Chorzów coat of arms
|Powiat :||District-free city|
|Area :||34.00 km²|
|Geographic location :|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||41-500 to 41-516|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 32|
|License plate :||SH|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Krakow - Wroclaw|
|Rail route :||Katowice – Gliwice|
|Chorzów – Bytom|
|Next international airport :||Katowice|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Community number ( GUS ):||2463011|
|Administration (as of 2015)|
|City President :||Andrzej Kotala|
The city of Chorzów is divided into the following districts:
- Chorzów Stary (Chorzow)
- Chorzów Batory (Bismarck Hut)
- Chorzów Miasto (King's Hut)
- Chorzów II (King's Hut)
- Maciejkowice (Maczeikowitz)
- Klimzowiec (Climate Meadow)
Founding of the hut and the city
In 1797 the eponymous Königshütte was founded as a Prussian state enterprise. It was one of the first smelting works operated with steam power on the European continent. A blast furnace pierced in 1802 was the largest in Europe at the time. In 1871 the company became part of the United Königs- and Laurahütte . Adolph von Menzel traveled to Königshütte in 1875 to study for his painting “Das Eisenwalzwerk”.
The municipality of Königshütte in the Upper Silesian district of Beuthen was founded on July 17, 1868 from the estate district Königshütte, Hüttenwerk , Kolonie Erdmannswille, Charlottenhof and parts of the rural community Chorzow and the estate districts Ober Heiduk, Mittel Lagiewnik, Ober Lagiewnik and Schwientochlowitz . The publication of the royal decree for the elevation of the city by the head president of the province of Silesia took place on April 17, 1869. On March 9, 1869, the former mayor was appointed the first acting mayor of the newly founded city. D. Lange from Bernau was appointed and his full successor a year later was Judge Goetz.
Since June 20, 1884, the name Koenigshütte Upper Silesia or abbreviated Koenigshütte OS was valid. On April 1st, 1898 Koenigshütte OS received the status of a city district and thus left the district of Beuthen .
Coordination and connection to Poland
In the referendum in Upper Silesia on March 20, 1921 , 31,864 eligible voters (74.5 percent) voted in Koenigshütte OS to remain in Germany and 10,764 eligible voters (25.2 percent) to cede to Poland. The turnout was 97.1 percent, 130 invalid votes (0.3 percent) were counted.
But because there was a majority of votes in the district of Katowice surrounding the city for the connection to Poland, the town of Königshütte OS was ceded to Poland together with the district of Katowice on June 19, 1922, because otherwise it would have become a German exclave in Poland. Königshütte OS has now received a Polish translation of the old name: Królewska Huta . Almost all of the time until 1939 there was a German majority in the city council.
On April 1, 1934, the rural community Chorzów and in 1937 New Heiduk (Nowe Hajduki) were incorporated into the town of Królewska Huta, which at the same time assumed the new name Chorzów . Since then, the municipality of Chorzów has been called Chorzów Stary (translated Old Chorzow). On April 1, 1939, the urban area was further enlarged by the incorporation of the rural communities Wielkie Hajduki, Kochłowice (partially) and Świętochłowice (partially).
Second World War
Since October 26, 1939, Chorzów - now again called Königshütte (without the addition "OS") - belonged to the district of Katowice in the Prussian province of Silesia, and from 1941 to Upper Silesia.
On January 27, 1945, the city was captured by the Red Army and returned to Poland. As a result, there were riots, excesses, expropriations of property without compensation, forced labor, deportations, resettlements and expulsions of the German population of Königshütte.
post war period
Members of the German minority still live in the city today . In 1955 the Silesian Planetarium was built in the city. The city has as the whole region around Katowice with the consequences of the 1989 ongoing structural change (decline of coal mining and heavy industry ) such. B. Fight unemployment and pollution .
On January 29, 2006 at around 5.15 p.m., the roof of an exhibition hall collapsed. At the time of the accident, around 700 people attended a pigeon fancier exhibition that attracts more than 12,000 visitors every year. The accident cost the lives of 65 people, and a further 160 people were injured and rescued from the rubble.
see also : Katowice Fair
|1825||660||including 292 Catholics|
|1840||778||211 Protestants, 567 Catholics|
|1861||1076||260 Evangelicals, 808 Catholics, eight Jews|
|1867||11.013||on December 3rd|
|1871||19,546||including 1,800 Protestants, 250 Jews; According to other data, 19,536 inhabitants (on December 1), including 2,624 Evangelicals, 16,268 Catholics, 644 Jews|
|1890||36.502||thereof 4,354 Protestants, 31,316 Catholics, 830 Jews|
|1900||57,919||of which 6665 Evangelicals, 50,317 Catholics, 925 Jews (25,256 people with a Polish mother tongue )|
|1910||72,641||thereof 8,573 Protestants, 63,143 Catholics|
- Andrzej Kotala ( Koalicja Obywatelska ) 65.0% of the vote
- Leszek Piechota ( Prawo i Sprawiedliwość ) 14.6% of the vote
- Adam Trzebinzyk ( Kukiz'15 ) 5.5% of the vote
- Artur Żurek (Chorzów Independent Electoral Committee) 5.4% of the vote
- Rafał Adamus ( Silesian Regional Party ) 3.5% of the vote
- Dariusz Olejniczak (Electoral Committee “Social Citizens' Initiative Chorzów”) 3.2% of the vote
- Jerzy Bogacki (Jerzy Bogacki Election Committee) 2.7% of the vote
Kotala was thus re-elected in the first ballot.
The city council consists of 25 members and is directly elected. The 2018 city council election led to the following result:
- Koalicja Obywatelska (KO) 51.8% of the vote, 18 seats
- Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (PiS) 22.4% of the vote, 7 seats
- Kukiz'15 6.9% of the vote, no seat
- Silesian Regional Party 6.2% of the vote, no seat
- Independent Electoral Committee Chorzów 5.6% of the vote, no seat
- Election committee “Social Citizens' Initiative Chorzów” 3.3% of the votes, no seat
- Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (SLD) / Lewica Razem (Razem) 2.5% of the votes, no seat
- Remaining 1.3% of the vote, no seat
Culture and sights
- Church of St. Barbara, built in 1859 and later rebuilt
- Knurow's scrap wood church of St. Laurentius from the 16th century, was moved to Chorzów in 1935
- Town Hall (Chorzów)
- Headframe of the former Prezydent coal mine
- Teatr Rozrywki
- Silesian Central Park
Before the First World War
The beginnings go back to 1862, when the first gymnastics club, later the men's gymnastics club ( MTV ), was founded on July 10th by the ironworking machine master Angele. The carpenter Carlitzek became the first chairman. First, the club did gymnastics in a hall of the Hotel Wandel on Kattowitzer Strasse, and on July 13, 1895, they moved into their own newly built gym with an athletics and ball playground on Parkstrasse. On August 22nd, 1875 the 1st Upper Silesian Gauturnfest took place in the city with over 200 participants. The board of directors of the association included the factory owner Paul Sonsalla and the treasurer Czajor.
In 1891, the teacher Alker began with his students in school No. 7, which was in the working-class district, with daily exercises in the school yard. Three years later, in the municipal school deputation, the youth game was decided as part of physical education in schools. Over time, the proportion of students and teachers who took part grew, both during and after class. In order to make the youth game even better known, game festivals were held every year in the municipal park on the Redenberg with the active participation of the audience. The 1st mayor Mr. Stolle and the school inspectorate supported this development. This finally led to the foundation of the first sports club in 1901, under the name Spielvereinigung 1901 Königshütte . Sports that were practiced from the start included fistball, drum ball, batting, and hiking. Football was added later, before 1912. The teacher Pompa was the leader. Since this club did not have its own sports field, it merged with SC 08, founded in 1908, in December 1923.
On August 22, 1910, the most famous Königshütte club, the Association for Lawn Games ( VfR ) , evidently emerged as a spin-off from MTV . A member of the MTV , the Austrian Kurt Pallavicini, contributed significantly to its establishment . The reason for this is probably the lack of a football department at MTV . The club colors of the VfR were “red-black” and the playground was between Hummerei- and Annenstraße. The accounting officer Ganz became the first chairman. In addition to football, there has been a tennis and athletics department since it was founded.
During the First World War, the entire sporting activity was largely inactive.
Between the world wars
In order to be allowed to participate in the game , the German clubs had to be Polonized after the annexation of Eastern Upper Silesia , including the city of Königshütte to Poland in 1922. This happened by changing the name, replacing the German board members, merging with or taking over by the Polish clubs. The VfR was renamed AKS after it started playing as a member of the newly founded German Voivodeship Football Association . The game association in 1901 changed its name to Zjednoczone Przyjaciele Sportu . The Bismarckhütter Ballspiel Club ( BBC ) in turn merged on January 7, 1923 with the Ruch to form Ruch BBC Wielkie hajduki . At the same time, the German Catholic youth movement formed new sports clubs, known as Jugendkraft . New Polish clubs such as KS Śląsk , KS Kresy , KS Polonia and the Association of the Polish Military were also established.
In 1926, a new stadium was built on Redenberg , which was inaugurated on October 2, 1927 by Polish President Ignacy Mościcki . His complex included a soccer field with a cinder track, a smaller sports field, a club building, a swimming pool, a tennis court, a grandstand with around 100,000 seats, a cricket ground and a parade ground.
On January 6, 1928, a new club, the KS Stadion with the departments, football, athletics, swimming and tennis was founded.
The only German tennis club in East Upper Silesia, the Lawn Tennis Club ( LTC ), was located in Königshütte .
In August 1935, a six-day race (cycling) was held for the first time .
In public transport there is a connection to the Upper Silesian tram network .
sons and daughters of the town
- Theodor Erdmann Kalide (1801–1863), sculptor, master of metallurgy casting technology
- Richard Breslau (1835–1897), Mayor of Erfurt
- Guido Thielscher (1859–1941), actor, comedian and cabaret artist
- Anna Borchers (1870–1918), deaconess, kindergarten teacher
- Paul Segieth (1884–1969), German painter and draftsman
- Leopold Michatz (1885–1958), German-Polish politician
- Friedrich Weißler (1891–1937), lawyer and member of the Confessing Church
- August Froehlich (1891–1942), German priest, resistance fighter against National Socialism
- Günther Rittau (1893–1971), German cameraman
- Erwin Respondek (1894–1971), German economist, resistance fighter against National Socialism and spy
- Erwin Meyer (1899–1972), German physicist
- Max Grünewald (1899–1992), German rabbi
- Walter Zirpins (1901–1976), police officer
- Rudolf Albrecht (1902–1971), German politician ( VdgB , DBD and SED ) and State Secretary in the Ministry of Trade and Supply of the GDR
- Kurt Alder (1902–1958), German chemist, Nobel Prize winner 1950
- Ludwig Mzyk (1905–1940), Steyler missionary , Roman Catholic blessed
- Oswald Kaduk (1906–1997), SS-Unterscharführer and one of the main defendants in the Auschwitz trial
- Franz Waxman (1906–1967), film composer (2 music Oscars), conductor and arranger
- Elfriede Weidlich (1907–1994), soprano, chamber singer of the Dresden State Opera
- Emil Bednarek (1907–2001), Polish Kapo, prisoner in Auschwitz concentration camp
- Paul Szczurek (1908–1948), German war criminal, overseer in Auschwitz concentration camp , sentenced to death in the Kraków Auschwitz trial
- Siegfried Weinmann (1910–1996), German cameraman and photographer
- Oskar Seidlin (1911–1984), American scholar
- Hans Franke (1911–2000), German gerontologist
- Fritz Freitag (1915–1977), painter
- Peter Brock (1916–1982), writer
- Henryk Alszer (1918–1959), (Olympic) football player
- Henryk Nowara (1924-2001), boxer and boxing trainer, Olympic participant (1968)
- Reinhard Appel (1927–2011), journalist
- Gerard Cieślik (1927–2013), football player of the Polish national team and von Ruch Chorzów , honorary citizen
- Tino Schwierzina (1927-2003), German politician (SPD)
- Theodor Kotulla (1928–2001), German director (including a film with Götz George about Auschwitz concentration camp)
- Egon Piechaczek (1931–2006), Polish football player and coach
- Gottfried Dominok (1932–2010), German bone pathologist in Dresden and Cottbus
- Ulrich Schicha (1934–1993), church musician, 1971–1990 assistant to the Kreuzkantor Martin Flämig , 1990/91 provisional Kreuzkantor
- Bohdan Gonsior (* 1937), Polish fencer
- Hans Kolo (* 1937), German politician (SPD)
- Halina Herrmann (* 1938), German-Polish athlete, Olympic champion from Tokyo (1964) and Olympic third in Rome (1960)
- Eugeniusz Faber (* 1939), Polish football player
- Edward Bogusławski (1940–2003), composer and music teacher
- Walter Mixa (* 1941), Bishop of Eichstätt 1996–2005, military bishop 2000–2010, Bishop of Augsburg 2005–2010
- Dieter Forster (* 1942), table tennis national player
- Antoni Piechniczek (* 1942), Polish football player and coach
- Christian Skrzyposzek (1943–1999), Polish writer
- Hanna Schygulla (* 1943), German actress
- Olgierd Łukaszewicz (* 1946), Polish actor
- Alex Skovron (born 1948), Australian poet
- Henryk Wieczorek (* 1949), football player of the Polish national team, chairman of the city council
- Jerzy Wyrobek (1949–2013), football player for the Polish national team
- Albin Wira (* 1953), Polish football player
- Piotr Sylwester Chmielowski (* 1965), Polish politician
- Ryszard Riedel (1956–1994), Polish singer in the Dżem group
- Adam Taubitz (* 1967), German jazz musician
- Grzegorz Jarzyna (* 1968), Polish theater director
- Andreas Pokorny (* 1968), German ice hockey player
- Jacek Płachta (* 1969), German-Polish ice hockey player and coach
- Agnieszka Krukówna (* 1971), Polish actress
- Wojciech Kuczok (* 1972), Polish writer and film critic
- Anton Kotulla or Antoni Kotula , chess player (defeated, among others, the Russian grandmaster Smyslow)
- Paul Mross o. Paweł Mróz , chess player ("Wielkie Hajduki", first Polish chess master, after 1945 in Germany (Berlin))
Other people connected to the city
- Ernst Schroeder (1889–1971), Mayor of Königshütte from 1940 to 1944
- Felix Triest : Topographical Handbook of Upper Silesia , Wilh. Gottl. Korn, Breslau 1865, pp. 341–342 .
- Hugo Mohr: History of the city of Königshütte in Upper Silesia, edited from documents and official files , H. Freund, Beuthen OS 1890.
- Johannes Chrząszcz : Festive writing for the 50th anniversary celebration of the Catholic St. Barbara parish in Königshütte (Upper Silesia). St. Hyacinth printing works, Königshütte 1902. (digital copy)
- Richard Schmidt: Small city book of Königshütte Oberschlesien . Publishing house for social policy, economics and statistics, Berlin / Paul Gaertner, Königshütte OS 1941.
- Paul Rother: Chronicle of the city of Königshütte Oberschlesien. Laumann, Dülmen 1992, ISBN 3-87466-193-8 .
- Marian Gałuszka: Chorzów Wczoraj - Königshütte yesterday . Wydawnictwo "Wokół nas", Gliwice 1996, ISBN 83-85338-51-9 .
- Official website of the city (Polish, German, English)
- Königshütte / Chorzów , encyclopedia entry, in: Online encyclopedia on the culture and history of Germans in Eastern Europe , University of Oldenburg
- further website of the city (Polish)
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. koenigshuette.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- City website (BIP), Prezydent Miasta , accessed March 24, 2015
- Entry on germanhistory.doc
- The decree of King Wilhelm I of Prussia
- Paul Rother: Chronicle of the city of Königshütte Oberschlesien. Laumann Verlag Dülmen, 1994, ISBN 3-87466-193-8 .
- Alexander August Mützell and Leopold Krug : New topographical-statistical-geographical dictionary of the Prussian state . Volume 2, G – Ko , Halle 1821, p. 367, item 3484 .
- Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, spots, cities and other places of the royal family. Prussia. Province of Silesia, including the Margraviate of Upper Lusatia, which now belongs entirely to the province, and the County of Glatz; together with the attached evidence of the division of the country into the various branches of civil administration. Melcher, Breslau 1830, p. 345 .
- Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, spots, cities and other places of the royal family. Preusz. Province of Silesia. 2nd Edition. Graß, Barth and Comp., Breslau 1845, pp. 296-297 .
- Felix Triest : Topographisches Handbuch von Oberschlesien , Wilh. Gottl. Korn, Breslau 1865, p. 318, paragraph 21 .
- Gustav Neumann : The German Empire in geographical, statistical and topographical relation . Volume 2, GFO Müller, Berlin 1874, p. 177 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Royal Statistical Bureau: The municipalities and manor districts of the province of Silesia and their population. Based on the original materials of the general census of December 1, 1871. Berlin 1874, pp. 336–337, item 2 .
- M. Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006)
- Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 11, Leipzig / Vienna 1907, p. 390 .
- Result on the website of the election commission, called on August 11, 2020.
- Result on the website of the election commission, accessed on August 11, 2020.
- Paul Rother: Chronicle of the city of Königshütte Oberschlesien. Laumann, Dülmen 1994, ISBN 3-87466-193-8 .
- Chapter "Development and status of the youth game in the city of Königshütte O / S" In: Idzinski, Pompa: Yearbook for folk and youth games 1902.
- DFB yearbook 1912.
- DFB yearbooks, Fonfara memories, Königshütter Heimatblatt dated April 9, 1970
- Ulrich Schicha at Kreuzkirchenkantorei Dresden ( Memento of the original from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.