The shipping areas for maritime shipping also include waterways suitable for this purpose, i.e. large rivers (e.g. the Elbe to Hamburg or the Weser to Bremen ), canals ( Panama Canal , Suez Canal , Kiel Canal ) and inland lakes connected to the sea by waterways (such as the Great Lakes in North America).
In maritime shipping, a distinction is made between liner shipping and tramp shipping . In the liner service the ships call at a certain sequence of ports according to fixed timetables, in the tramp shipping the ships move freely according to supply and demand with the respective cargo.
Maritime shipping handles a large proportion of maritime trade .
Large seaports are for example Kobe (Japan), Hong Kong (PR China), Busan (South Korea), Hamburg and the ZARA ports Zeebrugge (Belgium), Amsterdam , Rotterdam (both Netherlands) and Antwerp (Belgium). In the past few decades, large ships replaced or displaced smaller ships; in this context, the depth and breadth of waterways and ports have become more important. Particularly deep ports are called deep water ports .
Actors in the maritime industry are among others
- the people who go to sea ( sailor (official plural "seamen"))
- Shipowners (owners of one or more ocean-going vessels) and their companies ( shipping companies )
- Shipbuilding , port management, maritime supply industry
- Trade unions (e.g. the International Transport Workers 'Federation ), shipping associations (e.g. Association of German Shipowners , European Community Shipowners' Associations ) and other industry associations
- States and state institutions (which e.g. promote sea (shipping) travel), e. B. (Germany :) the maritime coordinator , the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH)
- International organizations, e.g. B. the IMO (formerly: IMCO) , a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN)
- Environmental associations (they urge emissions from shipping (consequences: marine pollution , air pollution and CO 2 balance ) to be reduced)
The sea shipping is operated with different types of cargo ships . These have the following shares in the shipping market: bulk carriers (55%), tankers (27%), container ships (14%), gas tankers (2%) and others (2%). Bulk carriers (also known as bulk carriers) mainly transport iron ore, coal, grain, bauxite, phosphate, cement, sugar, rice, scrap and steel. The tankers are divided into crude oil tankers, product tankers (for refined products), chemical tankers and liquefied gas tankers .
Over 90% of world trade , almost 95% of foreign trade in the European Union and almost 70% of German imports and exports are carried out by sea. Around 170 countries operate around 90,000 merchant ships worldwide (as of 2008) . Of these, 42,000 are used in international shipping. The freight goods with the largest share of world sea trade are: crude oil and oil products (33%), coal (11%), iron ore (10%) and grain (4%).
In order to reduce the fluctuations (" volatility ") of freight rates, time charter contracts have been and are being concluded. These contracts allow the ships to be leased to a charterer for a longer period (up to ten years) for a fixed price . Only minor changes can be made during the term of the contract. The advantage for the shipowner and the charterer is a better calculation basis. Forward Freight Agreements (FFAs) are used to make the hedge business more flexible and efficient .
The Baltic Dry Index , which the Baltic Exchange in London published for the first time in 1985, is the central indicator for the price level in the shipping market for bulk cargo . The 'Baltic International Tanker Routes Index' (BITR) has existed for the tanker market since 1998; in 2001 it was split into the Baltic Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) and the Baltic Clean Tanker Index (BCTI). The HARPEX and Howe Robinson Container Indexes are indices for charter rates (ship rentals) in the container ship market .
The following table shows ship sizes and their share in the world merchant fleet and in bulk goods traffic in 2005 in percent.
|Share of the
world merchant fleet
bulk goods traffic
- World trade volume
- Shipping crisis since 2008
- Lists of major marine accidents
- List of significant ship sinkings
- Heinz Neukirchen: Seafaring through the millennia . Transpress, Berlin 1985, ISBN 3-8112-0451-3
- Heide Gerstenberger , Ulrich Welke: work at sea. On the economics and ethnology of globalization . 2nd edition, Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 2007, ISBN 978-3-89691-575-7 .
- Volker Ladenthin: The log book. Reading experiences to literary adventures . With illustrations by Stephan Wolters, Bonn 2006.
- Harry Banaszak: From my logbook. Cheerful and serious memories of the captain. Zeitgut-Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-86614-144-5 .
- 90% of the goods traded worldwide and 40% of the goods within Europe are transported by sea. The 'Third IMO Greenhouse Gas Study' (2014) put world sea trade in 2007 at 7,790 million tons and in 2012 at 9,297 million tons (plus 13.4% in 5 years = an average annual growth of 3.4 %). ( Source )
- Gunther Dütsch: Forward Freight Agreements (FFA), presentation, Vattenfall Trading Services, June 2007
- die bank - magazine for banking policy and practice : Freight derivatives: Leash off ( memento of the original from December 26, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Edition 12/2008
- Athanasios V. Voudris: Analysis and forecast of the capesize bulk carriers shipping market using Artificial Neural Networks , Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2006