|Voivodeship :||West Pomerania|
|Powiat :||Kamień Pomorski|
|Area :||10.75 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||10 m npm|
(June 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||72-400|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 91|
|License plate :||ZKA|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Ext. 103 Kamień Pomorski ↔ Trzebiatów|
|Ext. 107 Dziwnówek ↔ Parłowko|
|Rail route :||PKP - route 407: Wysoka Kamieńska – Kamień Pomorski|
|Next international airport :||Szczecin-Goleniów|
|Gminatype:||Urban and rural municipality|
|Gmina structure:||39 localities|
|21 school authorities|
(June 30, 2019)
|Population density :||69 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||3207033|
|Administration (as of 2008)|
|Mayor :||Bronislaw Karpiński|
|Address:||Stary Rynek 1
72-400 Kamień Pomorski
Kamień Pomorski [ ˈkamʲɛɲ pɔˈmɔrski ] , German Cammin in Pomerania (abbreviated Cammin i. Pom. , also Kammin ), is a city in Poland's northwestern West Pomeranian Voivodeship . It is the seat of the Powiat Kamieński . The city is a state-approved health resort.
The city is located in the northwest of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Hinterpommern on the Zalew Kamieński (Camminer Bodden), a bulge of the Dziwna (Dievenow) which flows into the Baltic Sea . The height of the city above sea level is 17 m. It is 10 km to the Baltic Sea and the seaside resort of Dziwno (Klein Berg), and about 70 km to Stettin .
From the origins in the 12th to the 16th century
In 1107 a Slavic rampart of the Wends was mentioned. When at the beginning of the 12th century the Polish Duke Bolesław III. Wrymouth conquered Pomerania in order to Christianize it, for this purpose he brought Bishop Otto von Bamberg into the country. In this context, Cammin was mentioned in 1124 when Otto stayed there in June to baptize the Slavs . In 1128 Otto undertook with the support of the later Roman-German Emperor Lothar III. another mission trip to Pomerania, during which he was again in Cammin. The Pomeranian Duke Wartislaw I , who ruled between 1121 and 1135, had his residence in Cammin - the place was the first known seat of a Pomeranian duke. In connection with the establishment of the Stolpe Monastery , Bishop Adelbertus von Cammin was named as its ordinator in 1153 .
The diocese of Cammin was only officially founded after the subjugation of Western Pomerania by Heinrich the Lion in 1175 with Bishop Konrad I. von Salzwedel. At this time, Duke Casimir I had the St. John's Cathedral built. Brandenburg troops destroyed the village in 1273, the castle was a year later, with the participation of German immigrants settled west rebuilt and in 1274 the Pomeranian Duke Barnim I the Lubeck city rights conferred. The German immigrants repopulated the Ratswiek, the former Wendish settlement. In 1308 the city including the cathedral was partially destroyed as a result of armed conflicts between the Margrave Waldemar of Brandenburg and Duke Bogislaw of Pommern-Wolgast ; Waldemar the Great reimbursed the damage caused to Bishop Heinrich von Wacholz from Cammin in 1309. The dukes Otto I , Barnim III. and Wartislaw IV. , ruler of Pomerania-Wolgast, sold the city on August 16, 1321 for 8,000 marks to the Cammin bishop Konrad IV. In the fight against the marauding robber barons and looters in the country, Cammin became a member of the defensive alliance of East Pomeranian cities against "Schinder , Robbers and Bodenstülper ”. In 1418 Pomeranian Duke Bogislaw VIII was buried in Cammin. After the Reformation was introduced in Pomerania in 1535, the Szczecin Chancellor Bartholomäus Suawe became the first Protestant bishop in 1545 . From 1556 the Pomeranian dukes administered the diocese of Cammin until it fell to Kurbrandenburg in 1648 as a secular imperial principality.
17th to 19th century
After the Thirty Years War , Cammin came to Swedish Pomerania . In 1679 Brandenburg received it in the Peace of Saint-Germain . In 1650 the last titular bishop of Cammin, Duke Ernst Bogislaw von Croy , waived his rights to the diocese in exchange for a settlement in favor of the elector Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg . When Cammin was freed from the so-called Sundzoll at the beginning of the 18th century , many merchants from Lübeck , Rostock and Stralsund settled in the city.
After the Congress of Vienna , Cammin belonged to the Prussian province of Pomerania and in 1818 became the district town of the Cammin district . On August 5, 1845, the first issue of the Camminer Kreiszeitung , a weekly newspaper for the entire district, appeared. It had the format 18 × 20 cm (W × H) and was published and printed by the publishing house GA Domine & Co., which had been founded in Cammin in 1840 and which operated a bookstore and a lending library at the same time. As of April 1848, the company HL Behrendt & Co., which also ran a bookstore, took over the editing, printing and publishing. Behrendt received permission to rename the paper from April 1, 1848 to Allgemeine Pommersche Zeitung . After that, other local newspapers appeared in Cammin.
In 1848 four merchant ships were at home in the port of Cammin.
From 1876 to 1913, Cammin was a stronghold of the German Conservative Party in the elections for the Prussian House of Representatives and the Reichstag (German Empire) , which often received more than half of the votes.
Due to a brine spring discovered in 1882 and a neighboring moor , Cammin became a health resort in 1882. Bathhouses and accommodations emerged. The salt spring was 600 m deep, had a salt content of 4.5% and a temperature of 20 ° C. The spa buildings survived the Second World War and the spa operations continued in 2010.
Since the 20th century
Around 1900 there were four Protestant churches in Cammin, a synagogue , a secondary school with private upper classes (housed in the cathedral school), a teachers' seminar, a noble fräuleinstift, hospitals, the brine and mud bath, an iron foundry, a machine factory, a dye works, one Dachstein factory, a cement goods factory, a beer brewery, cattle markets, shipping companies, fish trade and other businesses. Cammin was the seat of the district office, a district court and a tax and customs office.
Around 1900 Cammin got a power station in Feldstrasse, where direct current generators produced the electricity. Later, the residents obtained their electricity from the Märkisches Elektrizitätswerk, with the transmission to the city network via converters and with the help of rectifiers . In 1902 a slaughterhouse was opened; in 1927, for example, 460 slaughterings took place there. In 1905 a water works with a water tower was put into operation, which in 1927 had an annual output of 106,500 cubic meters. In 1905 a river bathing establishment was also opened on the Dievenow. In 1910 the sewer system was expanded and a sewage treatment plant was put into operation, which worked according to the biological precipitation process . In 1927 the street lighting consisted of 96 electric lamps.
On the Dievenow (Bodden) the city had a port with a bulwark 450 m in length. In 1927, 165 incoming and 136 outgoing ships were counted there, with a handling of 8,626 tons of cargo. Ocean-going ships could not call at the port because of the insufficient depth of the Dievenow estuary.
During the Reichspogromnacht , supporters of National Socialism looted Jewish shops and partially destroyed them. The synagogue was 'Aryanised' and has served as a residential building ever since. The Jewish cemetery survived the Nazi era, but was leveled in the early 1960s and converted into a green area. On March 31, 2008, the community unveiled a memorial stone in memory of the cemetery after a plaque was destroyed just days after it was installed in June 1996.
During the Second World War , evacuees from the current twin town of Lünen (Westphalia) were quartered in Cammin . Towards the end of the war, heavy fighting took place on March 5 and 6, 1945 on the Dievenow and in Cammin. 60 percent of the city center of Cammin was destroyed. Then the Red Army occupied the city. After the end of the war, Cammin came under Polish administration together with all of Western Pomerania. If they had not already fled, the new Polish administration expropriated the entire local population; later expelled or relocated. On the morning of June 23, 1945, about 1,200 people were taken out of their homes by the Poles in a surprise action, driven to a meeting point on Camminer Damm at the Soltin / Grabow intersection and from there on foot via Fritzow and Dievenow to the airfield Brought Dievenow. Only hand luggage was allowed. From there, the trek continued via Misdroy , Swinoujscie , Wolgast and Züssow to the city and the district of Anklam, where the main part arrived on July 5, 1945.
Cammin was given the Polish name Kamień Pomorski , and new settlers were added. The new settlers were partly so-called Bug Poles, who came from the areas east of the Curzon Line annexed by the Soviet Union , especially from today's Lithuania , and partly resettlers from central Poland. The city received a training center for the Polish Navy . In the 1960s, the administration had some of the destroyed buildings rebuilt and new housing estates built. At least 21 people, including six children, were killed in a fire in a homeless shelter on April 13, 2009. 21 people were injured.
Development of the population
- Cathedral (Kamień Pomorski) : From 1535 to 1945 it served as the cathedral of St. Mariae and St. John the Baptist of the Protestant community as a place of worship and has been used by the Polish Catholic community since 1946. The late Romanesque / early Gothic construction was started in 1175 and completed in 1385. The facade in the form of a westwork replaced a neo-Gothic front towerfacade in 1936.
The well-preserved and well-sounding organ is regularly used for organ concerts . The organ case from 1669 comes from Michael Birgel.
- Town hall : The late Gothic building stands in the middle of the market square. Its origins go back to the middle of the 14th century. The building was restored after the Second World War. Its east gable (entrance side) was originally built in the 15th century, its west gable at the end of the 16th century.
- Half-timbered house : The old building with a mansard roof, formerly called Hoefs, dates from the 17th century and is located on the market square opposite the town hall.
- Builder : The late Gothic castle gate from the 14th century with battlements is 36 m high. From the upper platform there is a great view of the Camminer Bodden. The inner rooms house a mineralogical museum in the 21st century.
- Bishop's House (Buddenhaus): The building next to the cathedral was built around 1300. It served as the residence of the bishops of Cammin , next to the Körliner Bischofsburg built in 1385 . In 1568 Johann Friedrich (Pomerania) had the bishop's house rebuilt in the Renaissance style, as did the Körlin Castle; In Köslin he had a Renaissance castle built from 1569 to 1574; the two bishop's castles were later destroyed. The bishop's house was used as the Catholic cultural center and historical museum of the Kamień Pomorski Region before the museum moved to a new building.
- Dean's office (Kleisthaus): The building next to the cathedral was built for the lower clergy.
- Nikolaikirche : The church was built at the turn of the 16th century. The pulpit dates from the 17th century. The building was restored after the Second World War.
- Bromölla , Sweden
- Kowary , Poland
- Porvoo , Finland
- Lünen , Westphalia
- Grimmen , Western Pomerania
- Torgelow , Mecklenburg
Gmina Kamień Pomorski is an urban-and-rural parish . Belong to her
- a city:
- Kamień Pomorski (Cammin i. Pom.)
- 29 districts ( Schulzenämter ):
- Benice (Benz)
- Buniewice (Bünnewitz)
- Buszęcin (Büssenthin)
- Chrząstowo (Granzow)
- Chrząszczewo (Gristow)
- Dusin (Düssin)
- Górki (Gorke)
- Grabowo (Grabow)
- Grębowo (Grambow)
- Jarszewo ( Jassow b. Cammin)
- Jarzysław (Julianenhof)
- Kukułowo (Kucklow)
- Miłachowo (Milchow)
- Mokrawica (Mokratz)
- Płastkowo (Plastichow)
- Połchowo (Polchow)
- Rarwino (Rarwien)
- Rekowo (Reckow)
- Rozwarowo (Ribbertow)
- Rzewnowo (Revenow)
- Sibin (Zebbin)
- Skarchowo (Scharchow)
- Śniatowo (Schnatow)
- Stawno (Stäwen)
- Strzeżewo (Stresow)
- Szumiąca (King's Mill)
- Trzebieszewo (Tribsow)
- Wrzosowo (Fritzow)
- Żółcino (Soltin)
- other localities:
In 1892 Cammin was given a rail link to Stettin. Today the city has a local train station on the Wysoka Kamieńska – Trzebiatów railway line , which ends here. A bus station is adjacent to it. Between this bus and the bus station in Świnoujście ( Swinemiinde ), which is located on the east side of the port next to the pier of Bielek-car ferry, oscillate public buses that the distance along the seashore (road 102) via the localities Międzyzdroje ( Misdroy ) Take Kołczewo ( Kolzow ), Miedzywodzie ( Heidebrink ), Dziwnowek ( Dievenow Forest ) and Dziwnów ( Dievenow ). Kamień Pomorski can also be reached by bus from Goleniów ( Gollnow ).
sons and daughters of the town
- Adrian Sickermann (16th century), built a new organ for the cathedral, see Zickermann (organ builder)
- Johann Hieronymus Staude (1615–1663), German orientalist
- Adam Bogislaus Rubach (1652 – after 1717), German lawyer, Brandenburg resident in Danzig
- Albrecht Immanuel Driesenthal (1724–1781), German Protestant theologian
- Adolf Asher (1800–1853), German bookseller, antiquarian, publisher and bibliographer
- Hermann von Schmidt (1811–1873), Prussian police director and district administrator
- Franz San-Galli (1824–1908), Prussian-Russian entrepreneur
- Carl Wilhelm Emil Quandt (1835–1911), German Protestant pastor, most recently first director of the seminary in Wittenberg
- Hermann Textor (1838-1906), was government and building advisor, as well as technical director in the five-person management of the Lübeck-Büchener railway company
- Johannes Meinhold (1861–1937), German Protestant theologian, professor in Bonn
- Karl Bernhard Bamler (1865–1926), German meteorologist, teacher and pioneer of free ballooning
- Werner Gercke (1885–1954), German administrative officer
- Edwin Renatus Hasenjaeger (1888–1972), German municipal civil servant , Lord Mayor of Stolp, Rheydt and Mülheim an der Ruhr
- Ernst Münter (1899–1983), German sports scientist
- Klaus Uebe (1900–1968), German major general
- Günter Spielmeyer (* 1925), German lawyer, judge at the Federal Social Court
- Klausjürgen Wussow (1929–2007), German actor
- Uwe Johnson (1934–1984), German writer
- Martin Weyer (1938–2016), German organist and musicologist
- Jochen Hoefs (* 1939), German geochemist and mineralogist
- Dietrich Becker (* 1940), German painter
- Erland Erdmann (* 1944), German cardiologist
Other people associated with Cammin
- Otto von Bamberg (around 1060–1139), proclaimed Christianity here
- Wartislaw I (around 1100 – before 1148), Pomeranian Duke, raised Cammin to his court town in 1123
- Ewald Georg von Kleist (1700–1748), invented the electric booster bottle in Cammin in 1745
- Ernst von Köller (1841–1928), was 1868–1887 district administrator for the Cammin district
- Gustav Kratz : The cities of the province of Pomerania - outline of their history, mostly according to documents . Berlin 1865 (reprinted in 1996 by Sendet Reprint Verlag, Vaduz, ISBN 3-253-02734-1 ), pp. 58–66 ( books.google.de ).
- City and County of Cammin . In: Unser Pommerland , Vol. 8, H. 10–12
- Hasso von Flemming-Benz: The Cammin district . Holzner, Würzburg 1970, pp. 32–88: City of Cammin .
- Szczecin State Archives - guide through the holdings up to 1945 (edited by Radosław Gaziński, Pawel Gut and Maciej Szukała). Verlag Oldenbourg, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-486-57641-0 , pp. 300-302
- Heinrich Berghaus : Land book of the Duchy of Pomerania and the Principality of Rügen . Part II, Volume 6: Kreise Kamin and Greifenberg , Anklam 1870, pp. 133-228 ( books.google.de ).
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- Gerhard Köbler : Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories and imperial immediate families from the Middle Ages to the present , 6th, completely revised edition. CH Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-44333-8 , p. 113 ( online ).
- Heinrich Gottfried Philipp Gengler : Regesten and documents of the constitutional and legal history of the German cities in the Middle Ages , Erlangen 1863, p. 446 and p. 981–982
- Johann Jakob Sell : History of the Duchy of Pomerania from the earliest times to the death of the last duke, or to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 . Volume 2, Berlin 1819, p. 268 ff .
- Flemming-Benz, pp. 82-83.
- E. Wendt & Co. (Ed.): Overview of the Prussian Merchant Navy . Stettin January 1848, p. 4 ( online [accessed June 4, 2015]).
- Hasso von Flemming-Benz: The Cammin district . Holzner, Würzburg 1970, pp. 86-87.
- Flemming-Benz, p. 87.
- From the history of the Jewish communities in the German-speaking area - Cammin (Western Pomerania) ; Retrieved June 20, 2016.
- A memorial obelisk in the cemetery in Kamień Pomorski - short documentation on the memorial stone for the former Jewish cemetery on sztetl.org; english / polish; Retrieved June 20, 2016.
- Flemming-Benz, p. 544 ff.
- Flemming-Benz, p. 560.
- Kamień Pomorski >> 21 ofiar pożaru hotelu Prezydent ogłosił 3-dniową żałobę narodową. radio.lublin.pl, April 13, 2009, accessed April 17, 2009 .
- The Pomeranian Newspaper. No. 17/2009, p. 5.
- Basler Zeitung , April 14, 2009, page 36
- Flemming-Benz, p. 42.
- Gustav Kratz : The cities of the province of Pomerania - outline of their history, mostly according to documents . Berlin 1865, p.63 .
- Christian Friedrich Wutstrack (ed.): Brief historical-geographical-statistical description of the royal Prussian duchy of Western and Western Pomerania . Stettin 1793, overview table on p. 736.
- Meyers Konversationslexikon . 6th edition, 10th volume, Biographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna 1907, p. 520.
- The Big Brockhaus . 15th edition, 3rd volume, Leipzig 1929, p. 610.
- Gunthard Stübs and Pomeranian Research Association: The city of Cammin i. Pom. in the former Cammin district in Pomerania . 2011.
- Ludność - Stan i Struktura w przekroju terytorialnym . (PDF) Główny Urząd Statystyczny, as of December 31, 2009 ( WebCite ( Memento from June 23, 2010 on WebCite ))
- Bishop's ( Memento of December 24, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), European Route of Brick Gothic
- Wykaz sołtysów at bip.kamienpomorski.pl.