The pharmacology (via Latin Pharmacologica -, Pharmacology ", to the 19th century equivalent Pharmacy - from Greek φάρμακον drug , agent ',' fabric ',' drug 'and -logie , teaching') of the interaction is the science between Substances and living beings .
Pharmacology initially considers the interaction of substances and living beings in a value-neutral way, regardless of the usefulness or harmfulness of the substances examined. In a second step, an assessment can be made and a distinction can be made between substances with medicinal effects ( drugs ) and substances with harmful effects ( poisons ), whereby the distinction is often blurred.
Pharmacology as a medicine goes back to antiquity ( Galenus , Pedanios Dioskurides ). The Materia medica of Dioscurides is considered to be the pioneer of modern pharmacology . Modern scientific pharmacology emerged in the 19th century in parallel with the development of physiology , physiological chemistry and pathology .
According to Rudolf Buchheim , the interaction between the pharmaceutical and the organism goes in two directions:
- The pharmacodynamics explains the mechanism of action of a drug at the site of action (which makes the substance to the body) .
- The pharmacokinetics explains how and where a drug in the body distributed, modified, and excreted (what the body does with the substance) .
areas of expertise
- General pharmacology examines the generally applicable laws of interaction between the drug and the organism, regardless of the drug.
- In experimental pharmacology , attempts are made to simulate the pharmacological properties of a drug using model systems.
- The clinical pharmacology deals with the effect of drugs on human use (pharmacotherapy).
- In toxicology , the harmful effects on the human or animal body are examined ( poisoning ).
- In chronopharmacology , periodically recurring and time-predictable fluctuations in the effects and pharmacokinetics of drugs in humans and animals are examined.
- The pharmacogenetics deals with the influence of the different genetic makeup of patients on the effect of drugs.
- Klaus Aktories , Ulrich Förstermann , Franz Hofmann , Klaus Starke (eds.): General and special pharmacology and toxicology. 9th edition. Urban & Fischer, Munich / Jena 2005, ISBN 3-437-42521-8 (founded by W. Forth, Dietrich Henschler and Walter Rummel ).
- Curt Hunnius, Hermann Ammon : Hunnius Pharmaceutical Dictionary . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2004, ISBN 978-3-11-017475-5 .
- Ulrich Stoll: Pharmacology. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 1143-1149.
- Johann Schröder : Pharmacopoeia medico-chymica sive Thesaurus pharmacologicus. Ulm 1641.
- Friedrich A. Carl Gren : System of pharmacology or teaching of medicinal products, critically processed according to their natural history, pharmaceutical and therapeutic parts. Hall 1798.
- Jerry Stannard: Hippocratic pharmacology. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine 35, 1961, pp. 497-518.
- See for example Carl Oppenheimer : Small dictionary of biochemistry and pharmacology , Veit's collection of scientific dictionaries, Association of Scientific Publishers Walter de Gruyter & Co, Berlin and Leipzig 1920.
- Ulrich Stoll: Pharmacology. In: Encyclopedia of Medical History. 2005, p. 1143 d.