Dagome Iudex

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Copy in Cambrai , modern tracing

The Dagome Iudex (also Dagone iudex ) is a regest , i.e. the summary of the content of an older document, the corresponding original document has been lost. The document from the 10th century was named after the Judex (Lord, Judge) Dagome mentioned in the opening words . Several copies of it have been preserved, including the “Collectio canonum” of the Curia Cardinal Deusdedit from 1086/1087 , who had worked in Rome during the pontificate of Pope Gregory VII († 1085) .

Dagome Iudex is an important source for the establishment or recognition of a state that is mentioned as Schinesge (Gnesen). It is assumed that in the registration of a monk from the years 1086/1087 an act of donation by the Polan Duke Mieszko I († 992) to the Apostolic See from the year 991 is described, with which the Piast prince directs his city or country Subject to the protection of the Pope. At the Cracow Academy the certificate was called Oda's donation.

The text

Latin text translation to German
Item in alio tomo sub Iohanne XV papa Dagome iudex et Ote senatrix et filii eorum Misicam et Lambertus - nescio cuius gentis homines, puto autem Sardos fuisse, quoniam ipsi a IIII iudicibus reguntur - leguntur beato Petro contulisse unam civitatem in integro cum omnibus suis pertinentiis infra hos affines, sicuti incipit a primo latere longum mare, fine Bruzze usque in locum, qui dicitur Russe et fines Russe extendente usque in Craccoa et ab ipsa Craccoa usque ad flumen Odde recte in locum, qui dicitur Alemure ipsa Alemura usque in terram Spleen recte intra Oddere et exinde ducente iuxta flumen Oddera usque in predictam civitate Schinesghe. In another book from the time of Pope John XV. Herr Dagome and Herrin Ote , as well as their sons Misico and Lambertus - I don't know which tribe these people belong to, but believe that they are Sardinians , since they are always ruled by four judges - Saint Peter one the whole city [or state] called Schinesghe , with all the countries that extend within its borders, in sequence first the long sea (or "along the sea"), (then) the border of the Prussians to a place called Rus , (then) the borders of the Rus to Krakow and from this Krakow to the river Oder , (then) straight to a place called Alemure and from this Alemura further to the land (of) spleens , (then) straight to the Oder, from there following along the river Oder to the said town of Schinesghe.


Document in the Vatican , modern tracing

The reference to a document of a "Dagome Iudex" not available in the original and also not mentioned anywhere before 1086 has led to numerous speculations. The Vatican copyist , but not the French, added the comment that he did not know the people of this sex and assumed that they were Sardinians.

It is assumed, among other things, that this formal act of donation was intended to secure the direct succession to the throne in Gniezno (“Schinesghe” in the Vatican document or “Schignesne” in the copy of Cambrai) for the underage children Mieszkos I, Mieszko (jun.) And Lambert , against Bolesław I. Chrobry , Mieszko's son from his marriage to Dubrawka . On the other hand, it can be assumed that, according to the Slavic custom of the time, Bolesław had already been awarded his inheritance when he reached the age of majority. Research also suggests that the donation was made in preparation for the Metropolitan Organization of the Church in Poland, which was actually carried out in the year 1000 in the Gniezno act . The regest contains the oldest geographical description of the political boundaries of the area of ​​Dagome's (also Dagone) and Ote and records the first known donation from a city or state to the Apostolic See. Since it is known that Ote refers to Oda von Haldensleben , it is assumed that Dagome Mieszko I was and that it is the area of ​​the Duke of the Polans , later Poland , although this name is not mentioned.

According to one hypothesis , Duke Mieszko I (Latin Mesco) was baptized with the "Christian" name Dagobert (his Christian baptismal name has not been passed down) and the Italian copyist, to whom the Central and Eastern European events of the 10th and 11th centuries Peoples and rulers of this region were completely closed, both names were shortened to "Dagome".

Other hypotheses speak of an immigration of Poles from the Balkans. In German historiography, the vague assumption of Mieszkos' Viking origin was often voiced, whereby one based only on the uncertainly transmitted second name Dago (Dagr) Mieszkos and the marriages of his daughter Sigrid-Storrada with Nordic kings. Although Viking influences are unmistakable in the Warta and Vistula region, the fact that no German chronicler reports about it and that no other Nordic first names appear under the names of the princely family speaks against the Nordic origin.

In summary, however, two hypotheses are considered probable: On the one hand, it can be a modification of copyists who have shortened or falsified the expression Ego Mesco dux ("Ich, Herzog Mieszko") to Dagome [iudex] , on the other hand comes a An unspecified baptismal name Duke Mieszkos, who converted to the Catholic faith in 966, as well as an abbreviated combination of his baptismal name and his pagan name Mieszko, which is known from other sources.


  • Walter Leitsch : Deusdedit and the Dagome iudex certificate . In: Heinrich Felix Schmid (Ed.): Ceremony for the 50th anniversary of the Institute for Eastern European History and Southeast Research at the University of Vienna , Vienna 1959, pp. 116–185
  • B. Pumpkin: Dagome iudex. Study krytyczne. [In:] Początki państwa polskiego - Księga Tysiąclecia. Volume 2, Poznań 1962, pp. 362-423.
  • H. Łowmiański: Początki Polski. Volume 5, Warszawa 1973, pp. 595-605.
  • Gerard Labuda : Studia nad początkami państwa polskiego. Volume 2, Warszawa 1988, pp. 240-261.
  • Przemysław Nowak: Regest dokumentu Dagome iudex w świetle najnowszych badań interdyscyplinarnych . In: Wojciech Drelicharz, Dominika Jasiak, Jacek Poleski (eds.): Spór o początki państwa polskiego. Historiografia, tradycja, mit, propaganda , Kraków 2017, pp. 179–189 ( online at academia.edu) with bibliographical supplements from 1990 to 2015.
  • Przemysław Nowak: Recent work on the Dagome iudex in the Collectio Canonum of Cardinal Deusdedit . In: Pavel Otmar Krafl (Ed.): Sacri canones editandi. Studies on Medieval Canon Law in Memory of Jiří Kejř , (Ius canonicum medii aevi 1), Brno 2017, pp. 25–39. ( on academia.edu )
  • Bibliography under pl.sci.historia ( Memento from April 10, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  • Heinrich Zeißberg : Miseco I. (Mieczyslaw), the first Christian ruler of the Poles. In: Archives for Austrian History, Vol. 38, 1867, pp. 25–120, especially 109f.

Web links

Wikisource: Dagome Iudex  - Sources and full texts (Latin)
Commons : Dagome Iudex  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b In the original singular
  2. ↑ In recent research, the place Alemure is equated with the Moravian Olomouc , cf. Petr Charvát: Boleslav II. Sjednotitel českého státu. Vyšehrad 2004, ISBN 80-7021-657-3 , p. 156.
  3. ^ Central German contributions to the German constitutional history of the Middle Ages. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, ISBN 3-525-36134-3 . [1]
  4. ^ Heinrich Kunstmann : The Slavs: their name, their migration to Europe and the beginnings of Russian history in a historical-onomastic point of view. Franz Steiner Verlag , 1996, ISBN 3-515-06816-3 . [2]
  5. a b Gotthold Rhode : Brief history of Poland . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1965, p. 8.