Viadukt ( der oder das , Switzerland, Austria only: das Viadukt) from Latin via "Weg" and ductus "führung ", "leitung", thus about "Überführung", is a neoclassical word formation, based on aqueduct (Roman aqueduct). Viaducts are more or less high and long bridges for railways but also road bridges , which, like an aqueduct, consist of several bridge fields, especially if they lead across a valley or a depression with arches on pillars . As viaducts also be elevated lines of elevated roads and elevated railways called, regardless of whether the lines are led through a series of arches or other structure.
Numerous viaducts can already be found in ancient times , especially among the ancient Romans . But it was only with the emergence of the railways around 1830 that the construction and use of these structures began again. In addition to the important aqueducts running at the same height , there are also the arched viaducts in the prenestinian military road between Rome and Gabii with semicircular vaults and pillars made of tuff as well as those of the Appian military road near Aricia . The southern French Pont Serme reached a considerable length of 1500 meters.
There is no general definition of the term viaduct. Every viaduct is also a bridge and, from a structural point of view, is divided into the same categories together with bridges (arched bridges, beam bridges, etc.) The term viaduct has more to do with the effect on the environment and with its function of leading important traffic routes with as few detours and inclines as possible. A viaduct not only crosses, it also connects. That is why it usually depends on the local conditions when a bridge is called a viaduct. As a rule, multi-span bridges, most of which lead over a body of water, are referred to as bridges and not as viaducts. A viaduct therefore mostly crosses land and could theoretically - at least partially - be replaced by a dam.
A viaduct is usually not determined by a main arch, but rather consists of several, mostly even arches or openings. Even if it has a main opening, it only makes up a small part of the total length of the viaduct. The term viaduct is very often used for a bridge structure that consists of several bridges built directly next to one another. The Lorraine Viaduct in Bern , for example, consists of four successive bridges.
Viaducts are built from stone , brick , concrete , steel or wood . In a narrower sense, viaducts also include the smaller overpasses and underpasses of roads or railways with one to three openings, which are vaulted or covered with iron, solidly rolled girders resting on stone pillars or made of sheet metal and shaped iron . Stone viaducts mostly have semicircular vaults, slender pillars and, with increasing heights, two, three and four levels, which are formed by intermediate vaults. The intermediate pillars are either equally strong or weaker. Group pillars exist when several intermediate pillars alternate with stronger pillars.
The Millau Viaduct was opened by President Jacques Chirac on December 14, 2004 and is one of the most imposing bridges in the world: supported by seven pillars, it crosses the Tarn Valley five kilometers west as a motorway bridge with a length of 2,460 meters and a maximum height of 270 meters by Millau .
- The Ravennabrücke in Höllental is 58 m high and 225 m long. The arch width of the eight arches is 20 meters each. The railway viaduct was built in 1927/28.
- The Ruhr viaduct near Herdecke is about 30 m high.
- The Ruhr viaduct near Witten is 716 m long.
- The Altenbeken Viaduct was inaugurated in 1853.
- The Burtscheid Viaduct from 1840 is one of the oldest railway bridges in Germany that is still in use.
- The Negrelli Viaduct (built in 1848) in Prague was the longest viaduct in Europe at 1111 m for a long time.
- The Desenzano Viaduct near Verona is single-story and is 60 m high.
- The El Puente Nuevo viaduct in Ronda , Spain is 120 m high.
- The Lockwood Viaduct in England is characterized by its pillars with a slenderness of 1/30.
- The 450 meter long Ouse Valley Viaduct , also in England, was made of bricks.
- The viaduct over the Elstertal in Saxony has two floors and a height of 69.75 m.
- The viaduct over the Göhl valley near Aachen, which was destroyed in 1940, had two floors.
- The Chaumont Viaduct has three floors and a height of 50 m.
- The viaduct of the Göltzschtalbrücke near Reichenbach in Vogtland in Saxony is partially four-story, at 80.37 m it was the highest railway bridge in the world and is still considered the largest brick bridge today.
- Some viaducts of the Semmering Railway also have a curvature in the floor plan.
- The Viennese light rail arches along the Viennese belt were built as a separate traffic level for local public transport . Today a lively local scene has developed in the arches. The somewhat older Berlin light rail arches served as a model .
- The Himbächel Viaduct of the Odenwald Railway .
- The Landwasser Viaduct of the Rhaetian Railway .
- The Hoxeler Viaduct of the Hunsrückquerbahn .
- The viaduct from Bolesławiec ( Bunzlau ) in Poland over the Bober is 450 m long and was built between 1844 and 1846.
- The brick arch of the Salcanobrücke on the Wocheinerbahn is the largest arch ever built for a viaduct with a span of 85 m.
- Today a cycle path leads over the two viaducts near Plein ( Eifel ) .
- The viaduct in Apolda is 95 m long, 23 m high and was completed on December 2, 1846. The inauguration ceremony took place on December 16, 1846.
- The Bietigheim railway viaduct (landmark of the city of Bietigheim), built by Karl Etzel from 1851 to 1853 , height approx. 30 m, span 287 m. It has 21 arches. The viaduct ensures the connection between Bietigheim-Bissingen and Bruchsal.
- The second Lorzentobel bridge in the canton of Zug ( Switzerland ) was built in 1910 as an arched viaduct. It has a length of 187 and a maximum height of 58 meters.
- The city railway line in Berlin is an over 8 km long stone viaduct that was built between 1875 and 1882. The viaduct is the longest monument in Germany.
- The Luxemburg Viaduct Pulvermühle was inaugurated in 1862.
- The Castielertobel Viaduct of the Arosa Railway from 1914 (until 1942)
- The Hetzdorfer Viadukt , built 1866–1868, with a height of 42 m it was the highest one-story (one-story) bridge of the Deutsche Reichsbahn.
Iron viaducts usually have stone pillars such as the viaduct near Znojmo or iron pillars on stone plinths such as the Crumlin viaduct near Newport in South Wales , the Saaneviaduct near Freiburg in Üechtland , the Sitter viaduct near St. Gallen , the viaducts of the Orleans railway near Baufseau d'Ahun and over the Cere, the first railway bridge from Castellaneta (1868–1929, demolished) over the Gravina Grande di Castellaneta near Castellaneta , the Pfrim valley viaduct near Marnheim in the Palatinate .
On the Erfurt – Ilmenau railway line , the single-track valley crossing at Angelroda has been built with a cast-iron viaduct, as well as the viaduct over the Nidda valley on the Friedberg – Hanau railway line .
Other iron viaducts:
- Firth of Tay Bridge in Scotland
- " Kentucky High Bridge" of the Cincinnati Southern, today Norfolk Southern .
- Erie Railroad's Portage Viaduct , built over the Genesee River in 86 days on the site of a burned wooden viaduct .
- Müngstener Bridge between Remscheid and Solingen
- Verrugas Viaduct over the Aqua de Verrugas valley in Peru with a pillar height of 76.8 m.
- Half-timbered viaducts Kübelbach, Ettenbach and Stockerbach viaducts of the Gäubahn Eutingen – Freudenstadt and the Sitter viaduct of the Swiss Southeast Railway with its distinctive half-parabolic lattice girders ( fish belly girders ); At 99 m, the Sitter Viaduct is the highest railway bridge in Switzerland.
- Viaduc de Millau over the Tarn Valley (steel deck)
- The Castielertobel Viaduct in Schanfigg (stone arch bridge until 1942)
- The Eistal Viaduct near Ramsen is the largest still preserved railway bridge in the Palatinate.
- The viaduct in front of the Ochsenkopf tunnel in Dzietrzychów (Dittersbach) on the Walbrzych – Klodzko (Waldenburg – Glatz) railway line.
The wooden viaducts were of little importance and were mostly only an interim solution, as they could easily catch fire and burn down due to the flying sparks of the steam locomotives . Nevertheless, they were built because they were inexpensive to build. Historical examples include the burned viaducts over the Genesee River near Portage in the United States with 57.4 m high wooden pillars and the viaducts over the Msta in Russia with 21.34 m high wooden pillars, both on brick plinths.
Viaducts made of reinforced and prestressed concrete
- The Beckenried Lehnen Viaduct in Switzerland .
- The Neckar Valley Viaduct near Reutlingen ( Baden-Württemberg )
- The Schengen Viaduct is the crossing of the A 8 over the Moselle between Perl and Schengen
- The Moselle viaduct at Vandières leads the crossing of the French high-speed line LGV Est européenne Paris-Strasbourg over the Moselle
- The Millau Viaduct (also Viaduc de Millau) over the French Tarn Gorge is the highest motorway bridge in the world.
- The Langwieser Viaduct and the Gründjitobel Viaduct near Langwies were the largest reinforced concrete railway bridges in the world when they opened in 1914
- The Schildescher Viaduct in Bielefeld .
- The Paulinskill Viaduct in New Jersey , USA
- The Delaware River Viaduct in the USA
- The Tunkhannock Viaduct in the USA
A special form of the viaduct is the circular or circular turning viaduct. Similar to a roundabout tunnel, it overcomes a height difference, whereby the height difference is overcome outdoors (on the viaduct) and not in the mountain. The Brusio circular viaduct on the Bernina Railway is the most famous of its kind .
A slope viaduct creates a, possibly inclined, level on a mountain slope on which a traffic route can be built. Any incisions on the slope flank are bridged "incidentally". The longest slope viaduct in Germany is located near Pünderich on the Moselle. The route of the Moselle route runs over it .
Viaducts were popular motifs in Lyonel Feininger's pictures .
- Viadukt , Etymological Dictionary of the German Language
- Colin O'Connor: Roman Bridges, Cambridge University Press 1993, ISBN 0-521-39326-4 , p. 99
- Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, Volume 20. Leipzig 1909, p. 132 Viadukt
- Entry in the Berlin State Monument List ( Memento from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Deutsche Reichsbahn (Hrsg.): New section of Hetzdorf on the Sachsenmagistrale Görlitz-Plauen (Vogtl.). Dresden, approx. 1992