision 1 lb = 12 ounces = 24 lot = 96 drachmas (or quintlets ) = 288 scruples = 576 oboloi = 5760 grains (or 1 : 12: 8: 3: 2: 10).
In the Austrian crown lands , the Viennese medicinal pound was used for this purpose at around 420 g, with the division into 12 ounces. One ounce contained 2 lots and 1 lot contained 4 quintlets or drachms. Three scruples corresponded to a quintlet. The smallest unit was the gran , whereby a gran was about the same weight as a peppercorn, the equivalent of about 0.073 grams. 20 grains was a scruple. A normal Viennese trading pound was equivalent to around 560 grams.
Since around the middle of the 19th century, decimal-metric units have also been used in the pharmaceutical industry (for the British or American pharmacist's pound troy pound, see pharmacist weight ).
As a coin weight, one pound was previously equivalent to two marks .
In 1854, the German Customs Union set the pound (inch pound) at exactly 500 grams, making it around seven percent heavier than the unit it had replaced. This definition was already valid in some southern German states (see Old Dimensions and Weights (Baden) , Old Dimensions and Weights (Hesse) ) and in Switzerland (see Old Dimensions and Weights (Switzerland) ) and was also used in North in 1858 - and large parts of central Germany introduced as a regional weight. The hundredweight was then 50 kilograms. As a result, the subordinate units of measurement were also widely redefined:
- In northeastern Germany and widespread in central Germany (including Prussia), 1 inch pound = 30 lot = 300 quentchen = 3000 cents = 30,000 grain.
- In north-west Germany 1 inch pound = 10 new lots = 100 quint = 1000 half grams.
- In parts of central and southern Germany as well as in Austria, however, the pound was still divided into 32 lots of 4 quentchen.
Today's colloquial pound goes back to the customs pound with its 500 grams.
Selected historical pound measurements
Up to the middle of the 19th century, different weight measures were used regionally, each referred to as "pound":
|region||designation||Mass ( g )|
|to bathe||1 pound (inch weight)||500|
|Birch field||1 trading pound||543.43|
|Birch field||1 pound grate weight||487.355|
|Bremen||1 trading pound||498.5|
|Bremen||1 grocer's pound||470.283|
|England||1 pound ( Avoirdupois -Pound)||453.59|
|England||1 pound (troy pound)||373.24|
|Frankfurt am Main||1 light pound||467.711|
|Frankfurt am Main||1 heavy pound||505.128|
|France||1 pound ( livre "poid de marc")||489.506|
|Hessen-Darmstadt||1 pound (inch weight)||500|
|Lübeck||1 pound lovely||484.7|
|Mecklenburg-Schwerin||1 trading pound||484.708|
|Nassau||1 pound (inch weight)||500|
|Netherlands||1 pond (= 10 onsen)||1000|
|Austria||1 pound (Viennese pound)||560.012|
|Prussia||1 pound (Berlin pound)||467.711|
|Saxony-Altenburg||1 Leipzig pound||467.625|
|Schleswig-Holstein||1 heavy pound||486,474|
|Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt||1 Leipzig pound||467.625|
|Switzerland (from 1838)||1 pound||500|
|Hungary||1 trading pound ( Ofner )||491.5909|
|Württemberg||1 light pound||468|
Pound as a piece measure
Pound was also a piece measure. In some places it denoted a quantity of 8 or 240.
In Regensburg, the piece measure was also a measure of salt .
Pound as a measure of area
- 1 pound of vineyard = 80 square fathoms (Wiener = 3,597 m²) = around 287 square meters
- 10 pounds = 800 (Viennese) square fathoms = ½ (Lower Austrian) yoke
In a figurative sense, pound means a person's ability or talent (alluding to the biblical parable of entrusted talents (often translated as ... pounds ) in Matthew 25:18). The term talent also denotes both a certain amount of silver and a gift.
Derived from pounds was the word in 1900 pfundig a fashion expression of youth language . In some parts of Bavaria the expression “great, great” has been preserved. The expression "Pfundskerl" (a decent, lovable, dear, capable person) has been used nationwide in German to this day. In the language of the American Amish , the “pound” is a manager and is often confused with “founder” in English. Here too, however, the meaning of the word is the biblical use of talent.
- POUND, n. . In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm : German Dictionary . Hirzel, Leipzig 1854–1961 ( woerterbuchnetz.de , University of Trier).
- Research Highlights of the National Bureau of Standards By United States. National Bureau of Standards in Google Book Search
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- General German real encyclopedia for the educated classes. Conversations Lexicon. Eleventh, revised, improved and increased edition. Volume ninth: Konradin to Mauer. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1866, p. 567 f., Keyword Loth; ibid., Volume 11 : Occupation to Premium. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1867, p. 634, keyword books .
- Leopold Carl Bleibtreu : Handbook of coin, measure and weight, and the bill of exchange, government paper, banking and shares in European and non-European countries and cities. Published by J. Engelhorn, Stuttgart 1863, p. 78.
- Heinrich Christian Burckhardt : Forest auxiliary boards. Carl Rümpler, Hanover 1858.
- August Schiebe : Universal encyclopedia of commercial sciences, containing: coin, measure and weight, bills of exchange, government paper, banking and stock exchange [...]. Volume 3. Fleischer, 1839, p. 588.
- French Ministry of Industry: 2.4 The definitive standards. Basically: "One kilogram weighs 18,827.15 grän of the mark weight." (The old pound was 9216 grän.)
- Johann Friedrich Krüger : Complete manual of the coins, measures and weights of all countries in the world. Verlag Gottfried Basse, Quedlinburg and Leipzig 1830, p. 247.
- Franz von Heintl: The wine of the Austrian Empire. Volume 1, self-published, Vienna 1821, p. 31.