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Overburden dump of the Meuro opencast mine near Großräschen
The approximately 200 m high Monte Kali near Heringen
Mine dump near Loos-en-Gohelle
The pointed cone of the 153 m high dump near Volkstedt

Under stockpile ( Old High German : halda "Hillside", Middle High German halde ) refers to a mostly artificial accumulation or deposit of material ( debris ) above the surrounding ground surface .

Artificial heaps

Artificial heaps (also called dump or landfill depending on the shape ) are created

Heaps in mining

In mining, Halde refers to an artificially thrown up hill consisting of the cleared, worthless material (called deaf rock in mining, mountains in coal mining , overburden in open-cast and potash mining ) that accumulates during the extraction of raw materials . The dump is on land that has not been mined. If there is a dump on land that has been mined, one speaks of a dump. With the embankments or dumps you get rid of this overburden.

Numerous such mining dumps are located in the Aachener Revier , in the Ruhr area and in the Saarland . In the Mansfelder Land , too , the heaps of copper slate mining are visible from afar. The white spoil heaps of the potash mining in Hesse, with the around 200 m high Monte Kali, are characteristic . In the flat lignite mining areas of the Rhineland , Lusatia and Central Germany , the spoil heaps of the opencast mines, also known as high tipping , are prominent elevations.

Dump forms

Depending on the type of fill, one classifies cone heaps or table heaps . While in the former, a cone in the natural angle of repose is created by the pile in the center of the pile body, in a slab pile the waste material is tipped onto a natural slope . The design of the slope in the natural angle of repose often does not guarantee adequate stability . The stability of the embankment can be increased by appropriately wide berms or the flattening of the heap body.


Many dumps reach considerable heights in some cases. Dumps that are not filled up, green themselves over time. Others are specifically renatured in landscape planning measures .

However, many heaps cannot be left to their own devices as they often contain harmful substances (often the mined ores, albeit in unprofitable concentrations) that are released when the rock is weathered.

A well-known example are the heaps in the Ore Mountains near Schneeberg . The dead rock stored there contains the radioactive element uranium , which was mined as ore there . Before the dump was rehabilitated, radioactive dust was blown into the area by the wind, which posed the risk of Schneeberger disease .

Natural heaps

Even where a large amount of debris naturally accumulates, one sometimes speaks of a dump, e.g. B. in a dump or block dump .

Web links

Wiktionary: Halde  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Halde  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Hans Murawski, Wilhelm Meyer: Geological dictionary . 11th edition. Elsevier / Spektrum, Heidelberg 2004, ISBN 3-8274-1445-8 , pp. 92 .
  2. Ernst-Ulrich Reuther: Introduction to mining . 1st edition, Verlag Glückauf GmbH, Essen 1982, ISBN 3-7739-0390-1
  3. Take a deep breath - in the land of the white mountains. Website of the community of Widdershausen an der Werra ( Memento of the original from November 7, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.widdershausen.de
  4. ^ Halden - the mountains of the Ruhr area ruhr-tourismus.de
  5. ↑ The Big Wood Halde adventure area in Bergkamen www.halden.ruhr
  6. ^ Lutz Geissler: Schneeberger disease. In: geoberg.de. August 20, 2003, archived from the original on June 14, 2010 ; Retrieved November 9, 2014 .