Dosage form

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Film-coated tablets

A drug or galenic form is a preparation that consists of a medicinal substance and added auxiliaries . Sometimes it is necessary to transform a dosage form into the dosage form before use . An example of this is the antibiotic dry juice, which due to stability problems is only converted into a suspension before use. If no auxiliaries are required, the active ingredient itself already represents the complete drug form. However, individually dosed powders , be it as a pure active ingredient or as a mixture of active ingredients and auxiliaries, are of little importance today as a separate medicinal form due to the many disadvantages. A dosage form therefore consists of active ingredients and auxiliaries that are processed in a special way.

In addition to the actual active ingredient or mixture of active ingredients, the dosage form is of decisive importance for the effectiveness of the drug . It determines the essential properties of the finished pharmaceutical preparation (manufacture, storage, shelf life, pharmacokinetics , microbial purity, packaging, etc.). In order to correctly assess the effectiveness of a drug, the dosage form must be taken into account in addition to the pure active ingredient.

Classification of dosage forms

Medicinal forms of the Middle Ages and early modern times

A medicinal form frequently used from antiquity and into the Middle Ages into the early modern period is the Latwerge (Latin electuarium ). This form of pharmaceutical preservation is a concentrated juice and honey preparation. The "Kaiser Karls Latwerge", a remedy mainly used against hoarseness, which emerged from an earlier electuarium Karoli and whose ingredients can later also be found in another drug form, namely "Kaiser Karl's stomach powder", was particularly well known.

A typical early modern medicinal form is Morselle . Morsellen are oblong, square tablets made of evaporated sugar solution and chopped up spices, which are poured out and cut up. In the late 16th and 17th centuries, these were considered to be typical pharmacy confectionery, which was mainly used to promote digestion. To this day, they are offered as a treat in pharmacies.

A drug form closely related to the Morsellen is the rotula, which has a round shape and was applied internally. Rotulae were mainly made from sugar and were used as a carrier for bad-tasting drugs. Such rotula formulations can be found, for example, in the "Pharmacopoea Wirtenbergica" (1741).

Another internal dry dosage form or shape provided the storage Trochiske (from the Greek-Latin trochiscos , small slice '), also Zeltlein or Zeltchen called (see FIG. Tents ), represents a molded into a round pellet bulk drug.

The medicinal forms frequently used in the Middle Ages also include medicinal water ( aqua medicinalis ), which was produced by distillation processes (see also the little book about the burnt-out waters ). In the Gotha Pharmacopoeia, which was created at the end of the 14th century, 57 aquae medicinales are listed that can be prepared with simple or compound mineral or herbal medicinal drugs.

In the late Middle Ages and in the early modern period , pills were formulated with prescriptions for their composition and manufacture. Most of the pills contained bitter drugs, gums or resins . Malvasia wine , rose water or vegetable juices were used as the initial liquid for the powdered drugs . Syrup or honey were often used as liquids for kneading . The mass of pills that was pushed was stored as so-called Magdaleons, rounded structures of semi-solid drug masses in the form of sticks. For preserving these were in leather or waxed paper wrapped. At the beginning of the 18th century, so-called “pills” made of iron or brass were used to evenly break up the rolled-out strand of pills. With the pill machine, first mentioned in 1777, a certain number of pills could be divided and rolled out at the same time. Industrial production of pills began in the second half of the 19th century. The pill mass was prepared in a kneading machine, shaped into strands by means of an extruder and shaped into pills of the desired size on a pill cutting machine.

In the Middle Ages, powder (see also Powder (Pharmacy) ) held a special position among the medicinal forms to be applied externally , as it could also be used internally. However, powder preparations decreased steadily in the course of the 19th century, so that DAB 5 only mentions one powder monograph.

In contrast to other medicinal forms, the preparation of the ointment hardly changed in the Middle Ages . In the 16th century, ointments were used both for surface treatment of the skin, for inflammation of the mucous membranes and with deep-penetrating effects for headaches and general painful conditions. The mortar and pestle , which can already be proven in the ancient civilizations, were used to produce the ointment . Ointment preparations are still today as monographs in the pharmacopoeia .

In addition to fats and wax , the plaster medicinal form , which was also popular in the Middle Ages , mainly contained resin , which made it sticky. The plasters were produced by melting and mixing and then stirring the plaster. The plaster was then poured into bars or panels and shaped with the plaster press. The adhesive plasters on rubber base was since 1891 by the company Beiersdorf produced industrially.

See also


  • Kurt H. Bauer, Karl-Heinz Frömming, Claus Führer, Bernhardt C. Lippold: Textbook of Pharmaceutical Technology . 8th edition. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-8047-2222-9 .
  • Willem Frans Daems : dosage forms. In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages . Munich / Zurich 1978 ff., Here: Volume 1 (1980), Col. 1094-1096.
  • Rudolf Voigt, Alfred Fahr : Pharmaceutical Technology . 9th edition. Deutscher Apotheker Verlag, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-7692-2649-6 .

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Bernhard D. Haage, Wolfgang Wegner: 'Medicinal water'. In: Werner E. Gerabek, Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil, Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 950 f.
  2. Gundolf Keil: wound potion. In: Werner E. Gerabek, Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil, Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 1507 f.
  3. Klaus Müller, Gundolf Keil, Hilde-Marie Groß: "Wundtränke" in German medical prose from the 13th to 15th centuries. Studies on the medieval meaning of a first document in the 'Breslau Pharmacopoeia'. In: Acta historica et museologica. Volume 6, 2003 (= Sborník k 60. narozeninám doc. PhDr. Dana Gawreckého, CSc. Ed. By Jaroslav Bakala et al.), Pp. 119–141.
  4. ^ Franz-Josef Kuhlen: Elektuarien . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 3, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1986, ISBN 3-7608-8903-4 , Sp. 1798.
  5. Thomas Gleinser: Anna von Diesbach's Bernese 'Pharmacopoeia' in the Erlacher version of Daniel von Werdts (1658), Part II: Glossary. (Medical dissertation Würzburg), now at Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1989 (= Würzburg medical-historical research , 46), p. 177.
  6. Hartmut Broszinski: Kaiser Karl Latwerge. In: Author's Lexicon . 2nd ed., Volume 4, Col. 944 f.
  7. Daems: dosage forms. 1980, pp. 1094 and 1096.
  8. Werner Gaude: The old pharmacy. A thousand years of cultural history. (1979) 2nd edition Stuttgart 1986, pp. 143 and 177.
  9. Agi Lindgren: 'Gothaer Medizinalwässer'. In: Burghart Wachinger et al. (Hrsg.): The German literature of the Middle Ages. Author Lexicon . 2nd, completely revised edition, ISBN 3-11-022248-5 , Volume 3: Gert van der Schüren - Hildegard von Bingen. Berlin / New York 1981, Sp. 114-116.
  10. ^ Karl Rule: From the Gotha Pharmacopoeia. In: Yearbook of the Association for Low German Language Research. [= Low German yearbook. ] Volume 6, 1879, pp. 61-108.
  11. Sven Norrbom (ed.): The Gotha Middle Low German Pharmacopoeia and its clan. (Philosophical dissertation Upsala) Hamburg 1921 (= Middle Low German Pharmacopoeia. Volume 1).
  12. Gundolf Keil: 'Gothaer Medizinalwässer'. In: Werner E. Gerabek et al. (Ed.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 505.
  13. Agi Lindgren: The 'aquae medicinales' of the Middle Low German Pharmacopoeia. Stockholm 1979 (= Acta universitatis Stockholmiensis: Stockholm German Research. Volume 24).
  14. Petra Hille, Anne Rappert, Gundolf Keil: The powder dosage form in the surgical specialist literature of the high and late Middle Ages. In: István Gazda u. a. (Ed.): Ditor ut ditem. Tanulmányok Schultheisz Emil professzor 80th születésnapjára. Budapest 2003 (= Magyar tudomanytörténeti szemle Könyvtára. Volume 36), pp. 54-104.
  15. Gundolf Keil, Dagmar Schelletter and Anne Rappert: Aphorisms on the drug form “ Salbe ” with special consideration of surgical prose from the German Middle Ages. In: Menso Folkerts , Stefan Kirschner , Andreas Kühne (eds.): Pratum floridum. Festschrift Brigitte Hoppe . Augsburg 2002 (= [Münchner Universitätsschriften:] Algorismus. Studies on the history of mathematics and natural sciences. Volume 38), pp. 369–403.
  16. ^ Wolf-Dieter Müller-Jahncke , Christoph Friedrich , Ulrich Meyer: Medicinal history . 2., revised. and exp. Ed. Wiss. Verl.-Ges, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 978-3-8047-2113-5 , pp. 22-29 .