|Powiat :||District-free city|
|Area :||134.20 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||200 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||44-100 to 44-164|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 32|
|License plate :||SG|
|Economy and Transport|
|Rail route :||Katowice – Kędzierzyn-Koźle|
|Gliwice – Opole|
|Next international airport :||Katowice|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||1335 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||2466011|
|Administration (as of 2020)|
|Lord Mayor :||Adam Neumann|
|Address:||ul. Zwycięstwa 21
Gliwice [ gli'vʲit͡sɛ ], German Gleiwitz [ 'ɡlaɪ̯.vɪʦ ], is an Upper Silesian urban district in the Polish Voivodeship of Silesia and the district town of the Powiat Gliwicki ( Powiat Gleiwitz) . With around 185,000 inhabitants, it is the fourth largest city in the Silesian Voivodeship. Gliwice has existed since the 13th century and is one of the oldest towns in the Upper Silesian industrial area . The city is the seat of the Silesian Technical University .
The city is located in the Upper Silesia region on the Klodnitz and Klodnitz Canal at 218 m above sea level. NHN , about 65 kilometers southeast of Opole , 150 kilometers southeast of Wroclaw and 95 kilometers west-northwest of Krakow ; it is the westernmost city of the Upper Silesian industrial area . The Klodnitz flows through the city in an east-west direction. The city's second river is the Bytomka, which flows into the Klodnitz. The third river, which also flows into the Klodnitz, before part of the river was filled in and thus the connection to the Klodnitz was interrupted, is the Ostropka, which rises in the Ostropa district. The Gliwice Canal begins in a port in the western part of the city.
Expansion of the urban area
The urban area has an area of 134.2 km², of which around 9% are forests, another 3% are green areas. Gliwice is the seventeenth largest city in Poland. Due to the size of the urban area, there are also differences in land use. The largest built-up areas extend in the center of the city. In the north and in the east there are even larger built-up areas than in the west and south of the city, as cities (such as Zabrze ) are immediately behind the eastern and northern city limits .
The urban structure of Gliwice was redefined on February 22, 2008; on September 14, 2006, 18 districts had already been established. Accordingly, Gliwice is now divided into twenty districts:
- Bojków (Schönwald)
- Czechowice (Schechowitz)
- Ligota Zabrska (Ellguth-Zabrze)
- Łabędy (Laband)
- Obrońców Pokoju
- Ostropa (Ostroppa)
- Politechnika (Technical University)
- Sośnica (Sossnitza)
- Stare Gliwice (Old Gliwice)
- Szobiszowice (Petersdorf)
- Śródmieście (inner city)
- Trynek (Trinneck)
- Wilcze Gardło (Eichenkamp settlement)
- Wojska Polskiego
- Wójtowa Wieś (Richtersdorf)
- Zatorze (city forest)
- Żerniki (Zernik)
To the northwest, west and south of Gliwice is the powiat Gliwicki with the communities Gierałtowice ( Gieraltowitz ), Pilchowice ( Pilchowitz ), Rudziniec ( Rudzinitz ), Sośnicowice ( Kieferstädtel ) and the towns of Knurów ( Knurow ) and Pyskowice ( Peiskretscham ). In the north lies the powiat Tarnogórski ( Tarnowitzer district ) with the municipality Zbrosławice ( Broslawitz ) and in the east the city of Zabrze ( Hindenburg OS ).
Middle Ages and early modern times
The place has been provable as a town since the 13th century , it was first mentioned in a document in 1276. From 1337 it was the seat of the partial duchy of Gliwice . In 1526, like all of Silesia, the city fell to the House of Habsburg. In 1601 there was a great fire. In 1623 and 1645 the city was sacked in the Thirty Years War , and in 1626 besieged by Poles without success.
The Turkish war and the resulting financial shortage forced the Habsburgs to lease Gleiwitz to Friedrich Zettritz for the relatively small sum of 14,000 thalers. The lease period under Zettritz - only for the city of Gleiwitz - was originally supposed to last 18 years, but in 1580 it was extended by ten years and in 1589 by a further 18 years.
Modern times and industrialization
A significant economic rise in the city followed the establishment of the iron and steel industry at the beginning of the 19th century. After the attempts made in Malapane in 1789 to operate a blast furnace with coke instead of the previously common charcoal , the first coke-fired blast furnace on the European continent and an iron foundry were built in the Royal Prussian Hüttenwerk Gleiwitz, which began operations in November 1796. The production of pig iron could soon be increased from 1000 kg to 2000 kg per day. The flourishing business led to the expansion and renovation of smaller industrial plants as well as the emergence of new branches of industry. This development was promoted by the connection of Gleiwitz to the waterways and the rail network. The Klodnitz Canal was opened in 1804 ; since then there has been a waterway between Gleiwitz and the Oder . On March 10, 1813, Friedrich Wilhelm III signed the deed of foundation of the Iron Cross in Breslau . The first copies, based on the design by Karl Friedrich Schinkel , were made in the Royal Prussian Iron Foundry in Gleiwitz. August Friedrich Holtzhausen also manufactured around 50 steam engines by 1825 in a machine department founded especially for this purpose in 1806, an important factor in the industrialization of Silesia. In 1845 construction began on the railway line connecting Gleiwitz with Opole and Wroclaw.
In 1868 the Huldschinsky works were created. Oskar and Georg Caro, the heirs of the founders of the Herminenhütte steelworks in Laband , took over the Julia steelworks in Bobrek in 1883 . Together with August Wilhelm Hegenscheidt , they founded the company “Obereisen” in 1887 and expanded their control and power over all newly established industrial plants. In those days there were 14 distilleries, two breweries, five mills, seven brick factories, three sawmills, a shingle factory, eight lime kilns and two glass factories in the vicinity of Gleiwitz . There was also a gas works, an oven factory, a bottling plant for beer, four printing works and an asphalt and cardboard factory. At the same time, institutions were set up to facilitate the operation of money, such as banks, money shops, savings banks and lending offices. In 1892 the first tram line was built, which quickly continued to the town of Deutsch Piekar . The theater was built in 1899 and actors from all over Europe performed on the stage until the Second World War.
In the 20th century
The Peter and Paul Church was built from 1896 to 1900. At the beginning of the 20th century Gleiwitz had two Protestant churches, four Catholic churches, an Old Catholic church, a synagogue , a grammar school, an upper secondary school, a mechanical engineering and smelting school, two orphanages and was the seat of a regional court . The neo-Gothic main post office building was built between 1903 and 1906.
Before the First World War, around a quarter of the population spoke Polish as their mother tongue.
Between 1919 and 1921 there were three Polish uprisings in Upper Silesia . In the referendum in Upper Silesia on March 20, 1921, the people of Gleiwitz also had to decide whether they wanted to belong to Poland or Germany. 32,029 eligible voters (78.7% of the votes cast) voted to remain with Germany, 8558 for Poland (21.0%). 113 votes (0.3%) were invalid. The turnout was 97.0%.
In 1922 Upper Silesia was divided between the two countries. Gleiwitz, Hindenburg OS and Beuthen OS were the few towns in the Upper Silesian industrial area that remained with the German Empire, and Gleiwitz became a border town. For a long time there were plans to merge the three cities to form the three-city unit Gleiwitz-Hindenburg-Beuthen . In 1924 the theaters in Gleiwitz, Hindenburg and Beuthen merged to form the “Upper Silesian Theater” (between 1924 and 1927 “Theaters of Three Cities”). In 1927 Ellguth-Zabrze , Sosnitza , Richtersdorf and Zernik were incorporated into the urban area of Gleiwitz. In 1928 the modern hotel “ Haus Oberschlesien ” was built on Wilhelmstrasse (today Zwycięstwa-Strasse). Today the building is the seat of the city administration.
From 1925 to 1933 the administrative lawyer Georg Geisler , who belonged to the center and had been the second mayor since 1912, was the lord mayor. Geisler was illegally deposed in 1933 by the National Socialists who had come to power.
In 1938 the Gliwice Canal was completed. Around August 10, 1939, preparations for the attack on the Gleiwitz transmitter began under the direction of Reinhard Heydrich and supported by the head of the Gestapo, Heinrich Müller . On August 31, 1939, a group of SS men disguised as Polish partisans, led by Sturmbannführer Alfred Naujocks, attacked the Gleiwitz transmitter to provide a pretext for the German invasion of Poland . In his speech to the Reichstag on the morning of the next day, Hitler also spoke of the attack on Poland that “they would fire back from 5.45 a.m.”. He did not specifically mention the Gleiwitz incident, but spoke generally of 14 border incidents that occurred during the night. The transmitting station with the approx. 111 m high wooden tower is now a museum, Radiostacja, Muzeum w Gliwicach .
Between March and July 1944, four sub-camps of the Auschwitz I concentration camp were established in Gleiwitz I. In March 1944 Gleiwitz I, in May Gleiwitz II, in June Gleiwitz IV and in July Gleiwitz III. They were disbanded on January 18, 1945.
Towards the end of the Second World War , the Red Army occupied Gliwice on January 24, 1945 . In the city, which had so far been spared major war damage, Soviet soldiers set fire to several buildings, including the buildings on the Ring , the city theater and the Upper Silesia House . On January 26, 1945, the last edition of the German-language newspaper Oberschlesischer Wanderer, published in Gleiwitz, appeared . In January 1945 there were 55,000 inhabitants in the city. Between January and March 1945, the Red Army soldiers murdered between 1,500 and 3,000 Gliwice civilians, among them the sculptor Hanns Breitenbach . Between February and March 1945, thousands of people were deported to the Soviet Union for forced labor .
In March 1945 Gleiwitz was placed under Polish administration. The German city was renamed "Gliwice" and incorporated into the Silesian Voivodeship on March 18 . As early as May 1945, the immigration of Polish migrants began in Gleiwitz, some of whom later came from areas east of the Curzon Line , where they had belonged to the Polish minority. This was accompanied by the displacement of the local population from their apartments and houses.
In August 1945 a transit camp was set up for the Germans who were supposed to be expelled . On August 6, 1945, the local Polish administration began to evict the local German population into the British Occupation Zone. With the intention of hiding traces of the city's German history, “de-Germanization campaigns” were carried out in the 1940s and 1950s. This included, in particular, the removal of German-language signs and the removal of German-language inscriptions and labels.
In 1945 the Silesian Technical University was founded. In the post-war period, high-rise housing estates were built and the city continued to expand. Surrounding villages were incorporated into the city. From 1975 to 1998 the city was part of the Katowice Voivodeship . After the fall of the Wall, Gliwice was modernized. The new Autostrada A4 was built and new buildings were built. The houses on Zwycięstwa Street have been renovated since 1992 to give the shopping street its old splendor. A special economic zone has been located near the Brzezinka district since 1996 . Other special economic zones were created near the Łabędy and Trynek districts.
In 2000 Gliwice celebrated its 750th anniversary.
The municipality of Gleiwitz originally belonged to the Tost-Gleiwitz district . Since April 1, 1897, Gleiwitz has formed its own urban district with the incorporated rural communities Trynek and Petersdorf (today Szobiszowice ) , which on January 1, 1927 again encompasses the rural communities Ellguth-Zabrze, Richtersdorf (today Wójtowa Wieś) and Zernik, as well as the urban districts Petersdorf and Städtisch Zernik was expanded.
The last expansion of the area during German times took place on August 1, 1942, when parts of the communities Alt Gleiwitz and Laband ( Łabędy ) were incorporated from the Tost-Gleiwitz district in favor of the Gleiwitz district.
|1825||4781||including 446 Evangelicals, 440 Jews|
|1840||6643||excluding the military, including 937 Protestants and 650 Jews|
|1858||10,638||including 1,557 Protestants, 7201 Catholics, 1,880 Jews|
|1961||10,923||1555 Protestants, 7,476 Catholics, 1,892 Jews|
|1871||12,939||with the garrison (a squadron of Uhlans No. 2, a battalion of Landwehr No. 62), including 2000 Protestants and 2000 Jews (2100 Poles )|
|1890||19,667||of which 3,709 Protestants, 14,183 Catholics and 1,767 Jews|
|1900||52,362||mostly Germans (13,376 with Polish as their mother tongue ), with the garrison (two battalions of infantry No. 22, four squadrons of Uhlans No. 2), of which 8,122 Protestants and 2,094 Jews|
|1910||66,981||of which 10,401 Protestants and 54,620 Catholics|
|1925||81,888||thereof 11,929 Evangelicals, 67,680 Catholics, 77 other Christians, 1906 Jews|
|1933||111,062||14,234 Protestants, 94,167 Catholics, 21 other Christians, 1,830 Jews|
|1939||114.048||of which 13,993 Protestants, 96,479 Catholics, 898 other Christians, 884 Jews|
According to the census carried out in the same year, there lived 203,814 inhabitants in Gliwice in 2002, of whom 182,496 (89.5%) indicated Polish nationality. 4811 people (2.4%) stated another nationality, including 2244 inhabitants (1.1%) German, 2154 (1.1%) the unrecognized "Silesian" and 98 declared themselves to be Roma. 8.1% of the population (16,507 inhabitants) did not provide any information on nationality.
- 1854–1874: Mayor Eduard Teuchert
- 1875–1899: Lord Mayor Alfred Kreidel
- 1899–1912: Lord Mayor Hermann Mentzel
- 1916–1922: Lord Mayor Georg Miethe
- 1925–1933: Lord Mayor Georg Geisler ( CENTER )
- 1933–1945: Josef Meyer ( NSDAP )
- 1946–1948: Jan Koj
- 1990–1991: Andrzej Gałażewski
- 1991-1993: Piotr Sarré
- 1993-2019: Zygmunt Frankiewicz
- since 2020: Adam Neumann
At the head of the city administration is a city president who is directly elected by the population. Since 1993 this was Zygmunt Frankiewicz who was elected for his electoral committee "Coalition for Gliwice Zygmunt Frankiewicz".
Frankiewicz also ran his own election committee in the 2018 election, but was also supported by Koalicja Obywatelska . The vote brought the following result:
- Zygmunt Frankiewicz (Election Committee “Coalition for Gliwice Zygmunt Frankiewicz”) 72.4% of the vote
- Jarosław Gonciarz ( Prawo i Sprawiedliwość ) 19.4% of the vote
- Bernard Fic ( Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej / Lewica Razem ) 4.7% of the vote
- Mirosława Sander ( Kukiz'15 ) 3.5% of the vote
Incumbent Frankiewicz was re-elected in the first ballot. In the parliamentary elections in 2019 , he was elected to the Senate of the Republic of Poland in constituency 70 and then resigned from his office as city president. The then due new election resulted in the following result:
- Adam Neumann (election committee “Coalition for Gliwice Zygmunt Frankiewicz”) 51.2% of the votes
- Janusz Moszyński ( Koalicja Obywatelska ) 25.1% of the vote
- Kajetan Gornig (“Energy for Gliwice” election committee) 18.3% of the vote
- Andrzej Gillner (independent) 5.4% of the vote
Neumann was thus elected Frankiewicz's successor in the first ballot.
The city council consists of 25 members and is directly elected. The 2018 city council election led to the following result:
- Electoral committee “Coalition for Gliwice Zygmunt Frankiewicz” 40.5% of the vote, 11 seats
- Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (PiS) 24.4% of the vote, 8 seats
- Koalicja Obywatelska (KO) 23.3% of the vote, 6 seats
- Kukiz'15 5.9% of the vote, no seat
- Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (SLD) / Lewica Razem (Razem) 5.8% of the vote, no seat
coat of arms
The city's coat of arms is split; in front in blue a half golden eagle at the gap (the Upper Silesian eagle), behind in red a silver tin tower with a blue pointed roof. The origin of the tower probably refers to one of the city gates. The original coat of arms had half the Habsburg eagle on a red-white-red background on the right and the half Upper Silesian eagle in blue on the left. The tower, which is wrapped in red, white and red cloth, was positioned in the middle; above it was a picture of Mary and Jesus over a crescent moon.
During communist times, during the de-Germanisation of the city, the Habsburg eagle was initially replaced by the Polish eagle and the red-white-red background was replaced by red, the crescent moon was removed and the tower was colored red, before the coat of arms was replaced shortly afterwards by the current one.
The city of Gliwice maintains relations with the cities
- Bottrop , Germany
- Dessau-Roßlau , Germany
- Doncaster , UK
- Kežmarok , Slovakia
- Nacka , Sweden
- Salgótarján , Hungary
- Valenciennes , France
One of the sights in Gliwice is the numerous brick buildings. These include a. most of the churches in Gliwice, the main post office building , the Jewish cemetery hall , the buildings of the Gleiwitz mine, the gray and red chemistry building of the Technical University and the fire station .
The first town hall was built in the 13th century, the present one was built in the 19th century. The height of the town hall tower is 41 meters. After the city administration moved to Zwycięstwa Street, the City Hall only serves as a registry office. In recent years it has been renovated.
The castle was built in the 16th century and was part of the city wall that protected the old town. Since 1959 there has been a museum about the town history of Gliwice.
The main post office and Villa Caro are located near the old town . The Villa Caro was built between 1882 and 1885 for Oskar Caro and is now the headquarters of the museum in Gliwice . Another attraction in the city center is the Palm House in Chopin Park. The palm house accommodates 5600 different plants on 2000 square meters. The first palm house was built as early as 1880. In 1924, a new building was erected on the same site, which was converted into today's house in 2000. The palm house has been open to the public since 1930.
Zwycięstwa Street , an 840 meter long shopping street , runs between Gleiwitzer Ring in the old town and the main train station . It was expanded into a paved road in 1908 and was given the name "Wilhelmstrasse". Little by little it developed into today's shopping street. Today's name Zwycięstwa Street means Victory Road in German. The city administration , many shops and several hotels are located on the street . The street is surrounded by Wilhelminian style houses with corner towers, including the Schlesischer Hof , but also by modern houses from the 1920s and 1930s such as B. the silk house Weichmann .
An engineering and historical landmark is the Gleiwitz transmission tower . It is the only remaining wooden transmission tower, which with a height of 118 meters is likely to be the highest wooden structure in the world. The station became known through the staged raid on the Gleiwitz station in 1939.
The former restaurant "Feldschlößchen" in the Petersdorf district (today Szobiszowice) at Johannisstrasse (today ul. Swietojanska) 35, in which there was a school as early as 1865, before a restaurant was opened around 1880, which was operated continuously until 1945 (from 1929 to 1945 by Johann Herzog).
There are 25 Catholic churches and seven churches of other faiths in Gliwice. The most important are the neo-Gothic Peter and Paul Church in the city center, built between 1896 and 1900, and the Gothic All Saints Church from the 13th century, which was restored after a fire in 1929. A viewing platform was opened in 2004 on the 62 meter high tower with the cross visible from afar. The small tower was built on the Gothic St. Bartholomew's Church from the 13th century in the 15th century. Its walls are made of large stones. For their congregation, which has grown over the years, the new neo-Gothic St. Bartholomew's Church was built nearby from 1907 to 1911. St. Barbara's Church, built between 1856 and 1859 in the city center near Zwycięstwa Street, has a 44-meter high tower.
Other important church buildings are the Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary , a particularly large staggered wooden church (probably built at the end of the 15th century), the Trinity Church , the Church of the Holy Cross and the Church of the King of Christ .
Culture and leisure
There are three theaters in Gliwice today. The Gliwicki Teatr Muzyczny (Gliwice Music Theater), the Teatr A and the Teatr Nowej Sztuki (Theater of New Arts).
The Gliwicki Teatr Muzyczny has existed since 1952. In 2001 the theater was reopened after a renovation. Teatr A has existed since 1996. Most of the theater plays with a religious background are performed here. The Teatr Nowej Sztuki has existed since December 2002 and is one of the smaller theaters in the Katowice Voivodeship.
There are currently some initiatives that want to rebuild the Gleiwitz City Theater , which burned down in 1945 .
There are two cinemas in the city. The smaller Amok cinema is located in the city administration building. The largest cinema in Gliwice, with 13 movie theaters, is the new Cinema City cinema in the new Forum Gliwice shopping center .
The Frédéric Chopin Park and the Bolesław Chrobry Park in the city center are among the largest parks in Gliwice . The Palm House is located in Chopin Park . Another park is Plac Grunwaldzki ; there are also several small green spaces, including the square-like green spaces “Dessau” , “Valenciennes”, “Doncaster”, “Theodor Kalide” and the green space in front of the city administration . In the north of Gliwice, Las Łabędzki stretches out, a large forest that is mainly used by riders as an excursion destination. In the northeast of the city is the city forest.
The most successful club in Gliwice was the SVgg Vorwärts-Rasensport, founded in 1926 . She played in the top German soccer league, the Gauliga Schlesien , or from 1941 in the Gauliga Oberschlesien and took part in the final round of the German championship seven times. The following football clubs also existed in Gleiwitz: VfB 1910 , Reichsbahn-SV Gleiwitz , TV Vorwärts , MTV 1887 , VfR 1919 , Vgt. Gleiwitzer Sportfreunde , SC Vorwärts 1917 , SC Schlesien 1922 , SC Germania Sosnitza , the SuSV Gleiwitz-Nord , the BV Laband , the FC Askania Peiskretscham , the SV 1910 Zernik , the SpVgg 1921 Gleiwitz-Nord , the ESV , the SV 1924 Laband , the SVgg Oberhütten , the SVgg volunteer fire brigade , the Post SV , the Reichsbahn-SV Peiskretscham , SV Hultschiner , SVgg Oberschlesier , SVgg Debewa , Gleiwitzer SG 1931 and SVgg Defaka .
The football club Piast Gliwice , founded in 1945, played twice in the final of the Polish Football Cup , but went as a loser from both games. In June 2008, the team succeeded for the first time promotion to the highest Polish league, the Ekstraklasa . In 2019 the club became Polish football champions for the first time.
There are no outdoor pools in the city center. The three outdoor pools (Kąpielisko Leśne, Kąpielisko Neptun and Kąpielisko Czechowice) are located in the suburbs of Gliwice and are well attended in summer. There are also five indoor swimming pools in Gliwice.
Economy and Infrastructure
Gliwice is an important traffic junction for road traffic as well as for rail and ship traffic.
The state road (droga krajowa) 78 and the state road 88 run through Gliwice and the state road 44 to Krakow begins . Two voivodeship roads (droga wojewódzka) begin in Gliwice, voivodeship route 408 to Kędzierzyn-Koźle and voivodship route 901 to Olesno .
Around 45 city bus routes operate in Gliwice . There are also four PKS bus routes . Until September 1, 2009 there was a tram line of the Upper Silesian tram from / to Ruda Śląska , which ended in Gliwice. Since then, lines 1, 3, 4, 5, 11, 17 and 30 have ended at the city limits at the Gliwice Zajezdnia stop .
The main train station is one of the largest train stations in the Upper Silesian industrial area. In addition to the main train station, Gliwice has a freight yard and two other train stations.
From March 25, 1899 to 1993, Gleiwitz was connected to Ratibor by a narrow-gauge railway. The track width was 785 mm. In 2013 there was still a museum railway company.
The river Klodnitz and the Gliwice Canal flow through Gliwice . The Gliwice Canal flows into the Oder and begins in a port in Gliwice. Gliwice was therefore an important location for shipping. Coal from the Upper Silesian industrial area was mostly shipped west from Gliwice. However, bulk transport on the Oder has been declining for years and is currently no longer a major factor.
The closest airport is Katowice Airport . It is located 34 kilometers northeast of the city. Another international airport is that of Krakow-Balice . The Opole-Kamień Śląski airfield has no relevance. Gliwice itself has an old airfield steeped in tradition in the Trynek (Trinneck) district, which is used by the local air sports club and for the use of the rescue helicopter.
There are three large special economic zones in Gliwice. The largest area is in Gliwice- Brzezinka , where the PSA automobile plant is also located . The plant has been producing the latest Opel Kadett / Astra generation since autumn 2015, which is the brand's most important volume model. Another special economic zone is located near Trynek. The smallest special economic zone is located in Gliwice- Łabędy on a former mining site.
Trade and shopping
In addition to numerous shops in the city center and on Zwycięstwa Street, there are wholesale markets outside the city center. Outside the city center is the Tesco hypermarket . There are two more shopping centers in Gliwice , the Forum Gliwice and the Arena Gliwice shopping center.
Well-known personalities born in Gliwice include the mining engineer and zoologist Wilhelm von Blandowski , the physicist Eugen Goldstein , the composer, conductor and music educator Richard Wetz , the neurologist and psychiatrist and epileptologist Alfred Hauptmann , the writer, writer and poet Olav Münzberg , the Writer Wolfgang Bittner , the actor Hansi Kraus and the soccer players Adam Matuschyk , Sebastian Boenisch and Lukas Podolski .
Five members of the Jewish community received honorary citizenship:
- Simon Freund (1823-1896), Medical Council (1892)
- Eugen Lustig (1856–1929), Counselor (1917)
- Josef Kleczewski, owner of a paper mill (1919)
- Arthur Kochmann , (1864–1943), Counselor, murdered in Auschwitz (1928)
- Victor Perez (1911–1945), boxer (shot on the death march after the dissolution of the Auschwitz concentration camp)
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