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Catchment area of ​​the Oder

Catchment area of ​​the Oder

Water code DE : 6, CZ : 2-01-01-001
location In the Czech Republic , Poland , Germany
River system Or
Or source near Kozlov at the southeastern foot of the Fidlův Kopec in the Oder Mountains
49 ° 36 ′ 48 ″  N , 17 ° 31 ′ 15 ″  E
Source height 634  m nm
muzzle Through the Szczecin Lagoon into the Baltic Sea Coordinates: 53 ° 36 '6 "  N , 14 ° 35' 23"  E 53 ° 36 '6 "  N , 14 ° 35' 23"  E
Mouth height m npm
Height difference 634 m
Bottom slope 0.73 ‰
length 866 km
Catchment area 118,890 km²
Discharge at the Widuchowa
A Eo gauge: 110,524 km²
Location: 105 km above the estuary
NNQ (08/21/1992)
MNQ 1976-2003
MQ 1976-2003
Mq 1976-2003
MHQ 1976-2003
HHQ (08/03/1997)
153 m³ / s
254 m³ / s
540 m³ / s
4.9 l / (s km²)
1180 m³ / s
2980 m³ / s
Discharge  at the confluence with the Stettiner Haff
A Eo : 118,890 km²
574 m³ / s
4.8 l / (s km²)
Left tributaries Oppa , Przykopa , Zinna , Osobłoga , Glatzer Neisse , Oława , Schweidnitzer Weistritz , Kaczawa , Bober , Lausitzer Neisse , Catfish
Right tributaries Malapane , Weide , Bartsch , Warthe , Ihna
Big cities Ostrava , Opole , Wroclaw , Zielona Góra , Szczecin
Medium-sized cities Racibórz , Kędzierzyn-Koźle , Głogów , Nowa Sól , Eisenhüttenstadt , Frankfurt (Oder) , Schwedt / Oder , Police
Small towns Gryfino , Krapkowice , Krosno Odrzańskie , Lebus , Jelcz-Laskowice , Brzeg Dolny , Ścinawa , Kostrzyn nad Odrą , Słubice
Navigable From the estuary to Koźle
Lower Oder lowlands (national park area), from the eastern edge near Krajnik-Dolny (municipality of Chojna and opposite Schwedt)

Lower Oder lowlands (national park area), from the eastern edge near Krajnik-Dolny (municipality of Chojna and opposite Schwedt )

The Oder [ ˈʔoːdɐ ] ( Polish Odra ([ ˈɔ.dra ]), Czech Odra , Lower Sorbian Odra , Upper Sorbian Wódra , Silesian Ude ) is a central European river that originates in the Czech Republic, flows through Poland and part of the border between Poland and Germany forms. It flows through the Stettiner Haff and around the islands of Usedom and Wolin into the Baltic Sea . The Oder as a border river is a result of the Second World War . The Oder is 866 kilometers long (898 kilometers to Świnoujście (Swinoujscie) ).

Its tributaries include the Lusatian Neisse and the Warta , which are the longest tributaries and extend the length of the river system to 1045 kilometers . The mean discharge at the confluence with the Szczecin Lagoon is 574 m³ / s, making the Oder the fifth largest river in Germany after the Rhine , Danube , Inn and Elbe . Its catchment area is limited to the west and southwest by the Elbe, to the east by the Vistula and to the south by the Danube.


Confluence of the Oder and Olsa rivers near Bohumín

The source of the Oder is located in the Czech Republic one and a half kilometers northwest of Kozlov on Fidlův Kopec (Fiedelhübel) in the Moravian Oder Mountains . The first 31 kilometers of their run lead through the Libavá military training area . From its border, from the confluence of the Budišovka to Ostrava, it forms the historical provincial border between Silesia (on the left) and Moravia (on the right). At Bohumín the river crosses 195 m above sea level. at the confluence of the Olsa the border between the Czech Republic and Poland. The course of the river on Czech territory is 131 kilometers long and covers a catchment area of ​​10,288 square kilometers.

On its further course the Oder flows through Silesia and its capital Breslau (Wrocław) . From the mouth of the Neisse near Ratzdorf north of Guben in Brandenburg , its center to the junction of the West or north of Schwedt / Oder marks the border between Poland and Germany and is accordingly referred to as Grenzoder. The Oder flows through Frankfurt (Oder) , Słubice and Kostrzyn nad Odrą (Küstrin) . Between the cities of Lebus and Oderberg, the Oder flows through the almost 60 kilometers long and 12 to 20 kilometers wide Oderbruch , then passes the polder area near Schwedt, before it joins the two arms of Westoder at the Marienhof weir at river kilometer 704 . : Odra Zachodnia ) and Ostoder (Polish: Odra Wschodnia ) divides. The Westoder is a border river as far as Mescherin before it continues to flow like the Eastoder on both sides on Polish territory. The gradient of the last 30 kilometers before Stettin is only a few centimeters. From river kilometer 730.5, the Ostoder Große Reglitz (Polish: Regalica ) is called. At the height of the Dammschen Lake , the East and West Oder merge. As a so-called Pape water (Pol .: Roztoka Odrzańska ) flows or by Police (Pölitz) , before entering the the Baltic Sea belonging Szczecin Lagoon opens. The catchment area of ​​the Oder covers 118,890 km². According to Polish law, the Or shall apply from the Hakenterrasse as internal marine waters and does not count on from there inland waters .

The border stretches of the Oder and Westoder are federal waterways of waterway class IV with a total length of 179 kilometers, for which the Eberswalde Waterways and Shipping Office is responsible.

Since the Szczecin Lagoon is a bay, its three connecting arms to the open sea are inlets. As the estuaries of the Oder, they mainly carry Oder water to the north, but they also have a noteworthy influx of lake water into the lagoon, especially when there is a strong north wind. This can be seen from the delta formation on the back (haff side) , particularly pronounced in the swine. Location of these inlets and islands:

  • Peenestrom (up to the confluence of the Peene river Der Strom ) between the German mainland and the island of Usedom (Polish: Uznam ),
  • Świna (German Swine ) between the islands of Usedom and Wollin (Polish Wolin ), with the shipping route, Kanał Piastowski , until 1945 Kaiserfahrt , built 1875 to 1880,
  • Dziwna (German Dievenow ) between the island of Wollin and the Polish mainland.

15% of the total discharge of the Oder takes place via the Peene River, 73% via the Swine and 12% via the Dziwna.


The Oder is navigable for 717 kilometers to Koźle (German Cosel ) in Poland. This is where the Gleiwitz Canal connects , which was intended to be the beginning of the Danube-Oder Canal .

By straightening the Oder, which is navigable for seagoing vessels from the Baltic Sea upriver through the Stettiner Haff to Stettin (Szczecin) , has been shortened from 1,040 kilometers to 866 kilometers since around 1850.

The river was largely canalized in two phases: 1888–1897 and 1907–1922. In order to make the river navigable for larger ships, barrages and sluices were built, whereby the water power was also used to generate electricity at the barrages. There are currently seven hydropower plants in operation, the largest belonging to the Brzeg Dolny barrage and an output of 9.7 MW.

Since July 2007, after 62 years, an occasional ferry has been operating between the German town of Güstebieser Loose and the Polish town of Gozdowice (German: Güstebiese). A motor ship with a paddle wheel drive serves as the vehicle .

High and low water events

Extreme events in the 20th and 21st centuries

1997 saw the largest flood of the Oder to date . Most recently, in May 2010, the Oder burst its banks in many places in Poland and Germany. In the lower part of the Oder (e.g. Hohensaaten) the ice floods dominate.

The ten highest peak
water levels at the Hohensaaten and Eisenhüttenstadt gauges since 1850 (highlighted in yellow: extreme events in the 21st century)
Ice drift on the Oderbrücke Schwedt on January 2, 2011
Low water of the Oder in Frankfurt (Oder) in August 2015
Oder flood disaster in 1947: Rescued people from the flooded village of Letschin are brought ashore.
Eisenhüttenstadt gauge since 1850
water level
in cm
717 July 24, 1997
655 August 30, 1854
653 May 28, 2010
651 0November 6, 1930
638 March 23, 1947
621 July 21, 1903
620 January 27, 1907
618 August 31, 1977
612 September 10, 1938
611 March 22, 1940

Selection of flood events

July / August 1496, August 1501 (in parts), August / September 1515, March 1565, July 1675, March / April 1698, March / April 1709, June / July 1736, April 1785, August / September 1813, March 1830, September 1831, March 1838 (in parts), August / September 1854, February / March 1876, March 1891, June / July 1902, July 1903, October 1915 (in parts), June 1926, October / November 1930, March / April 1940, March / April 1947 , January 1982 (extreme damming due to ice on the lower reaches), July / August 1997 , May / June 2010 .

Selection of low water events

1473, 1590, 1616, 1719, September / October 1811, October 1824, October 1834, September 1835, September 1842, July to October 1893, July to October 1904, July to October 1911, July to November 1921, June / July 1922, June / July / August 1930, May to August 1934, July / August / September 1935, July to October 1992, June to October 2003, August to November 2004, July / August 2006, July to November 2015 and since July 2018

Environment and nature protection

In 1996, Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic founded the “ International Commission for the Protection of the Oder against Pollution ” (IKSO). In the agreement, the states committed to an immediate program to reduce the pollution of the Oder and its catchment area. One of the measures that followed is, for example, the construction of jointly used sewage treatment plants.

The Lower Oder Valley National Park, founded in 1995, is of particular importance for nature conservation on the Oder . The Oder is part of the Living Rivers campaign run by Deutsche Umwelthilfe . This campaign works nationwide to ensure that rivers and streams are transformed back into natural landscapes.

Political importance

Through the first paragraph of Article 331 of the Versailles Peace Treaty , the Oder was declared an international river from the inflow of the Oppa, together with the Elbe, Memel and Danube. The Oder was placed under the administration of the International Oder Commission . This commission consisted of one representative each from Poland , Prussia , Czechoslovakia , the United Kingdom , France , Denmark and Sweden .

The Oder gained renewed political importance after the end of the Second World War . As part of the Potsdam Agreement in 1945, around a quarter of the German state territory was de facto separated within the borders of 1937 and placed under provisional Polish or Soviet administration. In 1990 the Oder-Neisse line was confirmed as the German eastern border when the Federal Republic of Germany waived all claims to formerly German areas east of this line in the Two-Plus-Four Treaty and the German-Polish Border Treaty .

The Oder with the railway bridge for the Frankfurt (Oder) –Poznań railway line and the motorway bridge for the A 12


  • In his Geographike Hyphegesis, Claudius Ptolemy locates three other rivers west of the Vistula that flow into the Baltic Sea. The geographical longitudes given by him allow a good relative localization of his names despite the differences in his graticule from today's. According to this, the Swine corresponds to a river called Συήβος ( Suebos , Latin: Suevus ). He does not give a source coordinate for this river, but mentions the Suebus when listing the peoples as the border between Semnonen and Burgundy inland, which corresponds to the use of the name for the Oder. Claudius Ptolemy locates a river called Οὐιαδούα (or Οὐιλδούα, graphic similarity of Α and Λ), in Latin Viadua or Vildua, between Suebos and Vistula, twice as far from the Vistula as from the Swine. Historians assume that this river corresponds to the Wieprza (Eng .: Wipper), which reaches the sea halfway between Swine and the former mouth of the Vistula.
  • The name researcher Jürgen Udolph suspects the origin of the name from the Illyrian word Adra in the meaning of "water vein" with reference to a similar word in Sanskrit. Thus, avestisch adu- (as 'watercourse') would be conceivable as the original word. The idg. Word is also used in Thracian as urda "Strom, Bach". The German word "Ader" still meant not only "blood vessel" or "trickle" in Old High German, but also tendon , nerve and generally " gut ", similar to the ancient Greek word ήτορ (étor) "heart", "lung" or "soul" .
  • Another, but rather folk etymological, attempt at explanation derives the name Oder / Odra from the Polish drzeć, przezierać , which means something like “tear, penetrate, push forward”, for example in the sense of “breakthrough to the sea”.


The Lusatian Neisse flows into the Oder

Downstream order

Left tributaries Right tributaries
  1. Liebauer Bach ( Libavský potok )
  2. Backwater ( Lazský potok )
  3. Schönwalder Bach ( Podleský potok )
  4. Drought Bautsch ( Budišovka )
  5. Porubka
  6. Oppa ( Opava , Opawa)
  7. Belk ( Bełk / Bečva)
  8. Przykopa (Doubravka)
  9. Zinna (Psina / Cina)
  10. Hotzenplotz (Osobłoga)
  11. Glatzer Neisse (Nysa Kłodzka)
  12. Ohle ( Oława )
  13. Lohe (Ślęza)
  14. Weistritz (Bystrzyca Świdnicka)
  15. the Katzbach (Kaczawa)
  16. Bober (Bóbr)
  17. Lusatian Neisse (Lužická Nisa, Nysa Łużycka)
    (its estuary is one of the federal waterways)
  18. Catfish
  19. Old Or
  20. Aalbach (Gunica)
  1. Bleisbach ( Plazský potok )
  2. Luha
  3. Jičínka (Titsch)
  4. Lubina
  5. Ondřejnice
  6. Ostrawitza ( Ostravice )
  7. Olsa (Olše, Olza)
  8. Raude (Ruda)
  9. Birawka (Bierawka)
  10. Klodnitz (Kłodnica)
  11. Malapane (Mała Panew)
  12. Willow (Widawa)
  13. Bartsch (Barycz)
  14. Pleiske ( Pliszka )
  15. Eilang (Ilanka)
  16. Warta (Warta)
  17. Mietzel (Myśla)
  18. Kuritz (Kurzyca)
  19. Röhrike (Rurzyca)
  20. Thue (Tywa)
  21. Him (Ina)

Alternatively: List sorted by state and alphabet

Channel connections

Oder-Havel Canal between Eberswalde and Niederfinow


The Oder, border between Germany and Poland

The Oder flows through or passes through these regions, among others:


Cathedral Island in Wroclaw
Or between Küstrin and Küstriner Vorland

Main river

Stettiner Haff and estuary arms

North end of the Swine
The Dziwna flows into the Baltic Sea
Delta at the end of the Swine lagoon
Westoder (Odra Zachodnia) in Szczecin


  • The Oder stream, its river basin and its main tributaries. A hydrographic, water management and water law representation. Published by the Bureau of the Committee for the Investigation of Flood Conditions. 3 volumes of text, 1 volume of map supplements, 1 volume of tables and attachments. Reimer, Berlin 1896.
  • Jürgen Udolph , Wojciech Nowakowski: Or. In: Heinrich Beck, Dieter Geuenich, Heiko Steuer (Hrsg.): Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde. 2nd, completely revised edition, founded by Heinrich Beck, Herbert Jankuhn, Hans Kuhn and Reinhard Wenskus, edited by Rosemarie Müller, 35 volumes and 2 register volumes, Berlin / New York (1968–) 1973–2008, volume 21 ( 2002), pp. 546-549.
  • Joachim Schneider: About the origin and variants of the river name Oder. In: Messages of the historical association to Frankfurt (Oder). 2003, H. 1, pp. 7-14.
  • Uwe Rada : The Oder: the course of a river. 1st edition, Kiepenheuer, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-378-01079-7 .
  • Karl Schlögel, Beata Halicka (ed.): Oder-Odra: Views of a European river. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-631-56149-2 .
  • Karl Spiegelberg: The Oder River System. From the source to the lagoon. A European cultural landscape documented with scientific meticulousness. 2nd, expanded and improved edition, Viademica-Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-939290-10-0 .
  • Ludwig Zöller (Hrsg.): The physical geography of Germany. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2017, ISBN 978-3-534-26868-9 , 6 River History of Central Europe - Change, Surprise, Crime. 6.6 Oder and Vistula system, pp. 139–141.

Web links

Wiktionary: Or  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Or  - collection of images, videos, and audio files
Wikivoyage: Or  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. a b International Commission for the Protection of the Oder (IKSO): Internationale Flussgebietseinheit Oder , 2005, accessed on November 29, 2016.
  2. International River Basin District Or (PDF) report to the European Commission; 2005; On: ikzm-oder.de
  3. a b E. Niemirycz, T. Borkowski: Characterystyka jakości wód. W: Warunki środowiskowe polskiej strefy południowego Bałtyku. Gdańsk: Materiały Oddziału Morskiego IMiGW, 1995, s. 161-172
  4. Územní plán vojenského újezdu Libavá - změna č.1, veřejná část, p. 132 (PDF).
  5. Pramen Odry ( Memento from April 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  6. ^ Federal Institute for Hydraulic Engineering (2014): Update of the flow control concept for the border or. Expert opinion, BAW no. 3.02.10132.3, p. 2 (PDF, wsa-eberswalde.de ).
  7. Directory E, serial no. 40 and 21 of the Chronicle ( Memento of the original from July 22, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.wsv.de
  8. Lengths (in km) of the main shipping lanes (main routes and certain secondary routes) of the federal inland waterways ( memento of the original from January 21, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.wsv.de
  9. Marc Feilbach: Draft of an integrated coastal zone management plan for the Oder estuary (PDF; 4.51 MB). ICZM-Oder Reports 2, 2004, p. 21.
  10. Informacje o Odrze i jej dorzeczu ( Memento of February 10, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (Polish)
  11. German Hydrological Yearbook . Elbe region, part II. Havel with the German Oder region
  12. a b extreme events or: high water, low water. In: undine.bafg.de. Retrieved December 5, 2017 .
  13. ^ Karl Fischer: The summer floods of the Oder from 1813 to 1903 with special treatment of the floods from June / July 1902 and July 1903. In: Yearbook for the hydrology of northern Germany. Special messages. Volume 1, No. 6, Berlin 1907.
  14. Gustav Hellmann , Georg von Elsner: Meteorological studies on the summer floods of the Oder. Berlin 1911.
  15. ^ Heinrich Mann: The flood of August / September 1813. Its causes and its course. In: Yearbook for the hydrology of northern Germany. Special messages. Berlin 1905.
  16. No ship sails anymore Or reaches a new low In: rbb24.de , July 30, 2018, accessed on July 31, 2018.
  17. a b c Case Relating to the Territorial Jurisdiction of the International Commission of the River Oder. (Series A No 23 -Series C No 17-11) / Judgment of September 10th, 1929. In: http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/ . International Water Law Project, accessed October 24, 2010 .
  18. Joachim Schneider, 2003, p. 14.
  19. ^ Claudius Ptolemaios: Geographike Hyphegesis , chap. 11: Germania Magna . (ancient Greek / Latin / English)
  20. Ralf Loock: Mouths of the rivers determined. In: Märkische Oderzeitung , Frankfurt 2008, 3 (March); Ralf Loock: Name thriller about Viadrus in: Märkische Oderzeitung - Journal. Frankfurt 25./26. November 2006, p. 2; see also Alfred Stückelberger , Gerd Graßhoff (Ed.): Ptolemaios - Handbook of Geography. Schwabe, Basel 2006, ISBN 3-7965-2148-7 , p. 223
  21. Encyclopædia Britannica 9th edition 1870–1890: Or &
  22. Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Res gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae, p. 76
  23. Jürgen Udolph, Wojciech Nowakowski: Or. In: Heinrich Beck, Dieter Geuenich, Heiko Steuer (Hrsg.): Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde. 2nd, completely revised edition, edited by Rosemarie Müller. 35 volumes and 2 register volumes, Berlin / New York (1968–) 1973–2008, Volume 21, 2002, pp. 546–549.
  24. Kluge: Etymological Dictionary of the German Language , 24th edition, 2002
  25. Langenscheidt's pocket dictionary of ancient Greek , 8th edition, 2000
  26. Uwe Rada: The Oder. Life course of a river. Kiepenheuer, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-378-01079-7 , p. 15.