Cargo - even cargo or cargo mentioned - is transported that of one carrier against payment is conveyed. The remuneration for the transport of freight is referred to as freight . Load is a term for the actual transport between loading and unloading.
Mode of Transport
The transport of freight is organized by forwarding agents who are only responsible for arranging the transport. Forwarding agents may carry out the transport themselves (see self-entry ), but do not have to. Different modes of transport are used depending on the type of goods, distance and urgency:
- Freight aircraft ( cargo airlines ; see also air freight )
- Freight trains ( general cargo or bulk cargo )
- Cargo ships
- Lorries on car trains (→ Rollende Landstrasse )
- intermodal or multimodal transport as a combination of several modes of transport .
The transporters are called freight carriers (in Austria freight forwarders ). You do not organize the transport, but carry it out, mostly on behalf of a freight forwarder. The amount of the freight is agreed in the freight contract and usually recorded in the consignment note . Since the transport law reform in Germany in 1998 no longer required the creation of a consignment note for national transports, but delivery notes , loading lists or comparable papers can also be used as accompanying documents, consignment notes are increasingly no longer being issued. There are three original copies of the waybill. One copy remains with the sender after the carrier has confirmed the acceptance of the freight. The second remains with the carrier as a delivery confirmation after delivery of the freight and the third receives the recipient.
The sender is responsible for loading the freight. He is acc. German Commercial Code (HGB) is responsible for the safe loading of the freight, whereas the carrier is responsible for safe loading (e.g. weight distribution, compliance with the permissible axle loads ) and for securing the load .
There are freight goods that are subject to notification and the transport of which requires an express official permit. Heavy haulage requires an official permit and if certain dimensions are exceeded, according to paragraph. 3 StVO (excessive road use) definitely requires escort vehicles and / or an escort by the police in order to initiate safety measures and ensure that everything runs smoothly. If the freight to be transported falls under the Dangerous Goods Ordinance , the transport vehicle must be marked with appropriate warning signs in addition to compliance with regulations relevant to dangerous goods . In addition, the vehicle driver and any co- driver will also need an ADR certificate .