|Voivodeship :||Lower Silesia|
|Area :||22.81 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||190 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||59-700|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 75|
|License plate :||DBL|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Dresden - Wroclaw|
|A4 Zgorzelec - Jarosław|
|Rail route :||Zgorzelec – Legnica|
|Next international airport :||Wroclaw|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||1703 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||0201011|
|Administration (as of 2015)|
|City President :||Piotr Roman|
Bolesławiec [ bɔlɛˈswavʲɛʦ ], German Bunzlau ( Silesian Bunzel ), is a city in the Polish Voivodeship of Lower Silesia . The city with around 40,000 inhabitants is the seat of the surrounding rural community of the same name , to which it does not belong, and the district of the same name to which it belongs.
Bolesławiec was first mentioned in 1201 as Bolezlauez ( lat: Boleslavia ). After the invasion of the Mongols in 1241, against which Bunzlauers are also said to have fought, the place was granted city rights and it was likely that the city was rebuilt at this time. The representation of a city wall, which can be found on today's coat of arms, is first used in a seal in 1316. In 1346 the city came under the rule of the Bohemian Crown.
During the Hussite Wars , the city suffered heavy damage in 1429. After the city had recovered from the damage caused by the war, the construction of a modern double city wall began in 1479 to protect the city from being taken again. In the course of the reconstruction of the city, the Marienkirche was then rebuilt in its current Gothic form from 1482 .
Pottery gained importance in the city early on, and the city's potters' guild was first mentioned in 1511. After 1522 a large part of the city's population became Protestant and Bunzlau became an important center of the Reformation . The town's landmark, the town hall, was rebuilt by Wendel Roskopf in 1525 . In the same year the construction of a sewer system began in Bunzlau , which was completed in 1565. With this unusual and elaborate construction work, Bunzlau thus owned the first German sewer system. The city's first pharmacy opened in 1558 . At the end of this very important century for Bunzlau, the famous German Baroque poet and founder of the Silesian School of Poetry, Martin Opitz , was born in Bunzlau in 1597. He created a new kind of poetics in German poetry and was also referred to as the father and restorer of poetry .
Towards the end of the Thirty Years War , Bunzlau was devastated by Swedish troops under General Torstensson . From 1752 to 1756, the Protestant community built a stone church on the site of the former castle that was destroyed by the Swedes. In 1753 the master potter Joppe created the large pot .
On May 29, 1812, Emperor Napoleon traveled through Bunzlau on his way to Russia and was cheered. On December 13 of that year he returned "in humble silence". After a short stop in Bunzlau, Napoléon Bonaparte set out for Saxony. In 1816 Bunzlau became the district town of the Bunzlau district . From 1844 to 1846 the well-known 450 m long railway viaduct was built over the Bober , part of the first railway connection between Berlin and Vienna through Breslau and the Moravian Gate . In 1897 the Royal Ceramic Technical School was founded in Bunzlau , which was renamed the State Ceramic Technical School in 1922 . The Bunzlau ceramics became famous . Around 1900 Bunzlau had a Protestant and a Catholic church, a synagogue , a grammar school, a Protestant teacher training college, a district court and a number of different manufacturing companies.
Towards the end of the Second World War , Bunzlau suffered severe destruction, so that 60% of the buildings were in ruins. The Red Army captured the city on February 11, 1945. After the end of the war, Bunzlau was placed under Polish administration by the Soviet occupying forces . The Poles introduced the place name Bolesławiec for Bunzlau . In the following years the local German population was expelled from Bunzlau by the local Polish administrative authority .
In the 1950s, the reconstruction of the city began. The former narrow old town buildings were not restored, and the status of the best preserved Silesian old town no longer fell to Bolesławiec. Nevertheless, the rebuilt old town is worth seeing today. After the district reform of 1975, the city lost its function as a county seat, but in 1999 the powiat was restored.
|1840||5,843||thereof 4,953 Protestants, 810 Catholics and 80 Jews|
|1843||6,350||at the end of the year, including 191 military personnel including families and servants|
|1890||12,921||thereof 10,383 Evangelicals, 2,343 Catholics and 168 Jews|
|1900||14,590||including 2,604 Catholics and 111 Jews|
|1925||17,977||thereof 14,550 Evangelicals, 2,575 Catholics, 26 other Christians, 103 Jews|
|1933||19,625||15,719 Protestants, 2,653 Catholics, no other Christians, 112 Jews|
|1939||20,753||15,973 Protestants, 3,204 Catholics, 63 other Christians, 54 Jews|
Culture and sights
Bolesławiec has a more than 9000 m² square ring, most of which was rebuilt after the Thirty Years War. The baroque town houses date from this time. There are also houses from the Renaissance and a building from the late Gothic . After the destruction at the end of the Second World War , the ring was rebuilt and today forms a closed ensemble with the town hall in the middle.
City parish church of the Assumption
The Catholic parish church of the Assumption of Mary (kościół Wniebowzięcia NMP) was mentioned as early as the 13th century . It was destroyed in the Hussite Wars in 1429 and then rebuilt from 1482 to 1493. A three-aisled Gothic building was created that extends over four bays . In 1524 the people of Bunzlau converted to Protestant teaching. The first preacher was called Jacob Süssenbach. The church became Protestant and remained so until 1629 and then again from 1632 to 1637. During the Thirty Years' War it suffered destruction like the whole city in 1642 when it was set on fire by the Swedes. It was rebuilt in 1692, although the late Gothic appearance was retained. In 1928 the church was given its characteristic neo-Gothic spire. The gothic main portal and the entrance stairs are worth seeing, on the parapet there are four baroque saints by Georg Leonhard Weber , which were formerly placed on the Niedertorbrücke.
From 1938 until his death in prison in 1946, Paul Sauer was the parish priest and dean at the Assumption of St. Mary.
On October 7, 2012, the parish church in Bunzlau was elevated to a minor basilica .
In the course of the counter-reformation of the Habsburgs, the parish church was finally returned to the Catholics in 1640 and the Protestant majority of the population in Bunzlaus no longer had a church. Only under Prussian rule (from 1742) could the community be re-established, in 1752 the old castle was transferred to the Protestants, where the construction of a Protestant church began. Completed in 1756, the large baroque hall church presented a very simple picture. Later, in 1834–1835, the 73 m high sandstone bell tower was added in the neo-Gothic style. The Second World War brought destruction and since the remaining German parishioners had been expelled, the unused building became increasingly dilapidated. In 1967 the building was finally renovated, removing a gallery and in 1970 it was converted into the Catholic parish church (kościół pw. Matki Boskiej Nieustającej Pomocy) .
In honor of the Russian Field Marshal Mikhail Illarionowitsch Kutusow , who died in Bunzlau, King Friedrich Wilhelm III donated. A memorial on the market square in 1819. The 12 meter high obelisk, flanked by four Schadow lions, was designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel and cast by the Royal Iron Foundry Berlin . In 1892/93 the monument in the area of the southern city wall was given its current location. The original lettering in German and Russian has been preserved.
- City Theatre
- Martin-Opitz monument
- Komuny Paryskiej Street
- Centrum Integracji Kulturalnej '' Orzeł '' (until 1945 cinema '' Metropol '')
- Ceramic Museum
- Bolesławiec railway station
- First Lyceum (I Liceum Ogólnokształcące)
- Russian Cemetery (Willowastrasse, II Armii WP Strasse)
- Mickiewicza ulica
- Matki Bożej Różańcowej Church
- Holy Cross Monument
- District Court (Sądowa Street)
- Dominican monastery (former)
- Bober Viaduct
The ceramics museum (Muzeum Ceramiki) emerged from the local history museum founded in 1908, which is an extension of the medieval kennel tower of the city wall. The City History Museum Department (Dział Historii Miasta) is housed in a neo-classical building in which Mikhail Kutuzov died and which later housed the Kutuzov Museum .
In 1753 the Bunzlau potter Gottfried Joppe made the large pot . With a height of 2.20 m, a circumference of 4.20 m and a weight of 12 pounds, it was the largest example of Bunzlau ceramics . In 1813 the French caused some cracks, after which it was held together or patched up with a wire mesh. In 1945 it was destroyed when the city was conquered.
There is a city partnership with the city of Siegburg . There is also the seat of the Bundesheimatgruppe Bunzlau, which among other things maintains a museum Bunzlauer Heimatstube . The Saxon city of Pirna has been another twin town since 1980 . Bolesławiec is also a member of the Union of European Napoleonic Cities .
- Hobro (Denmark)
- Nogent-sur-Marne (France)
- Pirna (Saxony)
- Siegburg (North Rhine-Westphalia)
- Česká Lípa (Czech Republic)
- Prnjavor (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
- Albert von Mutius (1862–1937), commander of the 17th Reserve Division in the First World War
- Johann George Franke (1751–1835), pastor of Bunzlau since 1778, superintendent until 1834, also district school inspector (celebrated his 50th anniversary in office in Bunzlau on February 20, 1828)
- 1813–? Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Culemann
- 1837–1847 Eduard Teuchert
- 1891–1894 Friedrich Schirmer
- 1921–1929 Ulrich Burmann
- 1930–1945 Walter Siemianowsky
- Theodor Buhl : August Winnetou , Frankfurt M. 2010, ISBN 978-3-422-06348-8 . Much of the novel takes place in Bunzlau.
- Barbara Glinkowska, Stefan Krabath (et al.): Großalmerode in the Werra-Meißner-Kreis, Germany In: Anna Bober-Tubaj (Ed.): U źródeł Bołeslawieckiej ceramiki - From the beginnings of Bunzlau ceramics - Finds from the 15th to 17th centuries. Century from a Central European center of pottery , exhibition in the Schlesisches Museum zu Görlitz , Görlitz 2012, ISBN 978-83-61288-30-5 , pp. 280-281 (catalog, also with ill. Großalmeroder Keramik)
- Reinhard Gröper: Try to remember Bunzlau in: About the happiness of living near large gardens. Childhood and youth in Silesia, Saxony and Württemberg , Bergstadtverlag Wilhelm Gottlieb Korn Würzburg 2006, ISBN 978-3-87057-278-5
- Official website of the city
- Address book Bunzlau 1903, German Digital Library
- The virtual shtetl: Bunzlau
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- City website, Władze Miasta , accessed on January 27, 2015
- Contemporary history of the cities of Silesia, Volume 2, Christian Friedrich Emanuel Fischer / p. 155
- Archive link ( Memento of the original dated February 23, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 3, Leipzig / Vienna 1905, p. 609.
- Gustav Neumann : The German Empire in geographical, statistical and topographical relation . Volume 2, GFO Müller, Berlin 1874, p. 221 .
- Johann G. Knie: Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, spots, cities and other places of the royal family. Preusz. Province of Silesia . 2nd edition, Breslau 1845, p. 809.
- W. Dieterici (Ed.): The statistical tables of the Prussian state after the official recording of the year 1843 . Nicolai, Berlin 1845, p. 215 .
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. bunzlau.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- Heinz Rudolf Fritsche: Silesia signpost. Bechtermünz Verlag, Augsburg 1996.
- Encyclopedia Powszechna PWN
- Archived copy ( memento of the original dated February 16, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Contemporary history of the cities of Silesia, Volume 2, by Christian Friedrich Emanuel Fischer / p. 155
- See http://www.luteranie.pl/diec.wroclawska/
- Cf. Heinz Rudolf Fritsche: Schlesien Wegweiser. Bechtermünz Verlag, Augsburg 1996
- See Kulturwerk-schlesien.de ; down. March 15, 2008
- History of the museum on muzeum.boleslawiec.net retrieved (Polish) 15 March 2008
- The largest pot in the world. In: Tagblatt , May 24, 1925, p. 6 (online at ANNO ).
- Rebekka Horlacher, Daniel Tröhler (Ed.): Complete letters to Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, critical edition . tape 6 . Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Walter de Gruyter, Zurich, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-03823-906-2 , p. 338 .