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The pharmacology (via Latin Pharmacologica -, Pharmacology ", to the 19th century equivalent Pharmacy - from Greek φάρμακον drug , agent ',' fabric ',' drug 'and -logie , teaching') of the interaction is the science between Substances and living beings .


Pharmacology initially considers the interaction of substances and living beings in a value-neutral way, regardless of the usefulness or harmfulness of the substances examined. In a second step, an assessment can be made and a distinction can be made between substances with medicinal effects ( drugs ) and substances with harmful effects ( poisons ), whereby the distinction is often blurred.


Pharmacology as a medicine goes back to antiquity ( Galenus , Pedanios Dioskurides ). The Materia medica of Dioscurides is considered to be the pioneer of modern pharmacology . Modern scientific pharmacology emerged in the 19th century in parallel with the development of physiology , physiological chemistry and pathology .


According to Rudolf Buchheim , the interaction between the pharmaceutical and the organism goes in two directions:

  1. The pharmacodynamics explains the mechanism of action of a drug at the site of action (which makes the substance to the body) .
  2. The pharmacokinetics explains how and where a drug in the body distributed, modified, and excreted (what the body does with the substance) .

areas of expertise

  • General pharmacology examines the generally applicable laws of interaction between the drug and the organism, regardless of the drug.
  • In experimental pharmacology , attempts are made to simulate the pharmacological properties of a drug using model systems.
  • The clinical pharmacology deals with the effect of drugs on human use (pharmacotherapy).
  • In toxicology , the harmful effects on the human or animal body are examined ( poisoning ).
  • In chronopharmacology , periodically recurring and time-predictable fluctuations in the effects and pharmacokinetics of drugs in humans and animals are examined.
  • The pharmacogenetics deals with the influence of the different genetic makeup of patients on the effect of drugs.


Web links

Wiktionary: Pharmacology  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikibooks: Pharmacology and Toxicology  - Learning and Teaching Materials

Individual evidence

  1. Johann Schröder : Pharmacopoeia medico-chymica sive Thesaurus pharmacologicus. Ulm 1641.
  2. Friedrich A. Carl Gren : System of pharmacology or teaching of medicinal products, critically processed according to their natural history, pharmaceutical and therapeutic parts. Hall 1798.
  3. Jerry Stannard: Hippocratic pharmacology. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine 35, 1961, pp. 497-518.
  4. See for example Carl Oppenheimer : Small dictionary of biochemistry and pharmacology , Veit's collection of scientific dictionaries, Association of Scientific Publishers Walter de Gruyter & Co, Berlin and Leipzig 1920.
  5. ^ Ulrich Stoll: Pharmacology. In: Encyclopedia of Medical History. 2005, p. 1143 d.