from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Almost ripe Malvasia grapes
Malvasia delle Lipari from the island of Salina
Malvasia bottles from Istria

Malvasia , Malvasia or Malvoisie are very widespread grape family of different white and red wine varieties in southern countries , especially from Italy , Spain , Portugal , Croatia and Slovenia . Many of these varieties are of ancient Greek origin.

The terms Malvasia and Malvasia denote partly the same, partly completely different grape varieties.

Malvoisie is a name for various red and white grape varieties , which is mainly used in France in the Loire and Savoy region. Malvoisie is synonymous with Bourboulenc , Clairette Blanche , Macabeo , Pinot Gris and Torbato , among others . In some areas of Corsica the Vermentinu is known as Malvoisie de Corse . In Valais (Switzerland), Malvoisie stands for Pinot Gris and is a Valais AOC -certified white wine. The term “Malvoisie” together with the term “AOC Wallis” is considered to be “Malvoisie du Valais” .

In Germany and Austria, the Malvasia is used as a synonym for the white wine variety Frühroter Veltliner . But there is no relationship to the variety group.

Origin and Distribution

The name of the group of varieties is derived from the name of the Greek city Monemvasia on the Peloponnese peninsula , which was an important trading center and fortress of the Byzantine Empire in the Middle Ages .

Originally the Malvasia wine probably comes from Asia Minor and was brought into the world in ancient times from the island of Crete, where the white Malvasia di Candia is still sweet today. Even dry, it is mainly grown by the Douloufakis winery. The island of Crete and other parts of Greece are the most original and oldest varieties ( see Malagousia ). Greece is widely recognized as the country of origin of some Malvasia varieties.

The red Malvasia variety has a special meaning in Mallorca . Grown mainly in Banyalbufar from the Moors up to the 19th century , this grape produced a sweet, aromatic dessert wine, which was also in high demand from European royal courts and was thus nicknamed the "Wine of Kings". George Plantagenet , 1st Duke of Clarence was charged with high treason, sentenced to death in 1478 and executed in the Tower - allegedly at his own request - by drowning in a barrel with this wine. Even Shakespeare's Falstaff appreciated this wine and Archduke Ludwig Salvator (Mallorca S'Arxiduc called) praised the wine for its tastiness and its health benefits. The student song “That was the dwarf Perkeo ” (words: Joseph Victor von Scheffel 1851, melody: Stefan Gruwe , 1862) shows that the grape was also widespread in German-speaking countries : “Perkeo went to the cellar; he never came here and sucked on the Rhein'schen Malvasier when he was fifteen. ” The name of the variety is attested as “ Malmasier ” in the Tyrolean region as early as 1480 . Even Martin Luther was Malvasierweine appealing. Thomas Mann has a “Bouteille” Malvasier fetched from the cellar in Buddenbrooks .

On the Canary Island of Lanzarote , Malvasia grapes are cultivated in a special way: Here, funnels about 2 m deep (approx. 5 m diameter) are dug into the volcanic ash and each is covered with only one vine. The strong sunlight produces grapes with an extremely high sugar content. The resulting wine is a liqueur wine, which despite full fermentation (~ 16% alcohol) still has a strong residual sweetness.

Malvasia can be found in some of the world's most famous wines. The Romans already cultivated this variety and sweetened the wine made from it with honey .

On the Aeolian Islands (near Sicily ), the Malvasia delle Lipari liqueur wine of the same name is produced from the Malvasia di Lipari grape variety , which is mildly sweet and high-percentage and has a golden yellow color. A variety of the famous fortified liqueur wine Madeira from the island of the same name is also made from a Malvasia grape variety, where it is called Malmsey .

Together with the Trebbiano grape variety , the Malvasia grape is used in Tuscany , along with two red wine grapes, in Chianti . For several years now, winemakers have refrained from adding white grapes in Chianti (since 2006, their use has been completely prohibited), and a new wine was invented - the IGT - to use for the surplus of Malvasia and Trebbiano grapes . Galestro white wine.

Dried grapes of the Negroamaro and Malvasia nera varieties ( Malvasia Nera di Basilicata , Malvasia Nera di Brindisi and Malvasia Nera di Lecce ) are also used to produce a syrup-like spice specialty called Vincotto .

Malvasia on Terra rossa , southern Istria

Both the Greeks and the Romans greatly appreciated the sweet and heavy taste of Malvasia wine. His esteem until the early 20th century was based precisely on this character. Since this flavor is out of fashion today and the wine also tends to oxidize, it is on the decline across the board from a low level. It is increasingly losing its last strong region, Italy (50,000 ha), because it is being displaced as part of mixed wines (e.g. Frascati) due to its outdated character. It is usually replaced by the Trebbiano . A similar development is taking place in Spain, where it was the traditional grape variety for Rioja , which matures slowly in wooden barrels . There it is displaced by the fresher tasting Viura .

His last stable retreat is the Vino Santo , where the heavy, sweet character is characteristic. But also on La Palma , z. Malvasia is grown, for example in Fuencaliente and Villa de Mazo . Introduced around 1500, it has been exported from here to England and to many European royal courts since the middle of the 16th century.

In Italy there is an abundance of grape varieties that are assigned to the Malvasia family: important representatives are the varieties Malvasia Bianca Lunga , Malvasia Bianca di Basilicata , Malvasia Bianca di Candia , Malvasia Istriana , Malvasia del Lazio , Malvasia di Candia Aromatica , Malvasia di Lipari and Malvasia di Sardegna .

The early red Malvasia was a popular and at the same time expensive luxury item in Germany, especially during the Reformation . Martin Luther repeatedly referred to the Malvasia when making comparisons in his writings. In the following centuries, the grape variety was increasingly forgotten. On the 500th anniversary of the Reformation in 2017, several winegrowers in Rheinhessen already had the Malvasia in their range again, and here, too, reference was made to Luther's special relationship with him.

Variants of Malvasia and synonyms are: Malvasia, Malvoisie , Malvazija , Malvaziya or Malagousia .


Individual evidence

  1. Article 52 of the (PDF) Ordinance on Viticulture and Wine (VRW, 916.142) , Sion March 17, 2004
  2. ^ Karl Bauer, Ferdinand Regner , Barbara Friedrich: Weinbau , avBuch im Cadmos Verlag, Vienna, 9th edition 2013, ISBN 978-3-7040-2284-4 .
  3. ^ Royle, Trevor: The Wars of the Roses; England's first civil war. Abacus, London 2009, ISBN 978-0-349-11790-4 , pp. 374 .
  4. ^ Hannes Obermair : Bozen Süd - Bolzano Nord. Written form and documentary tradition of the city of Bozen up to 1500 . tape 2 . City of Bozen, Bozen 2008, ISBN 978-88-901870-1-8 , p. 175, No. 1192 .