Lusatian lignite mining area

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lusatian district with power plants and lignite mining areas, until 1990 it also extended further south to the triangle with Poland and the Czech Republic
View over the active Jänschwalde opencast mine

The Lusatian lignite district , formerly also known as the East Elbe lignite district , is a mining district in the south-east of Brandenburg and north-east Saxony. These include the currently active lignite mining areas Nochten , Reichwalde , Welzow-Süd and Jänschwalde . With there in the open pit funded lignite power plants are Jänschwalde , Schwarze Pumpe and Boxberg and the HKW Chemnitz-Nord supplied. The output directly generated here is therefore around 8,000 megawatts.

In 2009, active lignite mining pumped out around 230 million cubic meters of groundwater (“ swamp water ”) - more than all other users put together: Industry, agriculture and drinking water works in Brandenburg together have around 160 million cubic meters.

Boundaries and division

Boxberg power plant in May 2007
Jänschwalde power plant in July 2004
Black Pump power plant in August 2005

The Lusatian lignite mining area consists of mining areas in Lower Lusatia and northern Upper Lusatia (Brandenburg and Northeast Saxony). There is also the Upper Lusatian mining district near Zittau (Saxony and Poland).

Brown coal and its importance

In the Lausitz occurring brown coal of the 2. Lausitzer seam has a calorific value of 7900 to 9300 kJ / kg, ash content is between 6% and 14%, the water content is 50-60% and the sulfur content amounts to 0.8 2.8%. In total, the deposit reserves amount to 12.1 billion tons, of which 3.6 billion tons can be extracted and 1.3 billion tons are developed in open-cast mining. Lignite in Lusatia originated around 15-20 million years ago. The seams are 35–120 meters deep and about 8-16 meters thick. A total of 33% of German lignite is mined in the Lusatian mining district. The number of jobs is estimated at 8,200, with suppliers at 25,000. The dominant form of use today is the generation of electricity in large power plants close to the site.

Greenhouse gas emissions

The use of lignite in the district's power plants also generates large amounts of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, which is responsible for global warming . The power plant with the fourth highest proportion of emissions in Germany is the Jänschwalde power plant with 1200 grams of CO 2 per kilowatt hour. The Boxberg and Schwarze Pump plants occupy places 10 and 14 with 1,100 and 1,000 grams per kilowatt hour. The values ​​for hard coal power plants are approx. 200 grams lower. The average value in the German electricity mix , including systems with wind, water, nuclear power and photovoltaics, was 530 grams per kilowatt hour in 2006. The total emissions in 2006 were 23.7 million tons of carbon dioxide for the Jänschwalde site, 15.5 million tons for Boxberg and 12.2 million tons for Schwarze Pump.

In order to reduce CO 2 emissions, the Vattenfall Group planned to set up a test facility for CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) at the Jänschwalde site . In the long term, the entire power plant park should be converted to this technology. Due to the resistance in the population and the rejection in other federal states, the future of the project is unclear. The Brandenburg state government has meanwhile also considered building new lignite power plants without CCS.

Coal refinement

The products are refined to make lignite briquettes , pulverized coal and fluidized bed coal at the Schwarze Pump location. In 2007, 351.4 kt of briquettes, 690.1 kt of dust, 220.8 kt of fluidized bed coal and 3.9 kt of lignite xylite were produced, using a coal quantity of 2,545,657 tons (wet weight).

The production of gasoline and diesel oil as well as town gas and coke was historically significant .

The open-cast mines

Overburden conveyor bridge 33 F60 in the Nochten opencast mine
Bucket chain excavator of the overburden conveyor bridge 27F34 in the Cottbus-Nord opencast mine

The annual production of the Lausitz area is 55.7 million tons (2009), of which 41.5 million tons in the state of Brandenburg. Production in Germany totaled 169.9 million tons (2009). For all German mining areas, lignite extraction has amounted to 24.4 billion tons since 1800.

The following list contains opencast mines in Lusatia:

Panorama open pit Welzow-Süd (2007)

History of the lignite industry in Lausitz

The Lusatian lignite district was formerly known as the East Elbe lignite district . These included Lusatia and Lower Silesia with the Cottbus - Senftenberg center and the three peripheral districts of Frankfurt ( Brandenburg Province ), Görlitz ( Lower Silesia Province ) and Forst (Brandenburg Province).

Until the beginning of the 20th century, lignite was only of minor importance for Germany's energy and fuel supply. The higher quality hard coal was predominantly used . After the First World War, the German Reich had to cede numerous areas and lost around 40% of its best hard coal deposits. The coal mining areas that were left in place also had to pay considerable reparations . This made lignite an indispensable energy factor in all branches of industry. While before 1919 the share of lignite in electricity generation due to its low calorific value, its poor transportability and the lack of heating and transmission technology, the coal shortage associated with the assignment of territories and the self-sufficiency efforts in the Weimar Republic forced an increase a share of almost 60% of energy generation.

This resulted in a huge increase in production capacity in all German lignite regions. On this basis, Germany developed into the world's largest producer and at the same time the largest consumer of lignite in the 1920s. The statistical breakdown until 1945 distinguished the Central German Revier , the East Elbe Revier and the Lower Rhine Revier as the largest brown coal areas . Before the Second World War, the Central German mining district supplied around two-fifths, the East Elbe and Rhenish each around a quarter of all German lignite.

Start of the Lusatian lignite industry

The first public electricity works in Upper Lusatia went into operation in 1894. They supplied the houses and businesses in Oderwitz and Eibau with 2 × 110 volts direct current; the three-phase principle with a voltage of 3000 volts was used to transport the energy . Ebersbach followed in 1896, Hirschfelde in 1897 and in 1898 a power station was built in Neusalza .

Further to the northwest, around Lauchhammer and Dobrilugk and Kirchhain, lignite mining began in only very small areas that, like Bad Erna , seem natural today, over a century later. In 1882 the first briquette factory in Europe was opened here, the briquette factory Louise near Domsdorf , in what is now the Elbe-Elster district. In 1958 a BHT plant was built in Lauchhammer, in which smeltable coke was produced from brown coal using a process developed by Georg Bilkenroth and Erich Rammler .

Mining history in Lausitz

In 1789 the first coal seam was drilled near Bockwitz - today's Lauchhammer-Mitte . This is also the first written reference to the Niederlausitz brown coal.

In the mid-1890s, open-cast mining prevailed. The area's first overburden chain excavator was used in 1898 on the “Milly” mine in Bockwitz. This had been opened a year earlier by the Jewish coal wholesaler Fritz Friedländer from Gleiwitz , who had gained a foothold in the mining area with his capital since 1894/1895. The lignite and briquette industry AG (BUBIAG), which he founded in 1900 and based in Berlin, soon dominated the lignite industry in the “Ländchen” and was one of the big names in the Niederlausitz lignite mining industry.

Lignite mines in the Lauchhammer , Schwarzheide and Doberlug-Kirchhain area

  • "Erna" pit near Doberlug-Kirchhain, now Bad Erna swimming lake
  • "Ida" pit near Doberlug-Kirchhain
  • Grünewalde mine (1850–1968), after flooding Grünewalder leeks
  • "Ferdinand I" mine (Westfeld) (1897–1938) near Zschornegosda
  • "Ferdinand II" mine (Ostfeld) (1938–1955) near Zschornegosda
  • Zschornegosda-Süd mine (1910–1923) near Zschornegosda
  • Pit "Agnes" (1897-1992) in Plessa , 1924 first overburden conveyor bridge of Frederick Delius
  • Hansa mine (1901–1961) near Tröbitz
  • Lauchhammer III (1898–1921) mine near Lauchhammer
  • Milly pit I (1898–1902) near Mückenberg
  • Milly-Grube II (Bockwitz) (1902–1916) near Mückenberg
  • Milly-Grube III (Mückenberg) (1908-1919) near Mückenberg
  • Milly-Grube IV (Grünewalde) (1909–1913) near Mückenberg
  • "Emanuel I" pit (1901–1907) near Dolsthaida
  • "Emanuel II" pit (1907–1912) near Dolsthaida
  • "Emanuel III" pit (1907–1909) near Dolsthaida

Lignite mines in the Spremberg and Welzow area

  • "Mariannensglück" pit near Kausche (1894)
  • "Clara I" pit east of Welzow (1866) and "Clara" pit in Haidemühl with the Werminghoff briquette factory of the Eintrachtwerke in Haidemühl
  • "Clara II" mine near Gosda (from 1901)
  • "Clara II" mine near Welzow, the Clara Bridge collapsed on March 30, 1949 during the planned transfer to the Werminghoff II mine
  • "Clara II" mine near Proschim (from 1943)
  • "Hindenburg" mine (from 1923) between Welzow (district of Siberia) and Proschim, after flooding "Small Baltic Sea"
  • "Anna" pit (1864–1924) and "Consul" pit with briquette factories near Pulsberg (since 1864)
  • Pit "Mathilde" near Spremberg (Hoyerswerdaer Chaussee), later combined with the pit "Gustav Adolf", called "Lusatia"
  • Pit "Hope III" (later "Brigitta") (near Brigittenhof, now Black Pump )
  • Pit "Mulde A to D" (Trebendorfer fields) (1938–1969) near Halbendorf

Lignite mines in the Hoyerswerda area

  • "Werminghoff I" pit, (1913–1945), after the Knappensee flooded
  • Pit "Werminghoff II" (later Glückauf II) (1934-1960), 1947 dismantling of the conveyor bridge as a reparation payment to the USSR, after flooding Silbersee (1971)
  • "Werminghoff III" pit (later Glückauf III) (1950–1968), then Lohsa III, see Lohsa opencast mine and Werminghoff briquette factory (1918–1993)
  • "Clara III" pit (1909–1934) near Zeißholz with the briquette factories Saxonia (1887 to 1911) and Zeißholz (1911–1992)
  • "Erika" pit near Laubusch (near Lauta)

Lignite mines in the Senftenberg area

Lignite pits in the Muskau fold arch (in the area Döbern - Weißwasser - Muskau )

  • "Gertrud" pit (1868–1905) near Jocksdorf
  • "Franz" pit (1851–1928) near Klein Kölzig
  • "Felix" pit (1851–1934) near Bohsdorf , after the Felixsee was flooded
  • "Conrad" mine (1860–1960) near Groß Kölzig
  • "Providentia" mine (1864–1934) near Döbern
  • "Heinrich" pit (1857–1860) near Döbern
  • “Gotthelf” pit (1871–1876, 1887–1916 ) near Eichwege
  • "Emilienglück" pit (1891–1894) near Eichwege
  • "Julius" mine, from 1949 "Forward" (1843–1959) near Wolfshain
  • "Anna", "August", "Aurora" and "Hesperus" pits near Lieskau ( Reuthen )
  • "Mathilde" pit (1878–1902) near Lieskau
  • "Sophie" pit (1929–1945) near Groß Düben
  • "Weißwasser" pit (1868–1911) near Weißwasser
  • "Gertrud" pit (1868–1905) near Jocksdorf
  • "Gotthelf" pit (1871–1916) near Eichwege, after flooding the Eichwege bathing lake
  • “Marie” mine (1873–1944) near Krauschwitz
  • "Flora-Charlotte" mine (1875–1906) near Krauschwitz
  • The “Theodor” and “Freia II” (1886–1926) pit near Kromlau
  • "Theresia" mine (1890–1926) near Krauschwitz
  • "Caroline" pit (1890–1913) near Weißwasser
  • "Hartmann" pit (1909–1936) near Keula
  • "Hermann" pit (1910–1959) near Weißwasser
  • "Caroline II" pit (1913–1959) near Weißwasser
  • "Adolf" pit (1921–1956) near Weißwasser
  • "Sophie" pit (1929–1958) near Groß Düben
  • "Eduard" mine (1924–1942) near Muskau
  • "Eichwege" pit (1947–1960) near Wolfshain
  • "Kurt" pit (1947–1958) near Kromlau
  • Pit "Progress I and II" (1953–1961) near Wolfshain

Lignite mines in what is now Poland ( Lebus Voivodeship )

  • "Antonie" mine (1874–1927) near Zilmsdorf / Cielmów (Teuplitz / Tuplice )
  • "Germania" mine (1906–1925) near Läsgen / Łazy (Teuplitz / Tuplice)
  • "Hope" pit (1908–1927) near Triebel ( Trzebiel )
  • "Krafft" mine (1906–1926) near Triebel (Trzebiel)
  • "United Amalie-Wilhelmine" mine (1872–1938) near Klein Teuplitz (Tuplice)
  • "Victor I" pit (1911–1943) near Buckoka (Buczyna) near Triebel (Trzebiel)
  • Pits of the "Consolidated Tschöpelner Brown Coal Works" (1877–1944) near Neu Tschöpeln ( Nowe Czaple )
  • "Babina" mine (1921–1944 / 1946–1970) near Lugknitz ( Łęknica )

Coal railway

As early as the end of the 19th century, the railroad was increasingly being used to transport coal to customers and the spoil to the dumps, which initially ran in the narrow-gauge 600, 750 and 900 millimeters. At the beginning of the 20th century, due to the growing demand for transport, the standard gauge was increasingly used, and from 1908 on electric motors (mainly from AEG ). In the GDR, with the construction of the three large Lusatian power plants and the expansion of the opencast mines, an increasingly efficient works railway network became necessary. This had its own power supply with 2.4  kV DC voltage , with 268 kilometers on 900 millimeters narrow gauge, 893 kilometers on standard gauge and 20 kilometers on mixed gauge. The Deutsche Reichsbahn also built a new line from Senftenberg to the Schwarze Pump power station , so that a coal ring was created with the continuation via Hoyerswerda .

When LAUBAG was founded, the Central Railway Company (ZEB) was also founded. As a result of the decline in lignite production, the number of railway workers also fell from 4,800 (1989) to 410 in 2005. At the end of 1999, the 900-millimeter network was abandoned. The lifeline of the Lusatian lignite district is the high-performance coal connecting railway designed for 25 tons of axle load . It connects the Jänschwalde power plant and the Jänschwalde opencast mine in the north with the Welzow-Süd opencast mine southwest of the Spree and the Schwarze Pump power plant, as well as the Boxberg power plant further south-east in Saxony with the Nochten and Reichwalde opencast mines .

Future planning

View over the recultivation areas of the Nochten opencast mine to the Boxberg power plant

The Cottbus-Nord opencast mine has been charred since the end of 2015, in Jänschwalde the end of funding is planned for 2019 [out of date] . There are currently discussions about the Lusatian opencast mines of the future. Since the publication of the lignite study of the Clausthal University of Technology in May 2007, in which the lignite deposits of the country were assessed, the fields Jänschwalde-Nord, Bagenz-Ost and Spremberg-Ost have come into the public eye. The decision on the project "Water development of the Cottbuser See, sub-project 1 - Water disposal in the area of ​​the Lakoma pond group and a section of the Hammergraben-Altlauf" was preceded by a long-term process before the plan approval decision was issued to Vattenfall Europe Mining AG on December 12, 2006 . In addition to the participation of 36 authorities, municipalities, organizations and associations, the public spoke very actively about the project.

Vattenfall wanted to replace the Cottbus-Nord opencast mine, which expired in 2015, to expand the Jänschwalde opencast mine to supply the Jänschwalde power plant with the Jänschwalde-Nord coal field and devastate the villages of Atterwasch , Kerkwitz and Grabko . The recreation area around Lake Deulowitz and the lake itself would also be dredged. As a result of the election to the Swedish Reichstag on September 14, 2014 , a red-green coalition with the Social Democratic Prime Minister Stefan Löfven came to power. On October 1, 2014, the Social Democratic Party announced a change in energy policy for the Swedish state-owned company Vattenfall. In 2015 Vattenfall announced that it wanted to sell its Lusatian lignite division. In April 2016, the Czech company Energetický a Průmyslový Holding (EPH) was announced as the buyer.

In March 2014, the Saxon Ministry of the Interior allowed the Nochten opencast mine to be expanded; In June 2014, the red-red Brandenburg state government ( cabinet Woidke I ) voted for the expansion of the Welzow-Süd opencast mine , and a brown coal planning process has been in progress for the Jänschwalde -Nord opencast mine since 2009.

On March 30, 2017, the company LEAG announced a new area concept, with which the further corporate path and the future design of the region will be clarified. Based on this concept, the company is allowing the Jänschwalde opencast mine to expire on schedule in 2023 and will not develop the expansion field in the Nochten opencast mine. The plans for the expansion of the Welzow-Süd opencast mine were stopped until 2020. Since LEAG is one of the largest companies in Lusatia and helps shape large parts of the industry through the value chain, this area concept is also of great importance for the state government in Saxony and Brandenburg. This creates relative planning security for Lusatia at least for the next 20 years.

Ecological and social issues

The problem of dismantling is varied. Here are the most important problem areas:


In order to keep the opencast mines dry, the groundwater must be pumped out to a depth of a maximum of 150 meters. As a result, streams and wetlands dry out, some of which are then artificially irrigated. In addition, the structure of the soil is changing and there is extensive subsidence, sometimes up to a distance of 15 to 20 kilometers. As a result of the use of land and the use of coal for lignite mining in Lusatia, a total deficit of approx. 13 billion m³ of groundwater arose in 1990. Today the deficit is still approx. 6 billion cubic meters.

The groundwater body regenerates very slowly at great depths. Critics of the opencast mines also accuse the operators that the knowledge of the groundwater flows at greater depths is not comprehensive enough.

The numerous open-cast mines that were closed after the fall of the Wall must also be renatured. For this purpose, they are flooded after adequate stabilization. In Lusatia, the water required for this is primarily taken from the receiving waters. These water withdrawals can have a negative effect on the water level downstream and affect neighbors who are dependent on minimum runoffs (e.g. shipping). In 2017, the withdrawal amounted to 117 million cubic meters.

Fine dust and noise pollution

Measurements by the State Environment Agency on the edge of the opencast mines have shown since 2004 that the fine dust caused by mining is well above the EU limit values.

Measures to reduce fine dust and noise in the opencast mines:

  • the intermediate greening of the bridge dump
  • the operation of sprinkler and sprinkler systems
  • the creation of protective plantings
  • the conservation of the forest and the upgrading of the forest in the peripheral area of ​​the open pit
  • the erection of protective dams / walls
  • the distance operation of the conveyor bridge association
  • the encapsulation of noise sources on the mining equipment
  • the use of noise-reducing components on conveyor bridges and other conveyor systems

The implementation of protective measures in recent years has already led to a significant improvement in the immission situation in the area of ​​the Jänschwalde opencast mine. Further technical noise reduction measures at the conveyor bridge association F60 are being prepared or implemented. Here u. a. the expert opinion on the state of the art for noise reduction in the Jänschwalde opencast mine. A measuring network (noise, dust precipitation ) coordinated with the responsible mining authority is operated to control the pollution . The overall picture of the measurement results available so far shows that the specified immission guide values ​​for noise and the immission values ​​for dust precipitation in relation to the locations currently influenced by mining activity are essentially adhered to. On the basis of the evaluation of the available results and experiences and taking into account the development of the state of the art, the immission control measures are to be optimized for the locations in the future impact area of ​​the opencast mine.

Climate change

Outer tipping, i.e. areas outside the opencast mines on which the spoil is brought, can have an impact on the local climate . A heap protruding from the plain casts shadows and thus changes the distribution of solar radiation in its surroundings. But the wind conditions and the distribution of precipitation are also influenced. In addition, a sandy subsoil has different properties than meadows or forests. The latter store water and heat up more slowly. As a result, the opencast mines could heat up the already warm Lausitz in summer. The future will tell whether the lakes, which often arise after the active phase of opencast mining, will counteract this and make the dry climate more humid again.

Residual holes

The currently operated opencast mines can no longer be completely backfilled due to the enormous volume of coal being extracted and the overburden deposited on the outer dumps. Therefore it is planned to fill the remaining holes with water. Since these lakes have no natural inflow and outflow, there is currently a discussion about how these large amounts of water can be channeled into the holes. For example, discharges from the Spree and Malxe to the opencast mines are planned. The first lakes that emerged from former opencast mines by flooding the remaining holes have already become part of the cultural landscape in the Senftenberg and Schlabendorf area. In this regard, the Senftenberger See and the remaining chain of holes Sedlitz, Skado, Koschen with its associated transfer systems in the Senftenberg area and the Schönfelder See in the area around Kittlitz are mentioned.

Jänschwalde opencast mine with the future Klinger See (2005)

It is still unclear what effects these large bodies of water will have on the Lusatian climate. It will take a long time until the lakes are completely filled, according to current estimates until the year 2050. Some neighboring communities are hoping for an up-and-coming tourism. Experience from the Leipzig-Halle area ( central German lignite district ) with the remaining holes already flooded shows that tourism there increased three to five years after the flooding began.

Flora and fauna

Due to the fertile loess soil , the area was used for arable farming in some areas before lignite mining. Thus, today the natural vegetation is relatively far removed from its natural state. The deforestation of old forests should, as has already happened in many areas, be compensated for by new plantings. But it takes a few decades for the young trees to grow and for a stable plant community to be established again .

To assess the quality of the current plant inventory, the diversity of species, the presence of pointer species and red list species are taken into account. There was a surprising diversity of native species for the locations examined.


Memorial stone for Radeweise

The lignite mining destroys large agricultural areas during the mining era and today requires the resettlement of entire villages with a total of several thousand people, many of whom belonged to the traditional core settlement area of ​​the Sorbs . In the past 100 years, several dozen predominantly Sorbian villages were destroyed in Lusatia. Nowadays, the open pit operators rely on German mining law .

Farmers are often relocated over 30 kilometers or more in the vicinity of freshly recultivated arable land, an undertaking that is associated with many conversion difficulties and adjustments to the new agricultural conditions.

Resettlement in the localities is even more complex. Since the old places are completely leveled in one fell swoop, new residential areas have to be planned and developed in good time in remote areas of the municipalities and cities and thus entire districts have to be recreated. Homeowners are forced to build new houses, and long-term tenants are again looking for comparable living space in the new location, although the new apartments are usually more expensive.

The innovation also creates opportunities: the infrastructure is modernized and larger settlement units can be created. Many resettlers appreciate the advantages of modern homes over the narrow, winding old buildings, even if at the same time they perceive the complete destruction ( devastation ) of the old places, where formative memories and history hang, as a loss of home .

By relocating grown villages, the residents not only lose their home, their social fabric is also lost. Therefore, Vattenfall is trying to bring the residents of one part of the community to a new settlement, for example Horno in 2004. The village community is to be preserved through the resettlement as closed as possible. Unfortunately, this does not always work satisfactorily. Commuters, for example, whose daily commute to work is much longer, prefer to settle in other locations closer to work. The village community can live on in the new location mainly from social ties that have been saved. The clubs and the festival culture are of central importance so that those affected perceive the resettlement as "successful".

Again and again there are disputes about the compensation amounts.

The relocation is often preceded by gradual desertification. Locations that are affected by the dismantling plan often record a decline in population long before that. Because of the poor business prospects, no new industries or commercial enterprises are settling here, companies that are already established no longer expand and try to relocate the company to more developable areas in advance of the official relocation. This reduces the number of jobs in the community. The young population, which is already difficult to bind to the place, is migrating to more promising business locations and residential areas with more attractive leisure activities. This development is still in that rejected the mine-planning areas new building permits because of the unfavorable prospects early and reinforced land - surveying are often frozen.

These phenomena slow down the development of the places and gradually let them become deserted. However, this improves the initial situation for lignite mining: the number of households to be relocated is reduced, the compensation payments are lower and at the same time the price of land in the mining area is falling.

Remediation of contaminated sites

The remediation of the decommissioned lignite opencast mines ( see list ) from the time of the GDR is taken over by the federally owned LMBV (Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft) and the costs are largely borne by the Federal Government (Federal Ministry of Finance) and thus by the taxpayer. The federal states are participating in the basic renovation with 25 percent.


  • Brandenburg State Office for Monument Preservation and State Archaeological Museum (ed.), Maximilian Claudius Noack: Between Wilhelminian demand architecture and moderate modernity. The factory colonies in the Lower Lusatian lignite district. Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-7319-0404-5 .
  • Hannes Ortlieb, Kai-Uwe Thiessenhusen: Electrifying coal. A portrait of the Central Railway Company of Lausitzer Energie AG (LEAG) . In: Bahn-Report . tape 37 , no. 217 , January 1, 2019, ISSN  0178-4528 , p. 78-83 ( website [accessed February 4, 2019]).

Web links

Individual evidence

  2. Dieter Kahl et al. a .: Lignite generation in the Lausitz district . Cottbus 2009, ISBN 978-3-9811412-2-1 , p. 19.
  3. Janosch Delcker, Martin Sümening, Christoph Seidler: The crazy brown coal boom., June 24, 2014, accessed June 24, 2014
  4. The data was published by the European Commission as part of the Community Independent Transaction Log ( emissions trading ).
  5. Platzeck wants the Jänschwalde power plant even without CCS - energate messenger +. In: Retrieved March 16, 2016 .
  6. ^ Wilhelm Hölling, Friedrich August Pinkerneil: The German mountain economy of the present. R. Hobbing, 1928, p. 12 f.
  7. Erich Obst: General economic and transport geography. Walter de Gruyter, 1965, p. 78.
  8. Ursula Bischoff: The influence of mining traditions and large-scale industrial developments on the social structure and mobility of the lignite workers in Borna. Dissertation, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 2000, p. 76. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, accessed on September 20, 2019.
  9. Georg Balzer: The European coal industry with special consideration of the international working time problem. Verlag Funk, 1934, p. 55.
  10. Ferdinand Friedensburg: The mountain economy of the earth. Verlag Ferdinand Enke, 1965, p. 135.
  11. Eckart Schmitt, Dietmar Gohl, Jürgen Hagel: Handbook of Geography. Germany. List-Verlag, 1975, p. 126.
  12. History of Lauchhammer ( Memento of the original from July 1, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  13. LMBV - Plessa / Lauchhammer / Schwarzheide ( Memento of the original from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed on March 14, 2015) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  14. The first lignite mines in Spremberg ( Memento of the original from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed on March 14, 2015) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  15. ^ A pit called Marianne, LR from February 14th. 2014 (accessed March 14, 2015)
  16. The three lives of an old lady in the opencast mines of Lausitz, LR from November 20, 2014 (accessed on March 14, 2015)
  17. Werminghoff opencast mine, Ostkohle (accessed on March 14, 2015)
  18. ↑ Opencast mines in Lusatia - Regional Planning Association Upper Lusatia-Lower Silesia (accessed on March 14, 2015)
  19. Wolfgang Schossig, Manfred Kulke: Brown coal mining on the Muskauer fold arch. Förderverein Kulturlandschaft Niederlausitz e. V., Cottbus 2006.
  20. See literature: Ortlieb, Thiessenhusen
  21. Jänschwalde opencast mine. (No longer available online.), archived from the original on May 19, 2013 ; Retrieved July 11, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  23. a b October 2, 2014
  24. ^ Lignite plan procedure Jänschwalde-Nord opencast mine. (No longer available online.) Joint State Planning Department Berlin-Brandenburg, archived from the original on December 4, 2014 ; Retrieved November 29, 2014 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  25. including Blumenthal, editorial office Brandenburg aktuell: Jänschwalde open-cast lignite mine will not be expanded. RBB, March 30, 2017, accessed March 30, 2017 .
  26. Editor: LEAG decides on new opencast mines in Lusatia . ( [accessed on March 30, 2017]).
  27. Simone Wendler : Leag cuts out open-cast mining plans in Lausitz. Lausitzer Rundschau , March 30, 2017, accessed on March 30, 2017 .
  28. LVZ-Online: plans evaporated - new operator hardly wants to expand lignite mining in Lusatia - LVZ - Leipziger Volkszeitung. Retrieved March 30, 2017 .
  29. ^ Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH (LMBV): Annual water management report of the LMBV mbH. Period 01 January - 31 December 2017 . Senftenberg.
  30. Brown coal and health - the fine dust problem
  31. Administrative agreement on the regulation of the financing of ecological contaminated sites in the version of January 10, 1995 on the financing of lignite remediation in the years 2013 to 2017 ( Memento of the original of August 27, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  32. Information on the remediation of the contaminated sites of lignite mining in the new federal states (as of October 2012)

Coordinates: 51 ° 40 ′  N , 14 ° 11 ′  E