Henry III. (Glogau)

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Henry III. von Glogau (also Heinrich I. von Glogau ; * 1251/1260 ; † December 9, 1309 ) was Duke of Glogau from 1273/74 to 1309 , Duke of Steinau from 1289 to 1297 , Duke of Sprottau from 1289 to 1309 and Duke of Sagan from 1304 . In 1306 he came to Posen and parts of Greater Poland . He came from the Glogau branch of the Silesian Piasts .

Origin and family

His parents were Konrad II and Salomea, a sister of Duke Przemysław I of Greater Poland. In 1290 Heinrich married Mechthild († 1318), a daughter of Duke Albrecht I of Braunschweig . The children came from marriage:

  1. Heinrich IV. († 1342), Duke of Glogau, Sagan and Steinau; ⚭ 1310 Mathilde († 1323), daughter of the Brandenburg Margrave Hermann von Brandenburg
  2. Konrad I († 1366), Duke of Oels and Cosel ; ⚭ 1. 1322 Elisabeth († 1328), daughter of the Breslau Duke Heinrich VI. , ⚭ 2. 1328/33 Eufemia († 1376/78), daughter of Duke Wladislaus von Beuthen and Cosel
  3. Boleslaus († 1321), Duke of Oels
  4. Johann († 1361/65), Duke of Steinau; ⚭ 1316/24 Margaretha († 1337), daughter of Duke Boleslaw IV of Pomerania
  5. Primislaus II († 1331), Duke of Glogau; ⚭ Konstanze († 1360/63), daughter of Duke Bernhard II of Schweidnitz
  6. Agnes († 1361), ⚭ 1309 Duke Otto III. of Lower Bavaria († 1312); ⚭ 2. 1329 Count Alram von Hals († 1331)
  7. Salomea († 1309)
  8. Katharina († 1327), ⚭ 1st Margrave Johann V of Brandenburg († 1317); ⚭ 2. 1317/19 Count Johann III. of Holstein († 1359)
  9. Hedwig († around 1309)


After the death of his father Konrad II in 1273/74, Heinrich received the area from Glogau , Grünberg , Schwiebus and Fraustadt as well as the land up to the Obra and Warthe . His brother Konrad III. "Köberlein" inherited Sagan and his brother Primislaus / Primko I. Steinau and Sprottau. After Henry IV of Breslau was captured by his uncle Boleslaw II on February 18, 1277 and taken to Lähnhaus Castle , Heinrich III allied. von Glogau and his cousin Przemysław II and fought with their knighthood and the Wroclaw army for his release, but suffered a defeat on April 24, 1277 between Stolz and Protzan . The armistice concluded on July 13th of that year came about through the mediation of the Bohemian King Ottokar II . This was two days later together with his diplomatic advisor and Olomouc Bishop Bruno von Schauenburg in Breslau, where in the presence of Heinrich III. von Glogau and other dukes who had contractually documented the release of Henry IV on July 22, 1277. For his commitment, Heinrich III. von Glogau probably rewarded with the Crossener Land .

According to the Styrian rhyming chronicle of Ottokar from the Gaal , Heinrich III. von Glogau, the Opole dukes Wladislaus I and Przemysław II of Greater Poland fought at the side of King Ottokar II in the battle of Marchfeld in 1278 , who was killed there. In early 1281 Heinrich III. von Glogau, Heinrich V. von Liegnitz and Przemysław II. captured by the brothers Bolko I. von Schweidnitz and Bernhard von Löwenberg during a meeting in Baritsch near Jauer . After a short period of imprisonment in Wroclaw, they were released on the promise to defend Bolko and Bernhard against everyone.

In 1289 Heinrich III fought. von Glogau and his brother Primislaus / Primko in Lesser Poland in turn on the side of the Breslau Duke Heinrich IV. After the death of the Krakow Duke Leszek II in 1288, with the influence of the German citizenship of Krakow, he had obtained the ducal dignity there against Władysław I. Ellenlang von Kujawien and Bolesław von Płock had to defend. In the fighting in 1289, Heinrich's brother Primislaus found his death near Siewierz . Heinrich III inherited his property, who subsequently carried the title Duke of Sprottau , among other things . In the same year he is said to have founded the city of Guhrau under German law, and a year later he commissioned the locator Otto von Sprottau to suspend the city of Herrnstadt on the right bank of the Bartsch according to Saganer and Sprottau law. In 1293 he arranged for Festenberg to be suspended under Neumarkt law .

In 1290 Heinrich III. a coin in Glogau . In the same year, Henry IV of Breslau died, leaving no biological descendants. After a will drawn up shortly before his death, Heinrich III. von Glogau inherit the Duchy of Breslau, while Malopolska fall to Przemysław II and the Kłodzko land should be returned to the Bohemian King Wenceslaus II . Immediately after the death of Henry IV. Heinrich III. von Glogau formally took over the government of the Duchy of Breslau with the support of Bishop Thomas II of Breslau, at the same time confirming Henry IV's great ecclesiastical privilege. However, since Henry IV had subordinated his territories as a fiefdom to the Roman-German King Rudolf I at the end of the 1270s and the Duchy of Breslau, according to the corresponding inheritance contract , should fall to the empire as a settled fief if Henry IV died childless , the refused City of Breslau Heinrich III. von Glogau gave obedience to an armed resistance. Although on September 25, 1290 Rudolf I confirmed an inheritance agreement concluded between Henry IV and the Bohemian King Wenceslaus II before Henry IV's death, according to which Wenceslaus II was to succeed Henry IV as Duke of Wroclaw and Silesia and Rudolf I on the same day the Duchy of Breslau transferred to Wenceslaus II, the city and knighthood appointed Heinrich V of Liegnitz as his successor, who then dubbed himself "Duke of Silesia, Lord of Breslau and Liegnitz". Because of his inheritance claim, Heinrich III fought. von Glogau now Heinrich V von Liegnitz, who had to leave him Groß Wartenberg , Trebnitz , Militsch , Sandewalde and Auras as well as Steinau , Naumburg , Bunzlau and Gießmannsdorf in 1291 due to a provisional agreement .

After the death of Wroclaw Bishop Thomas II. In 1292, a part of the Wroclaw cathedral chapter elected Heinrich's brother Konrad, who held the office of Breslau cathedral provost, as his successor. In an unusual process, however, Johann III , who also belonged to the cathedral chapter, was Romka elected. Heinrich von Glogau turned against it, whose hope of getting to the Sagan area after the election of his brother had been disappointed. Because of his hostilities, he was temporarily banned from the church by Bishop Romka and had to reconfirm the privileges granted to the church in 1293. In the same year the disputes over the inheritance of Henry IV. Of Breslau broke out between Heinrich V of Liegnitz and Heinrich III. from Glogau again. By treason, Heinrich von Glogau succeeded in capturing and kidnapping Heinrich V von Liegnitz. It was not until May 6, 1294 that Heinrich V was able to buy himself free from the cruel captivity by ceding almost the entire area on the right of the Oder with the cities of Oels , Bernstadt , Konstadt , Namslau , Kreuzburg , Pitschen and Guhrau to Heinrich von Glogau . In addition, Heinrich V had to undertake, among other things, to renounce revenge and not to build any castles along the border with Glogau. After Heinrich V's death in 1296, Heinrich von Glogau had to return part of the areas that had been seized by force from him in 1294 to Bolko I von Schweidnitz, the guardian of Heinrich V's children.

As a cousin of the childless Duke Przemysław II of Greater Poland, Heinrich III. von Glogau also claims to his legacy. Because of these territorial claims rivaled the Schweidnitzer Duke Bolko I and Duke Władysław I. Ellenlang von Kujawien. After Przemysław II's coronation as King of Poland in 1295, Heinrich III reported. von Glogau also made claims to the Polish crown. After Przemysław II had been murdered on February 8, 1296 and the Wielkopolska nobility had recognized as their Duke Władysław I. Ellenlang, despite the claims of Heinrich von Glogau and the Margraves of Brandenburg , Heinrich von Glogau tried to reach an agreement with him. Against Heinrich's offered renunciation of the Polish royal title, Władysław I. Ellenlang undertook to cede the Greater Poland area west of the Obra to Heinrich and to adopt Heinrich's son of the same name, Heinrich IV , and to transfer the rule of Poznan to him. Since this contract was not kept by Władysław I. Ellenlang, both were again at odds. Heinrich then turned to Bohemia and took part in the coronation of Wenceslas II in Prague in 1297.

Since the Polish clergy supported Heinrich von Glogau in his fight against Władysław I. Ellenlang, Heinrich undertook on June 24, 1298 in costs to protect the privileges of the dioceses of Gniezno , Poznan and Kujawy. He also promised, if he should be elected King of Poland with the help of the bishops, that the royal chancellery would always remain with the diocese of Posen. However, these plans did not come to fruition, as the efforts of the Bohemian King Wenceslaus II for the Polish crown led to success and he was crowned King of Poland in Gnesen in August 1300 .

After the death of his brother Konrad on October 11, 1304, Heinrich III inherited. whose duchy Sagan. Only after the death of King Wenceslas II's son Wenceslaus III. , who fell victim to a political murder in Olomouc on August 4, 1306, Heinrich von Glogau was able to partially enforce his Polish claims and bring Posen and the rest of Greater Poland into his hands. In 1307 he founded the Holy Cross Monastery of the Poor Clares in Glogau , which was also known as the Virgin Monastery , but died two years later. His body was buried in the monastery church of the Cistercian monastery Leubus .

Heinrich's extensive property was inherited by his five sons, who jointly administered it under the tutelage of their mother Mechthild von Braunschweig until 1312 and then divided them. In 1314 they lost their Wielkopolska territory to Władysław I. Ellenlang.


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. According to more recent master lists he is called the III. designated, whereby the all- Silesian dukes Heinrich I and Heinrich II are counted. The count of Heinrich I refers exclusively to Heinrich as the first Duke of Glogau.