|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Administrative region :||Cologne|
|Circle :||City region Aachen|
|Height :||135 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||75.87 km 2|
|Residents:||56,482 (Dec 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||744 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||52249|
|Area code :||02403|
|License plate :||AC, MON|
|Community key :||05 3 34 012|
|LOCODE :||DE ESR|
|City structure:||22 districts|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Rudi Bertram ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Eschweiler in the Aachen city region|
The city of Eschweiler [ ˈɛʃˌvaɪlɐ ] (from Latin Ascvilare , Eschweiler Platt Aischwiile , French (outdated) Exvilliers ) is a medium-sized regional city in the urban region of Aachen . It is a fully developed middle center , seat of several authorities and regionally important cultural institutions as well as a carnival stronghold . Due to its central location and motorway connection, it forms a traffic junction in the city region. From the Celtic era to the 20th century, mining and open-cast mining shaped the city. The numerous castles and manor houses as well as the Inde floodplains and the Blausteinsee are worth seeing .
The city of Eschweiler was awarded the German Sustainability Prize for Cities and Towns in the category of medium-sized cities 2018.
Location and description of the landscape
Eschweiler is located on the northern slope of the Eifel in the transition to the Jülich-Zülpicher Börde in the western Rhineland and thus in the immediate vicinity of the three-country triangle Germany - Netherlands - Belgium . The Inde flows through the city center as well as the Pump-Stich and Weisweiler districts . Eschweiler has a share in the industrial landscape of the Aachen hard coal district and the Rhenish lignite district of the Cologne Bay .
The approximately circular urban area of Eschweiler is divided into three zones:
- The Indetal with floodplains runs right through the city center along the partly straightened, partly renatured Inde.
- The northern half is part of a Börden landscape with the Blausteinsee (in Indeland ), wide fields and the golf course at Haus Kambach .
- The Vorifel landscape lies in the south; it is characterized by heights and larger forests such as the Propsteier forest , the Ichenberg , the Eschweiler city forest , the Korkus , the Bovenberger forest and the Nierchen dump.
In the southern half of the urban area there are clay , silt and sandstones with coal seams , quartzites , conglomerates , limestone and dolomite stones from the Devonian and Carboniferous , of which quartzite as well as limestone and claystone occur in economically significant quantities. Of the layers that were folded 300 million years ago, only a flat, wavy mountain hull remained, which dips in a northerly direction under the loose rock filling of the Lower Rhine Bay . The northern half consists of up to 500 meters mighty clays, silts and sands with brown coal of the Tertiary period . They are extensively covered by gravel sand from the Ice Age Meuse . The loose rocks are blocked by faults that are still active today .
The soils in the northern part of the city are originally parabrown earths , but since the recultivation of open- cast lignite mining they have mostly been artificially applied loess and loess loam. The hard coal mining and lignite opencast mining left behind several heaps made of tailings and now mostly used for forestry purposes, such as the Black Mountain ( ) in the city forest, the Nierchen heap ( ) near Hüelte and Auf der Kippe ( ) near Eschweiler-Ost . In the valley of the Inde, under the influence of periodic floods and strong groundwater fluctuations , floodplain soils were created: the Indeauen.
The primary aquifers in the Eschweiler urban area are the limestone and dolomite rocks as well as the gravel-sandy deposits of the Meuse near the surface . In the southern part of the urban area, the bedrock is classified as very stable, and the sands and gravel in the northern half can also absorb high structural loads. In the past, mining-related influences on structures occurred to a minor extent.
Eschweiler coal sandstone - EKS for short - has been used for anvils, grinding stones and building houses since the Neolithic Age .
The largest flowing body of water in Eschweiler is the Inde , which flows into the Rur at Jülich . Other streams are the Merzbach , the Omerbach , the Otterbach , the Saubach and numerous rivers . The largest stagnant body of water is the artificial Blausteinsee , followed by the Koppweiher in the city forest. Other ponds are located in the Propsteier Forest , Stadtwald , Bovenberger Wald, at the IGP industrial and commercial park , in the Im Hasselt industrial park and near castles and mills.
The Inde runs almost ten kilometers through the urban area, in which a motorway bridge, four railway bridges, seven pedestrian bridges ( Aue, Jahnstraße, Wurstbrückchen Kochsgasse, Wollenweberstraße, Schlachthof, Wasserwiese, Am Mühlengraben Weisweiler ) and 14 road bridges run over it.
Eschweiler lies in the cool, temperate to oceanic climatic zone , in which humid winds from the west of the North Sea prevail. Precipitation falls here in all seasons , which is slightly lower in the lee of the Eifel than in the regions of the Lower Rhine. The winters are relatively mild and the summers relatively cool. The annual average temperature is 8 to 10 ° C. With westerly winds, a slight foehn weather situation can develop in the lee of the Eifel .
Monthly average precipitation for Eschweiler-Weisweiler
Expansion of the urban area
The area of the urban area is 76.57 square kilometers . It is furthest in the east-west extension (9.8 km) and in the north-south extension (10.7 km). The lowest point at is on the Inde near Weisweiler, the highest with the city forest; the mean altitude, measured at the market, is .
(Small and italic letters are no longer independent districts of neighboring communities.)
|Alsdorf Hoengen||Aldenhoven||Inden Frenz|
|Würselen Broichweiden||Long suffering|
Eschweiler is divided into the 15 city districts (district number / population at the end of 2004) city center with old town and Klee Oepe - (01 / 11.823), Dürwiß (08 / 7.190), Weisweiler / Hüelte / Wilhelmshöhe (10 / 6.028), Bergrath / Bohl / Volkenrath (12 / 5.539), Röthgen (03 / 4.796), city center with Eschweiler-Ost / Vöckelsberg (02 / 4.681), Pump / Aue / Waldschule settlement (15 / 2.897), Stich (14 / 2.604), Röhe (04 / 2.336 ), Nothberg (11 / 2.159), Hastenrath / Scherpenseel (13 / 2.023), Kinzweiler (06 / 1.712), Hehlrath (07 / 1.285), St. Jöris (05/885) and Neu-Lohn / Fronhoven (09/857 ).
Affiliation Eschweiler ( Frk. = France )
Stone Age and Celts
A settlement in the Neolithic around 5500 BC is confirmed by several finds . About a millennium later, the first arable farmers of the Bandkeramikzeit operated grain cultivation and cattle breeding on the fertile loess soils in the north of the Eschweiler urban area on the Merzbach. Also secured is a contiguous settlement of Rössen culture , a Neolithic settlement, a Celtic village , the first traces of human settlement in the present town center of the La Tène culture , a Celtic mine from the Iron Age and a settlement site of the Iron Age. The Celts left several names in Eschweiler such as Erberich , Inde and Killewittchen .
Romans and Franks
Numerous villae rusticae and a road network have been documented by the Romans in and around Eschweiler . The valley of the Inde was densely populated, but no urban settlement developed. Other noteworthy finds are a cult site of the West Germanic Sunuker in honor of their tribal goddess Sunuxal in the Propsteier forest , a sesterce of 163 with the portrait of Marcus Aurelius in Dürwiß, a Roman leopard statuette made of bronze from the 3rd century in the Propsteier forest and a sanctuary of the matrons Alaferhviae and Amfratninae .
In the southern urban area, ore prospecting and prevention of zinc ore , zinc spar and brown iron ore are documented no later than Roman times in the Propsteier Forest, the Stadtwald and Scherpenseel.
In 476 the Eschweiler area belonged to the Franconian Empire of Clovis I , 511 then - after the first division - to the Franconian Australia and 714 to the Carolingian Franconian Empire. A wooden chapel on the site of the later church in Laurenzberg , which was mentioned around 1400 as Berga Laurencii , dates from around 800 .
First mention and Middle Ages
The first documentary mention of Eschweiler as the Carolingian royal estate "Ascvilare" by Einhard comes from 828 : Ascvilare is called a royal estate, four Leugen (= around 16 km) away from Aachen . In 830 the three clearing locations Bergrath , Hastenrath and Volkenrath were founded in the southeast of the royal estate. In 843 Eschweiler belonged to the Middle Kingdom of Lothar I , who in 851 donated a Nona from the Villa Aschwilra to the cathedral monastery in Aachen. 888 mentioned a document Eschweiler as Ascvilra .
The low castles ( Motten ) of Lürken and Kinzweiler probably date from the High Middle Ages around 900 . A document from 930 mentions Eschweiler as Aschwilre . Around 950 the attack wave of the Magyars (Hungarians) arrived in the Eschweiler area and in 962 Eschweiler belonged to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation . Documents mention Eschweiler, which belongs to Jülichgau , in 966 as Aschwilra , 1003 as Escuuilre , 1082 as Escwilere , 1161 as Eschuilre and 1226 as Eschwilre .
From 1138 to 1250 Eschweiler belonged to Lower Lorraine in the Stauferreich and in 1216 Gerhard von Randerath, the bailiff of the Eschweiler cathedral courtyard, pledged his bailiwick of Eschweiler, Aldenhoven , Inden and the parish Lohn of the Cologne cathedral church, whereby the Eschweiler area came to the Cologne cathedral chapter. The Eschweiler castle , an area surrounded by a protective wall with six towers Wasserburg , dates from that period. In 1274 the Cistercian convent of St. Jöris was founded.
In 1362 a document mentioned Eschweiler as Eyschwilre ; At that time, an unknown artist created the leather pietà, which is now in St. Peter and Paul .
In 1420 Johann von Kempenich sold the Eschweiler Vogtei with his property there to Duke Reinald von Jülich, which means that Eschweiler belonged to the Duchy of Jülich and the Jülich lion was given the Eschweiler seal . In 1490, Eschweiler lay judges sealed a document; the seal attached to it shows the Jülich lion and the Peter key in the upper right corner of the coat of arms, without the lion holding the key in its front paws, as is the case on today's city coat of arms; Eschweiler was called Eschwillre and the third, Gothic building of today's St. Peter and Paul Church was completed.
The Eschweiler Kohlberg
The oldest known document about Eschweiler mining dates from 1394 : the so-called Eschweiler Kohlberg ( Koylberg zu Eschwylre ). The Eschweiler mines were owned by the Dukes of Jülich. Initially in countless pings and smaller shafts, coal was mined there without any major technology at shallow depths . With increasing depth, the pit water became a problem, which means that dewatering - also known as horse art and gentlemen's art - was of great importance. This horse art was mentioned in 1555, and water wheels had been in use in Eschweiler mining since 1571 at the latest. In 1632, the gentleman's art , which is important for dewatering - named after the lords of Jülich - was established. Large-scale industrial mining began in the second half of the 18th century and shaped Eschweiler for almost two centuries.
Overall, more than four centuries was coal in Eschweiler pits like pit Aue , pit Christine and pit Ichenberg promoted. The Birkengang mine existed from 1581 to 1883, the Wilhelm mine from the 16th century to 1874. The most important mine was the Centrum mine with nine extraction and six art shafts. From 1805 to 1891, around 30 percent of the mining capacity of the Aachen hard coal mining area with up to 1,348 employees was produced here at peak times. In the Propsteier pit from 1701 to 1879 hard coal was mined at a depth of 301 meters, and in the Reserve from 1856 until the power failure on September 28, 1944 by American artillery fire .
In the pit Albert zinc, lead and iron were supported 1840-1917, in the pit Glucksburg 1838-1884 in addition to zinc and lead also limonite . The zinc ore was processed in Eschweiler in three zinc works : in the Velau zinc works from 1819 to 1848, in the Birkengang zinc works from 1845 to 1926 and in the Steinfurt zinc works from 1850 to 1859.
Early modern age
The first indication of the population of 850 souls dates from 1533. In 1542 the first mountain order applicable to the Indian region came into force; In 1543 Eschweiler was looted and Nothberg Castle was badly damaged by the troops of Emperor Charles V during the dispute over the succession over Geldern . In 1555, the court of Eschweiler with the places Eschweiler, Bergrath, Röhe, Röthgen and Schaufenberg was in a register of the court constitution in the Duchy of Jülich; the Nothberg castle underwent a major redesign.
In 1642 Eschweiler was captured and plundered by Hessian-Weimar-French troops during the Thirty Years' War . In 1646 imperial troops tore down the gallery of the Nothberg Castle and in 1678 troops of the French King Louis XIV plundered and pillaged Eschweiler completely. However, the valuable Lederpietà was saved; During the reconstruction, St. Peter and Paul received a baroque tower dome. Two years later, Eschweiler was a market town to which Bergrath, Röthgen and Röhe belonged and again had 2000 inhabitants. In 1756 the earthquake near Düren in 1756 also caused severe damage in Eschweiler (Eschweiler is located in the Cologne Bay earthquake area ).
Before and during the French era
In 1749 there were 78 mining pits on the Eschweiler Kohlberg. In 1775, Elector Karl Theodor issued a mountain regulation for his Eschweiler Kohlberg. In 1784 the Wältgens-Englerth family acquired mining rights and began to expand the concessions through acquisitions, which led to the establishment of the Eschweiler Mining Association 50 years later . In 1793 one of the first steam engines in Germany was in Eschweiler-Pump . In 1805, based on a decree from Napoléon Bonaparte , Ferdinand Wältgens and Carl Englerth were granted a major concession under French law for the entire surface of the seams and down to the eternal depth. The dewatering and seam limitation by the rule of the Counts of Jülich came to an end. The former pump house as well as the Steigerhaus and other buildings are under monument protection. Eschweiler-Pump is the birthplace of Franz Reuleaux , the founder of kinematics .
1794 , the French occupied the left bank of the Rhine and built as a part of France , the Département de la Roer and thus the 19,000-soul Canton Eschweiler , Eschweiler with a main town . On October 11, 1800, the town of Eschweiler , which had about 2900 inhabitants, was raised to a Mairie with Carl Englerth as the first Maire . In 1808 the justice of the peace was moved to the house of the justice of the peace Lorenz Eichhoff. The judicial district with almost 25,000 inhabitants included Bardenberg, Broich, Büsbach, Dürwiß, Eschweiler, Gressenich, Hoengen, Lamersdorf, Langerwehe, Nothberg, Stolberg and Weisweiler, all of which also belonged to the canton of Eschweiler.
During this time, the Catholic church administration was as follows:
- Until 1801, Eschweiler belonged to the Archdiocese of Cologne
- From 1801 to 1821 to the diocese of Aachen
- From 1821 the city came back to the Archdiocese of Cologne
- Subsequently (from 1930) it was reassigned to the Aachen diocese
Prussia and industrialization
After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Rhine Province and with it Eschweiler became part of the Kingdom of Prussia, which essentially formed the district of Aachen from the cantons of Burtscheid and Eschweiler , which was part of the administrative district of Aachen . The city developed. The first solid wooden bridge for carts across the Inde was built on Langwahn and a town hall on Dürener Strasse. From June 27, 1822, the city belonged to the Rhine Province. In 1834 Christine Englerth founded the Eschweiler Bergwerks-Verein (EBV) and thus the first Prussian stock corporation . In 1841 Eschweiler was connected to the railway network, in 1845 the Eschweiler castle "De Kaffemöll" was rebuilt by Friedrich Englerth for 100,000 thalers and in 1854 the hospital was opened.
On April 1, 1841, a personal post was set up between Eschweiler and Stolberg , which ran daily at 7:00 am and 7:00 pm; the mail was carried from Düren via Eschweiler and Vorweiden to Aachen . On the same day a regular mailing went into operation: twice daily Eschweiler Dürwiß - Jülich and once daily Eschweiler-Dürwiß- Aldenhoven - Linnich . A daily personal mail to Linnich was set up on March 15, 1851.
In the Eschweiler-Stolberg area , industrialization began before 1850 and flourished in the 19th century, because the favorable location conditions, the mineral resources, the steam engine, a dense railway network and the Eschweiler Mining Association (EBV) left Germany's first industrial region here arise. This became clear in the population development of Eschweiler : Although four districts were excluded from Eschweiler, its population increased sixfold between 1820 and 1920. Englerth, Günzer, Dawans, Orbon, Thyssen , Neuman and other steel and rolling mills, ore smelters and blast furnaces, and the Phoenix AG of mining and Metallurgical Plant was founded. 1852 In 1858 the municipality of Eschweiler was granted town charter by the highest cabinet order of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia. In 1873 a second railway line of the Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahn ran through Eschweiler , the valley railway line . The city center expanded continuously to the south and received further representative buildings such as the grammar school Grabenstrasse , the district court , the main post office, the Evangelical Trinity Church , the synagogue, the Kreisaltenheim, the Eschweiler Bank , a Reichsbank branch, an orphanage, a slaughterhouse, a Bath and laundry facilities and several schools. In 1860 the first gas lanterns lit Eschweiler at night with its 13,000 inhabitants. In 1879, the oldest was Eschweiler Karnevalsgesellschaft Josh founded and next year which found Rosenmontagszug with the first names are known Eschweiler prince Peter I. instead.
Under Ludwig Carbyn, mayor from 1902 to 1910 and founder of the non-profit housing association, Eschweiler developed into a town. During his term of office, numerous new schools, the municipal public library, the Reichsbank branch, the Eschweiler Bank, the Eschweiler Stadtsparkasse, the new district court, the churches in Pump-Stich, in Bergrath and on the Donnerberg , the botanical garden and the electricity company fell , the waterworks, the sewage system, the sewage treatment plant and the afforestation of the Hohenstein as a recreation area. His monument is in a park at the valley station .
Garrison town and World War I
The year 1910 marked the beginning of lignite mining in the north of Eschweiler. In 1913 the foundation stone was laid for the infantry barracks on the corner of Preyerstraße / Gartenstraße , into which the 2nd Battalion of the 10th Infantry Regiment 161 moved in in 1914 as part of the 15th Division , a large unit of the Prussian Army of the German Empire .
The Franco-Belgian occupation lasted from 1918 to 1929. At the height of inflation in 1923 , Eschweiler issued its own emergency money . On October 16, 1923, separatists hoisted the green-white-red flag of the Rhenish Republic on the house at Neustraße 43 in downtown Eschweiler . They opened an advertising agency in the same building. On October 22nd and 23rd, the separatists attempted a coup in the town hall. The alderman Elsen refused to hand over the town hall, however, and a self-protection was formed. A day later, the government called on the population to resist, and on November 2, the Belgian occupation forces finally had the separatists expelled from Eschweiler. In 1931, a firedamp explosion in the Reserve mine killed 32 people. In the same year the first issue of the Eschweiler Filmpost appeared .
time of the nationalsocialism
In the Reich presidential election on April 10, 1932 , 65% of the Eschweiler people voted for Hindenburg and 16% for Hitler, while the total Reich results were 50% and 30%, respectively. In the three Reichstag elections in 1932 and 1933, the NSDAP in Eschweiler was only the fourth strongest force after the center, KPD and SPD. It was not until the city council election of March 12, 1933 that the NSDAP reached 29.7% behind the center with 32.4% and before the dissolved KPD with 14.8%. As an industrial city, Eschweiler had to struggle with unemployment, mass misery and reparations, as a result of which National Socialism gained increasing influence after the seizure of power. At the constituent meeting of the city council on March 31, 1933, the NSDAP ignored the opinion of the voters and assumed power. There were individual work stoppages and fights, initiated by the extreme left.
In contrast to Aachen and other neighboring cities, the political cleansing operations went off relatively lightly. This is how the mayor Dr. Kalvelage (center) through a public statement to protect its officials from the actions. Particularly harsh measures were taken against "left enemies of the state"; so by March 1933 ten Communist Party officials were arrested.
A synagogue was built in Weisweiler in 1760 and in Eschweiler-Mitte in 1890 . The synagogue community of Eschweiler also included Gressenich and Kinzweiler and, after the solution from the Jülich Synagogue Association, was a special community from 1921 onwards. After 166 Jews were counted in Eschweiler in 1926 , the census of June 16, 1933 still counted 107, which is a share of 0, 3% corresponded. The beginning of the persecution of the Jews was marked by the closure of the Jewish school in Eschweiler on April 1, 1933. The day before, the synagogue community in Eschweiler had published the following statement in response to reports in the foreign press about atrocities: “We are solemnly protesting against the atrocities reported abroad and against any hostile attitude towards our German fatherland. We are deeply convinced that the German Jews, with their emotional ties to the German people, are willing and determined to work with the building and advancement of the fatherland. We forbid any interference in the internal affairs of Germany. A telegram was sent to the Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith on March 29, 1933. Local group and synagogue community in Eschweiler. ”In the local press, however, on April 1, Gauleiter Julius Streicher called for a“ boycott of Jews ”in the name of a specially founded central committee to ward off the Jewish atrocities and boycotts , and guards were raised everywhere in Eschweiler. There was no assault. December 1933 the Eschweiler merchants started the Aktion Deutsche, only buys in German stores ; the Reichsbetriebsgemeinschaft Handel und Handwerk held a meeting in Eschweiler with the same tenor. As in all of Germany, the synagogue in Moltkestrasse was set on fire on the night of November 10, 1938 and the interior of the Weisweiler synagogue was destroyed. A memorial stone commemorating this event was inaugurated on November 9, 1988 in Moltkestrasse. The first stumbling blocks were laid on October 18, 2008 in the city center and in Dürwiß.
The evangelical pastor Kreip was charged and arrested in 1934 for his words: “We should love our enemies, the Bible says. That is why we Christians must not hate the Jews. The fight against the Jews is therefore an injustice, and the time will come when our government must also see this. In one of the last party meetings, the local group leader pointed out that party comrades do not associate with Jews and that they are not allowed to greet or speak on the street. I will not be able to observe this arrangement; because among my childhood friends there are also Jews who have helped me. The NSDAP claims to give freedom of expression in its meetings. In reality, however, one should not express the opposite view! "
From 1933 and 1934, only a few Jewish families emigrated, while the majority opted to stay. Neither the plan drawn up by the Aachen State Police in spring 1941 to quarter all Jewish residents in an empty factory building in Wassenberg for the purpose of deportation , nor the idea of a collective camp at the district level were implemented, but smaller collective camps were set up. Two of them were in the Pump-Stich district : in a former prisoner-of-war barrack on the site of today's forest cemetery or in the rear area of a residential building near the intersection of Stolberger Strasse and Alte clearing. In the Aachen district, after the deportation, several Jewish cemeteries were cynically "incorporated into the practice of deploying foreigners," as it was said. A total of 69 Soviet prisoners of war and Eastern workers were buried in the Jewish cemetery on Talstrasse .
In today's urban area there were ten prisoner of war camps for a total of at least 500 people who were used in the pits of the Eschweiler Mining Association , in casting works and in agricultural operations. There were Soviet citizens , Italians , Poles and French . The largest camp with 200 Italians was in the single home of the Grube Reserve .
In 1937 the new construction of the Sacred Heart Church in Eschweiler-Ost was interrupted because of the Westwall construction. In 1943, a single dropped air mine destroyed the east side of Eschweiler Markt, the choir area of the church and the St. Michaels statue. Between September and November 1944, the Eschweiler population was forced to evacuate, as Eschweiler was a front-line town for three months. The inhabitants of Eschweiler came mainly to Westphalia , Saxony and Thuringia ; Most of the transport took place with special trains of the Reichsbahn , which departed from the main station. Over 60 percent of Eschweiler was destroyed during the fighting and occupied by US troops on November 22, 1944.
In 1950 the former local group leader von Weisweiler was sentenced to one and a half years imprisonment for brutally forcing a 70-year-old Jew to carry a piece of wood from the synagogue's interior through the village and then to throw it at the stake on the night of the Reichspogrom .
Post-war and municipal reorganization
After the end of the Second World War, the British military government took over the Aachen district and thus Eschweiler as well. 562 Eschweiler soldiers are missing. In 1958, Eschweiler was again a garrison town when a military unit moved into the Donnerberg camp . Big changes in Eschweiler began with the demolition of the wire factory as a result of the industrial structural change in January 1956. Housing developments, a school, the indoor swimming pool and a gymnasium were built on the site. The 1960s and 1970s were marked by further large-scale demolition, new construction and renovation work in the city center: the Inderegulierung, the construction of the four-lane Indestrasse, for which a large part of Eschweiler's old town was demolished, the demolition of Eschweiler Castle , the new construction of the St. Antonius Hospital and the New Town Hall together with CityCenter Eschweiler, the commissioning of the motorway police station , the Propsteier Wald motorway service station , the bus station , the new employment office and the administration building for the light and power stations .
The municipal reorganization came into force on January 1, 1972 , and Eschweiler grew overnight from just under 39,000 to 54,500 residents. 67 streets were renamed, and the district court district of Eschweiler again included Gressenich and Stolberg.
In 1986 the tower dome of St. Peter and Paul , which had been destroyed in 1944, was renewed and in 1987 lignite mining in the Zukunft-West opencast mine ended after a total of 530,000,000 tons of lignite had been extracted . In the 20th century, open-cast lignite mining had made several villages, for example Lohn , Erberich , Langendorf in the north of the Eschweiler urban area disappear, and after the closure gave rise to the artificial Blausteinsee .
For centuries, hard coal, lignite and the iron and metal processing industry shaped the economic structure of Eschweiler . The Eschweiler Mining Association left its mark on the city and the Inderevier . While the history of coal in October 1944 with the flooding ended the last pit because of war-related power outage, the power plant has also been operated with brown coal from the environment. The period of upheaval was accompanied by a sharp rise in unemployment, which has averaged twelve percent since the 1980s. In March 2019 the unemployment rate fell to 6.9%. Waste management high technology, the industrial and commercial park IGP and the service sector with logistics companies and large department stores form the mainstays today.
Currently (as of December 31, 2018) 55.4% of the Eschweiler population are Catholic , 11.5% Protestant and 33.1% belong to other or no religious communities according to the 2018 annual statistical report. According to the annual statistical report 2005, 66.5% of the Eschweiler population were Catholic , 13.4% Protestant and 20.1% belonged to other or no religious communities.
Since 2005, the Catholic parishes of the Deanery Eschweiler have been grouped into three communities or new parishes:
- Mitte or St. Peter and Paul ( St. Peter and Paul with the branch church St. Antonius in Röhe). The two church buildings Herz-Jesu in Eschweiler-Ost , which also belong to the GdG Eschweiler-Mitte, were desecrated on June 20, 2015 and St. Michael on June 13, 2015 due to budget cuts due to lower church tax revenues .
- Eschweiler-Süd or Heilig Geist ( St. Marien in Röthgen with the branch churches St. Barbara in Pump-Stich, St. Antonius in Bergrath, Nothberg and St. Wendelinus in Hastenrath)
- Eschweiler-Nord (St. Jöris, Kinzweiler, St. Cäcilia in Hehlrath, St. Bonifatius in Dürwiß, St. New Year's Eve in Neu-Lohn, Weisweiler and Hü Hügel).
The Protestant parish of Eschweiler comprises two districts with two churches: the Dreieinigkeitskirche and the Friedenskirche in the Pump-Stich district . The Friedenskirche was de- dedicated on May 25, 2015 ( Whit Monday ) , as the building was in dire need of renovation. Since 2015, the congregation has been celebrating its services in the Catholic Church of St. Barbara in Pump-Stich instead .
Other congregations and churches in Eschweiler are a Free Evangelical Congregation , an Agape Congregation and a New Apostolic Church . From 1972 until the late 1990s there were Jehovah's Witnesses with a Kingdom Hall in Eschweiler. The Apostolic Community was represented with a local congregation from 1955 to 2012.
The youth measuring group Himmelsmieter regularly celebrates worship with young Christians.
Around 11,000 Thais live in many communities in NRW . The association Buddhist Gemeinschaft Städteregion Aachen e. V. founded the Thai temple Wat Dhammaniwasa in 2002, initially in Aachen. In 2009, the association acquired a suitable and larger property in Eschweiler on Dürener Straße in order to be able to hold prayers and events for larger groups in the temple. After a few months of renovation work, the new temple in Eschweiler was inaugurated by the Thai community. The temple is an important meeting place for the Thai Buddhist community in Eschweiler and the surrounding area with its regular annual events. The temple is open to everyone, and regular prayers and talks with the Thai monks are also offered.
Jülich Count Wilhelm IV. Received permission to accept Jews in his country in 1226, but there is no evidence of Jews in Eschweiler at that time. It is known that in 1768 the Jew Isaac Cossmann was resident. In the 18th century, Jewish families lived in Weisweiler under the protection of the Counts of Hatzfeld , who built a synagogue in 1760 and a private school in 1844 . In 1891 the synagogue was built at Moltkestrasse 17 at the same time as the Evangelical Trinity Church . A private school was also built on Langwahn. According to the 1933 census, only a few of the 107 Eschweiler Jews managed to emigrate. 52 deported Jews are known by name. Over 40 Jewish families were at home in Eschweiler and Weisweiler.
In 1906 the Franciscan Sisters of Lüdinghausen / Nonnenwerth took over the Eschweiler School for Girls in Eschweiler, which was founded in 1879: what would later become the Lyceum or the Episcopal School of Our Lady . From 1909 to 1966 there was an Alexian monastery on Jülicher Strasse . There was a Franciscan monastery in Röhe . In St. Jöris are the ruins of the Cistercian convent of St. Jöris , today a residential complex as well as an event room and cultural center of the village.
The Alexian monastery in Eschweiler was the first branch monastery of the Cologne Alexians and existed from 1904. In 1966 the building on Jülicher Strasse was demolished. Today the street in the monastery garden still reminds of the monastery .
There are two pilgrimage sites in Eschweiler : Kinzweiler with the pilgrimage church to the Mother of Good Counsel with a miraculous image from 1767 and Nothberg with the pilgrimage church to the painful mother with a pietà from the 15th century.
A St. Longinus Chapel has stood on Königsberger Strasse since 2004 .
Ein and Ausgemeindungen
In 1823 the Mühle district of Eschweiler was transferred to Stolberg without compensation, and in 1858 Hehlrath, Kinzweiler and St. Jöris were separated from the urban area and formed the new municipality of Kinzweiler in the Aachen district until reunification . In 1932, Nothberg was incorporated together with Hastenrath and Scherpenseel from the Düren district . The largest settlement took place in 1935: Birkengang, Donnerberg , Duffenter, Steinfurt and Velau as well as the southwest Propsteier forest ( Steinbachshochwald ) and a train station went to Stolberg without compensation.
During the municipal reorganization, the city of Eschweiler was expanded on January 1, 1972 to include the municipality of Kinzweiler from the district of Aachen, the municipalities of Dürwiß and Lohn from the district of Jülich and the municipality of Weisweiler from the district of Düren.
In 2004, Stolberg again received a southern piece of the Propsteier forest.
City Councilor and Mayor
The current distribution of seats in the Eschweiler City Council results from the local elections on May 25, 2014:
|Party / list||SPD||CDU||UWG||Green||FDP||The left||Pirates||total|
Coat of arms and city colors
The coat of arms of the city of Eschweiler shows in gold a red armored (red claws, red tongue) black lion, which holds a blue key in its paws. Above the coat of arms , in the head of the shield , there is a red three-pinned wall crown.
The lion is the heraldic animal of the Dukes of Jülich , the Petrus key indicates the relationship with the Cologne Cathedral . Eschweiler was mentioned in a document in 1216 as the courtyard of the cathedral church and remained dependent on it until the 16th century. The St. Peter is the patron saint of the cathedral. The crown of the wall reminds us that Eschweiler was a medieval market town with corresponding rights. The coat of arms goes back to a seal of the aldermen that is preserved on a document from 1490. The city of Eschweiler received approval to use the coat of arms on December 13, 1880.
The city colors and the flag of Eschweiler are black-yellow-blue according to the coat of arms. Black and yellow stands for the Duchy of Jülich, blue for the Petrus key. The city colors of Eschweiler were decided in 1914 by the city council.
Since May 4, 1985, there has been a twinning with the southern English Borough of Reigate and Banstead , in whose honor the square in front of Eschweiler Central Station was officially renamed Reigate & Banstead Square on September 26, 1989 .
Regular major events in Eschweiler are the Eschweiler Music Festival (EMF) , an open-air music festival with a pub rally that has taken place every year since 1992, the day of the Eschweiler Carnival around November 11th with Sunday shopping, the Blausteinsee Cup , the Indeschau and the largest Rose Monday procession in the Euregio Aachen / Maastricht / Liège. The European Social Prize has been awarded on October 3rd every year since 1997.
In addition to numerous choirs, music associations, minstrels' trains and the youth music school, the Franz Liszt Society , the Eschweiler Jazz Club , The Trinity Gospel Company and the Kinzweiler-Burg-Rockfestival Castlemania deserve special mention.
Eschweiler has three festival halls in Weisweiler, Dürwiß and Kinzweiler. The Eschweiler Talbahnhof cultural center with a cabaret stage , cabaret and bistro is located in the city center, while another cultural center is in the St. Jöris district. The Grenzlandtheater Aachen regularly organizes events in Eschweiler, mostly in the festival halls or in the cultural center.
In Dürwiß there is a local history and craft museum in the Drimbornshof .
Castles and mansions
Eschweiler is a city of castles. The three towers of Eschweiler Castle , a former moated castle from the 13th century, as well as the moated castles Burg Röthgen , Burg Kinzweiler and Haus Kambach , which houses the golf home for the golf course there, are worth seeing . The Nothberg Castle with its Pasqualini bay window and portico deserves special attention . Weisweiler Castle and the massive outer bailey of Haus Palant are located near Weisweiler . Worth seeing are the Nothberger Hof , which was restored in 2006, as well as the Drimbornshof and the Broicher Hof in Dürwiß , which until February 2008 was the seat of the regional forest authority . Because of the lignite mining , the castles of Lürken and Laurenzberg and the manor Hausen were excavated in the northern part of the city in the 1970s ; the latter was partially rebuilt in Aachen, 15 kilometers away.
The two pilgrimage churches of St. Cäcilia Zur Painful Mother in Nothberg and St. Blasius in Kinzweiler as well as the Kinzweiler Calvary built on one of the two moths are worth seeing . The main parish church of St. Peter and Paul, with its partly Romanesque tower and rare leather pietà, as well as the former Cistercian convent in St. Jöris with its skull relic deserve special attention .
Numerous mills are located in the urban area, of which the Gressenicher Mühle near Scherpenseel stands out in terms of design and scenic location. Other mills are Herrenkunst , Leuchters Mühle, Neumühle, Hasseltmühle, Kuckhoffmühle, Dautzenbergsmühle, Kupfermühle, Ichenberger Mühle, Stoltenhoffmühle, Dobbelsteinsche Mühle, Patternmühle, Scherpenseeler Mühle, Untere, Middle and Obere Knippmühle, Ölmühle am Omerbach, Hovermühle, Bendenmühle Palants Mühle, Rößlers Mühle and Vogels Mühle.
A dense network of Villae Rusticae stretched across the Eschweiler Land in Roman times; to them belonged the Propsteier Villa in the Propsteier Forest, the Villa near the Hovermühle (today Lynen-Werk) near Eschweiler-Ost, the Villa von Lürken, the Villa near Haus Palant and a well-documented Villa near Hastenrath. A late antique cemetery with 30 burials belongs to a Roman estate ( Villa Weisweiler 39 ) near the town of Eschweiler-Lohn , which was relocated in the course of the open-cast brown coal mine .
The approximately 80 gravestones in the Eschweiler cemetery date from the years 1820 to 1941. They were documented from 1991 to 1994 by Dieter Peters.
The Weisweiler cemetery probably dates from the 16th century; the oldest tombstone there so far is from 1691. The 50 or so tombstones date from the 17th century to 1940. The complex is one of the oldest Jewish cemeteries in the Rhineland.
Natural and cultural monuments
Cultural monuments are the abandoned Gut Bongart in the Bovenberger Forest and the two Kinzweiler Motten Mühlenbongert and Kalvarienberg.
Every year thirty to forty so-called wedding trees are planted by newlyweds in the city area.
On the one hand, the leisure center at Blausteinsee near Dürwiß, which is inviting for swimming, sailing, rowing, surfing, diving, hiking and stopping off, and on the other hand the 18-hole golf course Haus Kambach in Kinzweiler, are of national importance.
In addition to numerous privately and commercially operated sports facilities such as the largest indoor soccer facility in the Aachen region, which serves as a training camp for the Alemannia Aachen football club , Eschweiler has the Dürwiss outdoor pool with a slide, the Jahnstrasse family and fun pool with a wave pool and slide, and the Heat exchange built next to the ice rink on August-Thyssen-Strasse , which is currently closed and its further use is not yet guaranteed. Other sports facilities include the skater facility in Indestrasse , the large sports facility with a stadium in Dürwiß, the motocross site of the MSC Grenzland 1982 e. V. bei Neu-Lohn as well as 16 sports fields, 13 gymnastics and sports halls, 5 tennis courts with a total of 26 courts , more than 4 riding arenas , 3 fitness trails , 2 small-caliber shooting ranges and a mini golf course .
The Willi Kauhsen Racing Team was based in Eschweiler in the 1970s , a motorsport racing team that initially competed in the Interseries and with Alfa Romeo in the Prototype World Championship before it was active in Formula 2 and finally in 1979 in cooperation with the FH Aachen dared a short-lived ascent into Formula 1 .
The Blausteinsee Cup is a regatta competition that has been held annually on the Blausteinsee since 2003 .
There are numerous football clubs in Eschweiler:
- Eschweiler Sportgemeinschaft ESG 1906 e. V.
- FC Germania 07 Dürwiß e. V.
- FC Rhenania 1920 Lohn e. V.
- FC "Rhenania" e. V. 1913 Eschweiler
- Football club Eschweiler 1929 e. V.
- SC 1912 Berger Preuss e. V. (The SV 1912 Nothberg eV and the FC "Preußen" 1912 Hastenrath eV merged to form the joint club SC 1912 Berger Preuss in 2014)
- SC "Movement" Laurenzberg 1932 e. V.
- Sportfreunde 1919 Hehlrath e. V.
- SV 1919 St. Jöris e. V.
- SV "Falke" Bergrath
- SV "Fortuna" Weisweiler 08 e. V.
Eschweiler has produced a number of musicians and bands from the fields of rock 'n' roll, rock, kraut, punk, new wave, industrial, pop, blues rock, heavy metal and avant-garde. A selection:
Mick and his Children, The Protects, The Strangers, Ventures Group, Lucky Paranoia, Mackintosh, The Fume, Höllenfeuer, Trickbeat, Linkträger, Artless, Sozialmaffia, Egotrip, Hervé & kilowatt, The parking garage hangers, The circle of those affected, Sieg or Siberia, Turquoise Casket, Neue Combo, Rottweiler, Voodoo, Channel 5, Chapter Four, Play for Roses, Men without Nerves, Step by Step, Rückblende, 40 Melba, German Phil, Fathers of Prevention, Ugly Germans, Heinz X, Cadillac, Take- Off, Hocus Pocus, Rob Crusoe Band, Six Four & More, Black & White, The Good Old Boys, Saturday Night Fish Fry, Chain of Fools.
Norbert Schmitz describes the Eschweiler scene of the 1950s and 1960s in his book Beatball - When Rock 'n' Roll Came to Eschweiler . Norbert Schmitz covers the period from the 1970s to 2013 in the book Peace: Eschweiler - Berlin - Eschweiler (both books published by Palast-Verlag).
The fanzines Purer Fun (1982/83, 4 issues) and Skull! Dealt with the independent music scene with special consideration of Eschweiler actors. (1987/88, 2 issues) as well as the novel Zeittotschläger (2016), all edited or written by Klaus Wittmann.
Trumpeter Corps / Fanfare Corps
At peak times, Eschweiler had eight fanfare corps, which are known far beyond the borders to this day. At the end of the 1990s the Fanfarenkorps KG Blaue-Funken Artillerie and at the beginning of 2000 the Starlight trumpeters left the musical stage. Fanfare Trumpeter Day has been held every four years since 1989 . During the whole day, the individual Eschweiler corps appear at various points in the city center, before each corps presents its skills again in the evening on the market square.
Active fanfare corps:
- The original Eschweiler fanfare corps of the KG "Rote Funken Artillerie" (1952)
- The Nothberg Fanfare Trumpeters (1953)
- The Weisweiler (1957)
- The Kaafsäck (1959)
- The Trompeterkorps Eefelkank e. V. (1959)
- The Regimental Trumpeter Bergrath (1988)
Former fanfare corps:
- The fanfare corps of the KG Blaue-Funken Artillery
- The Starlight Trumpeters (formerly the fanfare corps of KG Klee Oepe Jonge)
- The Indesound Trumpeters (2001 - 2009)
Eschweiler is a Rhenish carnival stronghold. Since 2006, Eschweiler has had the third largest Rose Monday procession in Germany. Carnival plays a major role in the city's active club life . In the city, the “ Carnival Committee of the City of Eschweiler ” coordinates the events. The " Eschweiler Carnival Museum " has officially existed since 2007 .
Since the Eschweiler main parish church also has a side altar dedicated to St. Michael , Eschweiler-Mitte celebrates two fairgrounds a year - once with Michael and once with Peter and Paul.
The Eschweiler cuisine corresponds to the cuisine of the city of Aachen and the entire Aachen region. It is essentially shaped by the Rhine. Aachen specialties include mussels, Panhas and Sauerbraten (with a sauce of raisins or sultanas , turnip tops and Printen ), potato pancakes (in Eischwiele Platt Riefkooch ), usually with black bread, apple butter ( Appel Kruck ) or turnip tops ( Sehm ), black pudding raw or fried, ( Flönz / Puttes / Blootwuësch ) and Hemmel on Äed ( heaven and earth , that means mashed potatoes with applesauce and fried black pudding or fried panhas). Popular and typical desserts are Mutzen as well as rice flatbreads , apricot flatbreads and pear flatbreads ( Riesflaam , Aprikuuseflaam , Schwatze Flaam ); Traditionally, pear pancakes are served at funerals in Aachen and the surrounding area.
Transport and infrastructure
Eschweiler's arterial roads run in a star shape towards the west (Würselen, Broichweiden), east (Langerwehe, Düren), north-west (Alsdorf, Hoengen), north (Aldenhoven, Jülich), north-east (Inden), south-west (Stolberg, Roetgen) and south-east (Gressenich, Langerwehe-Heistern). The city is traversed by two main axes in an east-west direction: the federal motorway 4 and the state road 223 .
Landesstraße 223 (formerly B 264) runs, coming from Broichweiden , on the Eschweiler city area through Röhe , city center, Eschweiler-Ost . From the Eschweiler-Ost junction, the B 264 runs past Weisweiler , Hüelte and Wilhelmshöhe . Then it continues over Langerwehe towards Düren . Since it was originally run separately on one-way streets in the city center for each direction, it was decided in the 1960s and 1970s to demolish part of the Eschweiler city center and to make the federal highway of that time in a straight line and multi-lane.
Eschweiler can be reached from the A 4 Olpe-Cologne-Aachen-Eindhoven via three motorway entrances: Eschweiler-West (5a), Eschweiler-Ost (5b) and Weisweiler (6). There are also direct connections to the A 44 Lüttich – Aachen – Jülich – Mönchengladbach via Aldenhoven (6), Alsdorf (5b) and Broichweiden (5a) .
Eschweiler has two bus stations, Eschweiler Bushof and Eschweiler-Talbahnhof / Raiffeisenplatz , which, along with the Eschweiler Hbf , Grabenstraße and Rathaus / CityCenter stops , are the main nodes in the city. The slightly more than 100 bus stops of the Aachener Verkehrsverbund AVV are served by an express bus route , a night bus route , four city bus routes and eight other routes. They connect all parts of the city with each other and with the city center and the neighboring towns of Aachen (express bus and night bus), Aldenhoven, Alsdorf, Düren , Frenz, Gressenich (city bus), Hamich , Heistern , Hoengen, Jülich, Langerwehe, Stolberg, Warden and Werth (city bus) . The night bus line N 13 leaves at 1:00 a.m. from Hüüle via Weisweiler and Eschweiler Bushof to Aachen. The bus Rheinland GmbH (BVR) runs a disco bus.
The ESbus GmbH as the successor to Horst perpetrators transport company GmbH is a wholly owned subsidiary of ASEAG and operates in the urban area Eschweiler some lines.
Eschweiler currently has six stations. The Eschweiler Central Station is located at the Aachen Cologne high-speed line ; The Nothberg stop on this route was closed in 2009. The other five stations belonging to the Euregiobahn are Eschweiler West, Eschweiler Talbahnhof / Raiffeisen-Platz, Eschweiler-Nothberg, Eschweiler-Weisweiler and Eschweiler-St. Jöris .
The first of the four named stations on the Euregiobahn went into operation on September 11, 2004. The St. Jöris station was opened on June 12, 2014. Another stop is planned in Eschweiler-Aue . In Eschweiler, the Euregiobahn uses in particular the valley railway line Eschweiler-Aue-Tal-Weisweiler-Frenz-Inden-Jülich-Hochneukirch -Rheydt-Odenkirchen , which was opened in 1873 by the Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft . Eschweiler Hauptbahnhof was officially opened on September 1, 1841 on the route of the Rheinische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft . Since 2009, the Eschweiler-Weisweiler station has been connected to the Langerwehe station via the new Eschweiler-Weisweiler – Langerwehe railway line.
For several decades, the main station in the neighboring town of Stolberg was in the Eschweiler urban area.
As part of the expansion of the Stolberg train station into a freight traffic distribution center (Euregio-Railport), the Eschweiler Aue station area is also included. The station currently has 6 tracks:
Gleis 1, Streckengleis Gleis 2, Überholgleis, Nutzlänge 300 m Gleis 3, Abstellgleis, Nutzlänge 200 m Gleis 4, Abstellgleis, Nutzlänge 250 m Gleis 5, Abstellgleis, Nutzlänge 177 m Gleis 6, Abstellgleis, Nutzlänge 170 m
Starting in January 2019, the primary products for the Eschweiler pipe works ESW will be reloaded in the Aue station. EVS has renovated its freight yard there and created a large loading zone , leading to the Euregio railport with a branch in Aue. So far, the primary products coming from Italy and Croatia have been handled in the Stolberg freight yard area of Atsch on Haldenstrasse and delivered by truck to the pipe works in the Aue.
The nearest airports are Maastricht Aachen Airport (around 40 km), Liège Airport (around 60 km), Cologne / Bonn Airport (around 60 km) and Düsseldorf Airport (around 80 km, direct connection via RE ). Frankfurt Rhein-Main Airport is connected via the regional express and ICE International (change to ICE in Aachen Hbf ).
None of the flowing waters in Eschweiler is navigable. The Rhine-Maas Canal , which was planned several times in the 20th century but never built, would have made Eschweiler a port city.
Eschweiler is the seat of the Eschweiler District Court , the health center of the health department of the Aachen city region and the Aachen district police inspection , southern district service . Eschweiler is one of the ten offices of the Aachen-Düren Employment Agency and the headquarters and management of the job center in the Aachen region. Until the restructuring in 2007, the city was the seat of the Eschweiler Forestry Office . There was also a motorway police station in Eschweiler, the building of which was moved to a federal police station on August 21, 2015 . Since then, the Eschweiler Youth Welfare Office has been looking after all illegal, minor refugees who are picked up in the Eschweiler area.
In addition to numerous church libraries in Eschweiler, the town hall houses the city library , which with around 40,000 books and media is the successor to the public library and public reading hall founded on November 8, 1909 with an initial inventory of 800 volumes .
Newspapers and media
The Eschweiler Filmpost has been published since autumn 1931 , a free weekly newspaper that appears every Wednesday with the Eschweiler cinema program, business and private classified ads, among other things. It is the oldest still to be published in Germany. It is distributed to 40,000 households in Eschweiler and the neighboring towns to the east.
The free internet newspaper Eschweiler Rundschau for Eschweiler and the surrounding area has been available since February 2005 .
Health and welfare
The St. Antonius Hospital is the largest single hospital in the Aachen district; the Euregio Breast Center (EBZ) is also located here . The Medical Quality Network Eschweiler e. V. MQN takes care of the establishment and operation of the emergency service practice at St.-Antonius-Hospital, and Storchenbiß e. V. offers courses there for expectant and childbearing mothers. The Parkklinik Röhe in Röhe specializes in psychotherapeutic medicine.
The social psychiatric center Triangle of the Aachen district and the addiction advice center Café Kick of the Diakonisches Werk in the Aachen church district and the Aachen district are also located in Eschweiler . Headquarters of the Arbeiterwohlfahrt Kreisverband Aachen-Land e. V. is Dürwiss . In the stone road to which was public health department of the circle Aachen. Since the founding of the Aachen city region, this has been a branch of the health department of the Aachen city region.
The Eschweiler Taler is a bonus program introduced in 2004 by four Eschweiler pharmacies. The Taler can be redeemed in many Eschweiler retail outlets.
Children's and youth facilities
For children and adolescents, there is the OASE children's and youth club in the city center in Eschweiler , as well as the St. Peter and Paul Catholic children's and youth center , the extracurricular, multicultural and socio-educational urban play and learning rooms Maasstrasse and Hüttenstrasse , the Protestant children - and youth clubs Dürwiß and Weisweiler , the youth club of the Free Evangelical Congregation as well as other games, cooking and handicraft offers of Catholic parishes . In the Kids Klub , a project of the German Child Protection Association Eschweiler e. V. , children have been given qualified care and support in six Eschweiler elementary schools before and after class and on all holidays since 1995. The Christian Workers Youth Eschweiler Pump-Stich (CAJ) offers activities in several groups: Whitsun camp, Easter sailing during Holy Week on the IJsselmeer and projects such as Contaction , Everyone is looking away, we are looking and the action Z-civil courage, against xenophobia, anonymity and Violence .
Independent institutions in Eschweiler are the Stadtjugendring Eschweiler e. V. as well as numerous youth departments of the clubs, educational aid institutions and holiday organizations.
Eschweiler has 21 kindergartens as well as the day care center Der kleine Prinz des Kreis Aachen, the three day care centers Hedwig-Wachenheim , Zauberhut and Schillerstrasse of the workers' welfare organization and the day care center of the St. Antonius Hospital . The Christian Kindergarten Association Eschweiler e. V. , the kindergarten of the German Red Cross , the Municipal daycare center for children Lollipop , day care and after-school Käthe Strobel and the partial day care source Street , on the Driesch and Weierstraße .
St. Josef Children's Home Eschweiler
The St. Josef Children's Home Eschweiler or St. Josef Children's, Youth and Family Aid is a children's home , formerly an orphanage and is located in the city center on Hehlrather Straße. The sponsor is the Catholic Parish of St. Peter and Paul .
On September 2, 1889, the orphanage was founded in the Leo House on Eschweiler Markt. Sisters of the order of poor servants of Jesus Christ were called to look after the house . The new Sankt-Josef-Orphanage on the corner of Hehlrather Strasse and Reuleauxstrasse in the city center was opened on September 10, 1896 in place of the old house. This new building for around 100 children was made possible by a donation from Johann Werden from Eschweiler- Röhe and had 57 rooms, including 4 school, 2 dining and 4 bedrooms. This is where 12 sisters of the order from the mother house in Dernbach in the Westerwald began their work. In front of the house was a grotto with a statue of Our Lady of Lourdes . In December 1957 the new building financed by the parish was completed.
Since alleged abuses in the home from the 1950s to 1970s have been reported in books and the media, the facility has had an increased public presence since the early 2000s and sparked discussions about such facilities in general.
In Eschweiler there are eleven primary schools , one comprehensive school ( forest school in Pump-Stich), two secondary schools (Dürwiß, city center), one secondary school ( Patternhof ), two grammar schools ( municipal grammar school , popularly: the city and episcopal school of love , popularly: the nun bunker ), the Astrid Lindgren School for Educational Aid, the Erich Kästner School for the Language Disabled, the Willi Fährmann Förderschule in the Association for Educational Aid and Learning Disabled, the Dürwiss Youth Traffic School, the Eschweiler City Music School, a vocational college , an adult education center and a study center the FernUni Hagen .
The first Eschweiler barracks was the Eschweiler infantry barracks in Preyerstraße (formerly Kasernenstraße). After the Second World War taught Belgium both the barracks Camp Astrid in Propsteier forest, where the Belgian armed forces and a large ammunition depot remained until 1995, and at the Eschweiler city forest , the camp Eschweiler (later Camp Zeebrugge ), which in 1958 the Bundeswehr camp Eschweiler ( later Donnerberg camp , today Donnerberg barracks ) took over.
Hotels and gastronomy
Eschweiler has twelve accommodation facilities, including the Best Western Hotel de Ville in the old town , which uses the old town hall as a conference venue. There are numerous restaurants throughout the city, especially in the Markt / Schnellengasse area.
Emergency response and disaster control
The Eschweiler Voluntary Fire Brigade (volunteer fire brigade with full-time workers) has been administered in its own Office 37, Office for Fire Protection, Rescue Service and Civil Protection, since 2018, and is divided into eight voluntary fire engines and the full-time guard. The regular rescue service for the Eschweiler city area and the ambulance are carried out by the full-time staff. Furthermore, there are two special units in the Eschweiler fire brigade: A logistics group, which is largely made up of volunteer comrades from the inner city fire brigade, brings additional material to the scene with the help of swap trucks and logistics vehicles. The platform is run by the city region unit Messzug-Nord is also stationed in Eschweiler, but not how the logistics group at the fire station on Florianweg but at the fire station of the fire engine Weisweiler. The measuring train is manned by personnel from almost all voluntary fire fighting trains who have completed appropriate special training. Another special federal vehicle, stationed in Herzogenrath-Merkstein, will complement the north measuring train to become a measuring train based on the NRW concept.
Outside the emergency departments, young people are involved in one of the six youth fire brigade groups . The Eschweiler fire brigade is completed with a marching band, a musical train and the honorary department for firefighters who have left the service.
Incoming emergency calls are dispatched and the fire brigade's emergency services are alerted by the company's own operations center. All units not operated by the Eschweiler fire brigade can only be alerted by the integrated control center in Aachen.
In the civil protection and medical service to volunteers involved in one of the two local branches of the German Red Cross ( DRK ) local association Eschweiler and Dürwiß, or St. John accident assistance ( JUH ). Together they also operate the 4th operational unit of the Aachen City Region, which consists of a command, medical, support and technical unit. The mission unit is managed by the DRK. The areas of sanitation and technology are also provided by the DRK, the area of care is provided by the JUH. Furthermore, helpers from the DRK local associations in Eschweiler and Dürwiß form the injured decontamination specialist group . The JUH will provide a patient tray for the Aachen city region.
The Malteser Hilfsdienst (MHD) is also located in the Weisweiler district . These are also active in an emergency unit, but this belongs to the nearby Düren district . For the city region of Aachen, the MHD provides three ambulances for the so-called special needs rescue service, which are alerted by the control center of the city region of Aachen and manned by qualified volunteers in the event of larger operations.
There is also a local branch of the Technical Relief Organization (THW) in Eschweiler , right next to the fire station on Florianweg. In addition to the basic units of a THW local association, it operates a specialist room for rooms .
The German Life Rescue Society ( DLRG ) is active in the city with the two local groups Eschweiler and Weisweiler. Your helpers train regularly in the Jahnstrasse indoor swimming pool and provide the rescue service at Rursee and Blausteinsee . Individual helpers are also involved in disaster control through their service in water rescue trains.
Eschweiler's industrial and commercial branches are precision mechanics, metal processing, foundries, plastics, special adhesives, paper, food and logistics: UPS , Bofrost , Hermes , forwarding agents, Aldi Süd distribution and training center near Kinzweiler. Furthermore, the Weisweiler lignite power plant with a neighboring, legally independent waste incineration plant (MVA) Weisweiler, Elektrowerk Weisweiler and industrial and commercial park (IGP) Eschweiler. Numerous companies have settled in the Commercial Technology Center (GeTeCe) in Gartenstrasse. Eschweiler is also the headquarters of West Pharmaceutical Services , the German subsidiary of the American group West Pharmaceutical Services Inc. and the world's largest manufacturer of elastomeric primary packaging for the pharmaceutical industry.
Today's Eschweiler economy has around 990 retail businesses, 500 craft businesses, 120 wholesalers and 150 industrial and processing companies, of which only one company still belongs to the mining sector. Listed according to specialist groups, the first five places contain around 230 licensed restaurants, 230 construction companies, 110 grocery stores, 80 manufacturing, textile and wool shops and 60 hairdressers.
The Eschweiler branch of the Landeszentralbank in Englerthstrasse was closed on December 31, 1967. The building erected in 1904 was demolished in May 1968 for a parking lot. A corner of the building 1.50 meters high and one meter wide was symbolically left standing. Other former Eschweiler credit institutions are Eschweiler Bank and Stadtsparkasse Eschweiler .
The Indeschau has been taking place every two years on the market square in the city center since 2002. It is a consumer show for medium-sized Eschweiler companies.
The three-country corner show was a consumer show that took place a total of nine times between 1987 and 2001 on the “Driesch” square in the eastern city center.
People born in the city of Eschweiler include the "father of kinematics" Franz Reuleaux and the economists Götz Briefs and Wilhelm Lexis . The tenor Theo Altmeyer and the composer Wilhelm Rinkens belonged to the world of music ; other notable artists are Herbert Bardenheuer and Thomas Virnich . Important entrepreneurs were Friedrich Englerth , Hugo Merckens as well as August and Joseph Thyssen . Eschweiler and Eschweiler known from the media are also the porn actress Michaela Schaffrath , the actresses Kerstin Linnartz and Roswitha Schreiner , the ghostwriter Karl-Heinz Smuda and the war criminal Heinrich Boere .
Not born in the city, but people closely connected to Eschweiler through their lives and work are, along with others, the founder of the housing cooperative and mayor Ludwig Carbyn , the dean and hospital founder Matthias Deckers , and the long-time chairman of the Central Council of Muslims in Germany Nadeem Elyas , the industrialists Johann Heinrich Graeser and Friedrich Thyssen , the chairman of the Marburger Bund Rudolf Henke and the Preyer family of painters .
The Eschweiler dialect, the Aischwiile Plat or Eischwiele Platt , belongs to the Ripuarian dialect group . Typical for Germans of other dialect groups are dat and wat for "das" resp. "What", j or ch for g , so z. B. in "Ne jut jebratene Jans is ne jute Jabe Jottes", and the Rhenish progressive form , as in "Isch bin am esse".
The ending -es marks locations: Backes “Backhaus”, Jeckes “Asylum”, Kackes “Toilet”, Kruffes “Close dwelling” (from kruffe “crawl”), Pannes “ Pannhaus ”, Schneckes “Schneckenhaus”. Compare this with the Mäckes common in the Rhineland for “McDonald's”.
For example, by the pronunciation of the word Talbahnhof you can recognize the native Eschweiler: He emphasizes the name on the second syllable: Talbáhnhof . Likewise elementary high school . For outsiders, the Eschweiler sentence melody and non-German diphthongs such as öi are striking.
While the sentence “It rains” in Eischwiele Platt means “Et es am rääne” or “Ed-es am rääne”, Eschweiler's colloquial language is “Et reeschnet” or “Et is am reeschnen” in the Rhenish form .
Miscellaneous and curiosities
Names after Eschweiler
The fossil seeds of prehistoric pseudo-chestnuts ( Castanopsis ) can be found in the lignite mining areas around Eschweiler . This genus represents a significant part of the raw material of the region's lignite deposits, but now only exists in the wild in eastern Asia. The fossilized wood of the prehistoric Castanopsis (or a closely related genus) was described as Castanoxylon eschweilerense , in German roughly "Eschweiler-Kastanienholz". It often occurs in the form of entire stumps and branches in lignite.
Eschweiler is nicknamed the cradle of Rhenish mining , Indestadt , shopping town and Kallmannshuuse , translated as "Quasselstrippenhausen".
Eschweiler is often abbreviated to E'ler , especially before the date on signatures. Ewr is in the telephone books of Deutsche Telekom . The Eschweiler city buses are abbreviated as EW : EW1, EW2, EW3, EW4 as well as the train stations EW-Aue, EW-West, EW-Talbahnhof / Raiffeisenplatz, EW-Nothberg and EW-Weisweiler. The LOCODE is DE ESR.
In the postal code system introduced in the 1940s, Eschweiler had the postal code 22c . In the system introduced in the early 1960s, it was 518 , later, from 1974, then 5180 . The Eschweiler routing area 518 consisted of five postcodes for sixteen places, which, apart from Eschweiler itself, had the addition / via Eschweiler (places in italics do not belong to the city of Eschweiler today):
- 518: Eschweiler, Eschweiler-Hastenrath, Eschweiler-Scherpenseel, Eschweiler-Volkenrath
- 5181: Fronhoven, Hamich , Hehlrath, Heistern , Kinzweiler, Laurenzberg, Lohn, Merzbrück, St. Jöris, Schevenhütte , Schönthal , Wenau
- 5182: Weisweiler
- 5183: Dürwiss
- 5184: Gressenich
Since 1993 the postal code for Eschweiler has been 52249 ; Eschweiler is thus one of the largest cities in Germany in terms of inhabitants, which can get by with a single delivery postcode.
- Monnartz, Rainer: The garrison and military history of the cities of Aachen, Eschweiler and Stolberg 1814 to 1960, ISBN 978-3-86933-043-3 , Helios Verlag Aachen 2010
- Series of publications by the Eschweiler History Association (23 volumes up to the beginning of 2005)
- Eschweiler in its history (two volumes)
- Nothberger Castle (two volumes)
- Eschweiler in old views (two volumes)
- eschweiler - Streiflichter '75
- Eschweiler - a city you can touch
- Street names in Eschweiler, ISBN 3-9803354-7-X
- Discover Eschweiler (hiking) guide of the Eifelverein Eschweiler, ISBN 3-921805-24-4
- Eschweiler - Heimatlicher Rundwanderweg, Städt. Forestry Office of the City of Eschweiler, June 1980
- The beautiful Eifel: Edition Eschweiler
- Eschweiler during the occupation from 1918 to 1929, Dr. Wilhelm Bender, Eschweiler History Association 1991
- Eschweiler local history of the Nazi era, Heinz Viehöver, Eschweiler Geschichtsverein 2002, ISBN 3-9803354-3-7
- Forced labor in the border zone - The Aachen district in World War II, Thomas Müller, Aachen 2003, ISBN 3-8322-1301-5
- Jülich / Aachen primitive noble family from Broich zu Dürwiß, 800 years of family history, Otto Ferdinand von Broich 2005
- Where horror lurks - bloodsuckers and headless horsemen, werewolves and revenants on Inde, Erft and Rur, ed. v. Peter Kremer ISBN 3-929928-01-9 and ISBN 3-928493-45-0
- Like me at os sprisch: Eschweiler dialect dictionary, ISBN 3-9803354-5-3
- Annual statistical reports of the city of Eschweiler
- City of Eschweiler
- Website of the Eschweiler history association
- eischwieleplatt.de - Dictionary of the Eschweiler dialect
- Link catalog on the subject of Eschweiler at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Karl-Heinz Smuda, ghostwriter, editor and publisher (Berlin, Norfolk / Virginia, USA): Childhood and youth in Eschweiler
- Population of the municipalities of North Rhine-Westphalia on December 31, 2019 - update of the population based on the census of May 9, 2011. State Office for Information and Technology North Rhine-Westphalia (IT.NRW), accessed on June 17, 2020 . ( Help on this )
- Marie-Luise Herrmann, Adam Elsen: The evacuation in autumn 1944 and the return to Eschweiler 1945. In: Series of publications of the Eschweiler history association. No. 15, 1994, .
- Martin Bünermann, Heinz Köstering: The communities and districts after the municipal territorial reform in North Rhine-Westphalia . Deutscher Gemeindeverlag, Cologne 1975, ISBN 3-555-30092-X .
- Aachener Zeitung: Labor market report: Fewer unemployed than a year ago. Retrieved February 20, 2020 .
- Eschweiler in Figures Facts Annual Statistical Report 2018 , accessed on January 17, 2020.
- Eschweiler ( Memento of the original from May 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , kkrjuelich.de, accessed on May 27, 2015.
- In Eschweiler, both denominations share the Catholic Church. In: Domradio. May 25, 2015, accessed May 25, 2015 .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 305 .
- orte-der-vielfalt.de: Eschweiler ( Memento from September 5, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
- Aachener Nachrichten: Exchange: Eschweiler seals new town twinning. Retrieved June 4, 2019 .
- Stoltenhoffmühle - Detailed description , Rheinische Industriekultur
- Regatta results on: vwvblausteinsee.de ( Memento of the original from January 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Sports clubs of the city of Eschweiler , eschweiler.de, accessed on December 20, 2012
- Aachener Zeitung of March 14, 2014
- Original Eschweiler
- The Nothberger fanfare trumpeters
- Trumpet "The Weisweiler"
- The Kaafsäck
- Trompeterkorps Eefelkank e. V.
- Regimental Trumpeter Bergrath
- Website of the house of December 27, 2010
- Hermine Schneider's private website about her time in the children's home from December 27, 2010
- Private website “Exheim” about the allegations ( memento of the original from November 27, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. dated December 27, 2010
- Politicians' website about the book "Beatings in the Name of the Lord" by Peter Wensierski ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. dated December 27, 2010
- Eschweiler fire department. Retrieved November 13, 2015 .
- DRK local association Eschweiler: Section injured decontamination