|Gmina :||Bytom Odrzański|
|Area :||10.00 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||4307 (June 30, 2019)|
|Postal code :||67-115|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 68|
|License plate :||FNW|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Droga wojewódzka 292 : Nowa Sól ↔ Lubin|
|Ext. 293 : Borów Wielki ↔ Bytom Odrzański|
|Rail route :||PKP line 273: Breslau – Stettin|
|Next international airport :||Poznań-Ławica|
Bytom Odrzański [ ˈbɨtɔm ɔˈʤaɲsci ] ( German Beuthen an der Oder , formerly Niederbeuthen ) is a town in the powiat Nowosolski of the Lubusz Voivodeship in Poland . It is the seat of the town-and-country municipality of the same name with 5424 inhabitants (as of June 30, 2019).
The area on the edge of the Dalkau Mountains was inhabited as early as the Stone Age. A national festival of the Silesian Piast dukes , whose castellans can be traced back to 1203, was established at a ford through the Oder . It was besieged in 1109, but King Henry V failed to take it in 1109. In 1157 the fortress was burned down by Duke Bolesław IV when the army of Frederick Barbarossa invaded Poland.
The first church in the castle town of Bythom , called Beuthen from the middle of the 15th century , was St. Stephen's Church, which was given to the Cistercian monastery Leubus in 1175 . Bythom received German town charter around 1263. Even before 1300, Duke Heinrich III. von Glogau founded a Magdalen convent in Beuthen , which was moved to Sprottau in 1314 . In the years 1395 and 1464 plague epidemics broke out in Bytom.
In 1475 the merchant Andreas Neumann owned three quarters of the city, the rest belonged to Georg von Glaubitz . From 1524 Johann von Rechenberg was the sole owner of Beuthen. The Reformation took place in Bytom as early as 1528. The German Hans , as he was called by Martin Luther , introduced them extensively in Beuthen in 1540.
In 1561 Franz von Rechenberg sold the lordship of Beuthen with Polish Tarnau and Carolath to the knight Fabian von Schoenaich , who became one of the largest landowners in Silesia . His cousin and successor Georg Freiherr von Schoenaich had the bank of the Oder between Beuthen and Schlawa cleared and promoted fruit and wine growing. During his reign, a new town hall was built between 1602 and 1609, the tower of St. Stephen's Church was raised, the Georgenhospital built, a bridge over the Oder and the first Oder dam, the Schoenaich dam, were built.
In 1601 Baron von Schoenaich founded a university. The university , the Gymnasium academicum , comprised 12 chairs, including theology, law and astronomy. In 1616 a city fortification system with three city gates was built according to plans by the fortress builder Andreas Hindenberger. With the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War and the death of the Silesian Chancellor Georg von Schoenaich in 1619, the town's prime was over.
In December 1620, Beuthen was the station of the "Winter King" Friedrich V on his flight from Bohemia . With the occupation of the city by the Liechtensteiners, the re-Catholicization took place in 1628, and the university, which was considered Calvinist , was dissolved by Emperor Ferdinand II . In 1639 the Swedish general Stalhansch established his headquarters in the city. In 1653, Emperor Ferdinand III. the handover of the Protestant hospital chapel, St. Stephen's Church and the hospital to the Catholics.
The city fire of 1694 destroyed the university building, the town hall and the hospital, among other things. After the occupation of Silesia by Prussia , a new Protestant school and prayer house were built. Bytom was a garrison town from 1766 to 1884. On August 30, 1813, the French, who were retreating from the Katzbach, were defeated by parts of the Silesian army .
In 1871 it was connected to the railway between Breslau and Stettin or Berlin . From 1884 lignite opencast mining was built around Beuthen . The main occupations of the inhabitants were agriculture, trade and shipping. By 1900 Beuthen had a Protestant and a Catholic church, a castle and a district court. In 1907 a new bridge was built over the Oder.
Towards the end of the Second World War , the city was almost half destroyed in the spring of 1945 and then occupied by the Red Army . A short time afterwards, Bytom was placed under Polish administration. Subsequently, the city's residents were evicted by the local Polish administrative authorities and replaced by Poles.
In 1967 a fire destroyed the town houses on the market (Rynek), which were rebuilt after 1970. Bytom Odrzański was badly affected by the great flood of the Oder in 1997.
- Baroque town hall with tower from 1602 to 1609, rebuilt after the fire of 1694
- Catholic St. Stephen's Church from 1584 to 1586
- Former Protestant prayer house with tower extension from 1861 (today used as a warehouse)
- Market with classicist and baroque town houses
- Pößneck , Germany
- Martin Opitz (1597–1639), wrote his famous work Aristarchus sive de contemptu linguae Teutonicae while studying here in 1617
- George August Kunowski (1757–1838), Protestant theologian
- Julius Kopsch (1855–1935), politician
- Jochen Klepper (1903–1942), poet, born in Beuthen.
- Christian David Klopsch: History of the Schoenaich family . Booklet 1: History of the city of Bytom and the castellanei belonging to it up to 1591 . Glogau 1847 ( e-copy ).
- Karl August Müller: Patriotic images, or history and description of all castles and knight palaces in Silesia and the county of Glatz. Second edition, Glogau 1844, pp. 237–240.
- Heinrich Gottfried Philipp Gengler : Regests and documents on the constitutional and legal history of German cities in the Middle Ages . Volume 1, Erlangen 1863, pp. 207-208.
- cf. Codex Diplomaticus Silesiae, Vol. 7, 1886, No. 2543; Vol. 16, 1892, No. 2700, 3437, 3446.
- Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 2, Leipzig / Vienna 1905, p. 120.
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. City and district of Glogau (Polish Glogów). (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).