Pharmacy (from the Greek. Φάρμακον pharmakon " remedies , poison , magic potion") or pharmaceuticals , German and pharmacology , is an interdisciplinary science that deals with the nature, effect, development, testing, manufacturing and distribution of drugs is concerned. Pharmacy combines aspects from various natural sciences, especially chemistry , biology and physics, with medical topics.
Pharmacists are people who have passed the second state examination in pharmacy . After a subsequent pharmacy internship (practical year) and the license to practice medicine , they are allowed to practice the profession of pharmacist .
Pharmaceutical research takes place in both pharmaceutical companies and universities. Before new drugs find their way into pharmacies and hospital pharmacies , they have to be approved by the drug authorities ( drug approval ).
People have always been concerned with areas of pharmacy. Criticism of the pharmacy stand (for example with regard to counterfeit medicines ) was already made in the Middle Ages. The subject of the subject is one of the oldest academic subjects ( materia medica ), but as an independent discipline (for which the work Circa instans in the 12th century created a basis), today's pharmacy is a relatively young science, which only began in the 17th century. / 18th Century.
It was not until the 18th century that private pharmaceutical schools emerged in the wake of the Enlightenment, which - in addition to traditional craftsmanship - took over the scientific training of pharmacists. In the 19th century, pharmacy studies were gradually made mandatory for pharmacists in the German states (since 1875 uniformly across the country). For example, the University of Würzburg received an independent pharmaceutical institute in 1888 . Since the 1920s, university pharmacy broke away from the chemical institutes and independent institutes were established.
The timetable for the pharmacy course is set out in the license to practice medicine for pharmacists (AAppO). The focus is on chemistry (approx. 40%), the remaining subjects are weighted roughly equally.
Modern pharmacy is divided into the following areas:
- The Pharmaceutical Chemistry (recently also in accordance with the English expression Medicinal Chemistry called) comprises the theory of the chemical structure (and their relationship to effect ), synthesis , properties, stability and analysis (identity, purity, content) of active ingredients and excipients , as well as pollutants .
- The Pharmaceutical Biology (formerly Pharmacognosy ) deals with the biological bases of pharmacy, the use of biological sources - such as medicinal plants , drugs , and their ingredients - effective for developing drugs. In the last few years, the subject area has been expanded to include basic molecular biology and genetically engineered drugs . Phytopharmacy deals specifically with the research and manufacture of medicinal products with active herbal ingredients .
- The Pharmaceutical Technology (formerly galenics or Arzneiformenlehre) the doctrine of the dosage form , i. that is, it deals with the production of tablets , capsules , suppositories , juices, etc. Here, the interaction of the active ingredient with the auxiliary substances used, eg. B. when pressing tablets, of importance. The laws of physics on which the measures used in the manufacture, stabilization and testing of pharmaceuticals are based are also of great importance.
- The pharmacology and toxicology includes physiology and pathophysiology as well as the effect of drugs and toxins in the human body.
- The Clinical Pharmacy (since 2001 examination subject at German universities) is to establish a bridge between science and pharmaceutical practice. Although it had been established in the USA and Great Britain for decades, clinical pharmacy in Germany had a very difficult time establishing itself as a pharmaceutical discipline. In contrast to pharmacology, clinical pharmacy does not focus on the active ingredient but on the patient .
- The Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics , which have the epidemiological and economic aspects of drug application to the object. In most of the examination regulations of universities with training courses for pharmacists, these subjects are now compulsory, e. B. in the Free University of Berlin since 2003.
- The Emergency and Disaster pharmacy deals with ensuring the provision of healthcare in exceptional situations.
In some countries outside the German-speaking area, social pharmacy is also anchored. Social pharmacy deals with how patients, consumers, doctors, pharmacists, other health professions, politicians, organizations and associations as well as society as a whole deal with drugs, what mutual relationships they enter into and how this fits into social, cultural and economic contexts leaves.
The term pharmaceutical preparations is used synonymously for medicinal products, finished medicinal products (medicinal specialties) or for preparation forms of medicinal substances. Pharmaceutical preparations are often industrially manufactured by pharmaceutical companies.
- Alfred Adlung, Georg Urdang: Outline of the history of the German pharmacy . J. Springer, Berlin 1935.
- Julius Berendes : The pharmacy. Its origin and historical development up to the XX. Century . Stuttgart 1907 (printed with a preface by Rudolf Schmitz, Hildesheim 1967).
- Peter Dilg, Guido Jüttner: Pharmaceutical terminology. The technical language of the pharmacist. Frankfurt am Main 1972.
- Heidrun Eckner, Juliane Gruner, Adriane Jorek: Study Guide Pharmacy. Knowledge Verlagsges., Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-8047-1904-X .
- Dagmar Fischer, Jörg Breitenbach, Jörg (Ed.): The pharmaceutical industry. Insight, perspective, perspectives. 2003, ISBN 3-8274-1374-5 .
- Curt Hunnius, Hermann PT Ammon : Hunnius - Pharmaceutical Dictionary . de Gruyter, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-11-017475-8
- Joseph Kraus: Vademecum for Pharmacists , Editio Cantor, Aulendorf 2001, ISBN 3-87193-229-9 .
- Hermann Schelenz, History of Pharmacy (reprographic reprint of the Berlin 1904 edition), Georg Olms publishing house, Hildesheim 1962
- Rudolf Schmitz, History of Pharmacy . Among employees by Franz-Josef Kuhlen . Vol I: From the beginning to the end of the Middle Ages . Govi-Verlag, Eschborn 1998. ISBN 3-7741-0706-8 .
- Rudolf Schmitz: History of Pharmacy . Continued by Christoph Friedrich and Wolf-Dieter Müller-Jahncke. Vol. II: From the early modern period to the present . Govi-Verlag, Eschborn 2005. ISBN 978-3-7741-1027-4 .
- Wolfgang Schneider : Paracelsus and the development of pharmaceutical chemistry. In: Arch. Pharm. 299, 1966, No. 9, pp. 737-746.
- Wolfgang Schneider: History of Pharmacy. (= Dictionary of Pharmacy , IV) Stuttgart 1985.
- Gerd Ulrich: Effects that border on miracles. Pharmaceutical advertising in Germany (1830-1930) . Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt 2007, 232 pages, ISBN 978-3-8334-6718-9
- Real Encyclopedia of the Entire Pharmacy. Concise dictionary for pharmacists, doctors and medicinal officials. Edited by Josef Moeller and Ewald Geissler , Vienna: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1886. 10 volumes. Digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf
- Vademecum for pharmacists : with 118 tables / Wessinger / Mecking. Lim. by Rudolf Schmidt-Wetter. Continued by Otto M. Kranz and Josef Kraus. Edited by Sarah Wessinger and Bettina Mecking, 18th, completely revised. Ed., Stuttgart: Dt. Apotheker-Verl. 2013, ISBN 978-3-7692-5307-8 .
- Virtual specialist library of pharmacy
- API and Excipients. Database of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers
- Virtual Library Pharmacy
- Medical Encyclopedia, Dictionary, Drugs & Supplements
- Julius Berendes: The Pharmacie bei den alten Culturvölkern , I-II, Halle an der Saale 1891, new print Hildesheim 1989.
- Ch. JS Thompson: The dawn of medicine. A chapter in the history of pharmacy from the earliest times to the tenth century. In: Janus 28, 1924, pp. 425-450.
- Konrad Goehl : Observations and additions to the 'Circa instans'. In: Medical historical messages. Journal for the history of science and specialist prose research. Volume 34, 2015 (2016), pp. 69–77, here: pp. 69–73.
- Konrad Goehl, Gundolf Keil : "apothecarii nostri temporis" - A criticism of the pharmacy booth from the early days of pharmacy. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 14, 1996, pp. 261-267.
- cf. also Syed Mahdihassan: Alchemy and its connection with astrology, pharmacy, magic and metallurgy , Janus 46 (1957), pp. 81-103.
- Berthold Beyerlein: The development of pharmacy to a university discipline (1750-1875). A contribution to university and social history. Stuttgart 1991 (= sources and studies on the history of pharmacy. Volume 59).
- Sybille Grübel: Timeline of the history of the city from 1814-2006. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. Volume 2, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 1225-1247; here: p. 1232.
- Duden: Phytopharmacy .
- Ernst Steinegger, Rudolf Hansel : Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytopharmacy. 4th edition. Berlin / Heidelberg / New York 1988.
- Study regulations for the pharmacy course at the Free University of Berlin, status 2003 (PDF, 24.55 kB).