|owner||51.3% Canton of Graubünden
43.1% Federal government
4.6% Private, companies
1.0% Graubünden municipalities
|Board||Renato Fasciati ( Director )|
|Supervisory board||Stefan Engler (Chairman of the Board of Directors )|
|sales||336 million CHF|
|Gauge||1000 mm ( meter gauge )|
|railroad||9 regular lines|
|Other lines||1 car transport line ( Vereina )|
|number of vehicles|
|Locomotives||58 + 3 steam locomotives|
|other vehicles||297 passenger cars
489 freight cars
|Passengers||9.547 million per year|
|Mileage||7.216 million km per year|
|Length of line network|
|Railway lines||384 km|
The Rhaetian Railway (RhB) ( Italian Ferrovia retica , Romansh ) is a railway transport and infrastructure company in Switzerland . The stock corporation is based in Chur . The route network is mainly in the canton of Graubünden , with a small part also in Italy . There used to be a route from Misox to Ticino .
The name goes back to the former Roman province of Raetia . This was also used in the 18th century for the Free State of the Three Leagues , the greater part of which was dissolved in the Helvetian canton of Raetia in 1799 . With Bonaparte's mediation act in 1803, Raetia was renamed Graubünden.
The best-known RhB lines are the Bernina Line and Albula Line , which were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in July 2008 as the third line . Your landmark is the Landwasser Viaduct , which leads directly into the Landwasser Tunnel .
The founding of the Rhaetian Railway goes back to the Dutchman Willem Jan Holsboer . This was the main initiator of a railway from Landquart to Davos , the first route in the network of the later RhB. Achilles Schucan was the first senior engineer and operations inspector (later director until 1909) , who headed the Rhaetian Railway until after the network was provisionally completed before the First World War. Until 1918 he was president of the board of directors and thus held a managerial position for 30 years.
On February 7, 1888, the Landquart - Davos AG (LD) narrow-gauge railway was founded. Originally, the company wanted to create a rack railway to overcome the inclines on this mountain route. A variant with three switchbacks was also discussed. However, both variants were discarded due to the success of the Gotthard Railway, which was free of cogwheels and sharp bends, and it was decided to build a pure adhesion railway with only one hairpin . This only hairpin was in Klosters station and was replaced by a spiral tunnel built between 1930 and 1932 south of the station. The initially planned standard gauge could not be realized due to the cramped conditions and cost reasons. The groundbreaking ceremony took place on June 29, 1888.
The stretch from Landquart to Klosters was opened as early as 1889 and the entire stretch to Davos was opened eight months later.
Due to the further plans, also going back to Holsboer, for an expansion of the railway into other regions of the canton of Graubünden, the narrow-gauge railway Landquart – Davos AG changed its name to Rhaetian Railway in 1895 .
1907-1910 was in Chur Bahnhofstrasse the representative administrative building of the RhB in Grisons style home built and placed under federal and cantonal preservation.
First expansion of the route network
As a result, the route network was quickly expanded:
- 1896 Opening of the line from Landquart via Chur to Thusis .
- 1903 Opening of the Albula line from Thusis via Tiefencastel , Filisur and Samedan to Celerina .
- 1904 The extension from Celerina to St. Moritz opens
- 1904 Opening of the line from Reichenau - Tamins through the Vorderrhein Gorge ( Ruinaulta ) to Ilanz .
- 1908 The line from Pontresina to Samedan opens .
- 1909 Opening of the line from Davos to Filisur .
- 1912 Opening of the line from Ilanz to Disentis / Mustér .
- 1913 Opening of the route from Bever via Zernez to Scuol .
The expansion of the network was stopped by the First World War. There were plans for the construction of the following routes:
- The construction of a Bergell railway from St. Moritz over the Malojapass to Chiavenna in Italy was licensed on the Swiss side in 1885, the license transferred to the RhB in 1898.
- The RhB had plans to continue the Lower Engadine route from Scuol to Nauders (approx. 31 km), but the Vinschgau Railway wanted a connection in Pfunds to the Reschen Railway from Mals to Landeck in the Austrian Tyrol, which was also planned . An alternative project suggested a connecting station in Martinsbruck.
- In 1909 the Bozen-Meraner-Bahn received the concession for the construction of a 53 km long Ofenbergbahn from Zernez over the Ofenpass to Mals in South Tyrol .
- In 1923 a concession was granted to build a 60 km long route from Thusis through the Hinterrhein Gorge and a 5150 m long Bernhardin tunnel to Mesocco.
- The plans to build a railway to Landeck or Mals are currently experiencing a certain renaissance.
The route from Bever to Scuol was, unlike the previously opened routes, electrified from the start. Between 1913 and 1922 the entire main network was electrified "from top to bottom", that is, from the Engadin to Chur and Landquart:
- 1913 St. Moritz and Pontresina – Samedan – Scuol
- 1919 Bever – Filisur – Thusis and Davos Dorf
- 1920 Davos Dorf – Klosters
- 1921 Klosters – Landquart – Chur – Thusis (ring closure)
- 1922 Reichenau-Tamins-Disentis / Mustér
Electrification (see traction current ) made train operations considerably more efficient and reduced the coal shortage for the railways, which was mainly caused by the First World War . The AC voltage of 11 kV and 16 2 ⁄ 3 Hz (since 1995: 16.7 Hz) , which is customary to this day, was used on the main RhB network .
Integration of the Arosabahn, the Misoxerbahn and the Berninabahn into the RhB
At the end of the 1930s, the Bündner Bahnen ran into financial difficulties with the upcoming renovation work and in view of the crisis in tourism and other branches of the economy. They therefore applied for federal aid under the Private Railway Aid Act passed in 1939 . Financial benefits under this law were, however, tied to the condition that the railways merge into larger units. On October 26, 1941, the RhB shareholders approved the merger agreement with the Chur – Arosa railway and the Bellinzona – Mesocco railway ; the merger took effect on January 1, 1942. On June 24, 1944, the general meetings of the RhB and the Berninabahn approved a merger to be carried out retrospectively to January 1, 1943. As early as January 1, 1942, the RhB had taken over management and operation of the Bernina Railway .
During the Second World War, the RhB was able to massively increase its transport volumes, and road competition was paralyzed by the shortage of fuel. In 1945, with 117 million passenger-kilometers and 24 million ton-kilometers, practically double the transport performance compared to the pre-war years. After the war, transport services stagnated at a high level. The resumption of road competition, however, put a strain on profitability and in 1949, for the first time since 1915, an operating deficit had to be reported. A turning point occurred in 1958 when the Railway Act came into force and a year later the tariff convergence (the private railway tariffs in the mountain area to the tariffs of the SBB). The new payments from the federal government allowed positive accounts to be closed again, and by 1962 the number of kilometers traveled rose to 175 million, but then growth slowed. Freight traffic boomed thanks to the construction of power plants and in 1966 a peak value of 56 million ton kilometers was reached. Freight traffic fell again, passenger traffic stagnated, but wage costs followed inflation and in 1970 the RhB was back in the red. The deficit coverage that was now beginning was tied to the condition that the canton also paid a share. This led to the demand to nationalize the RhB, which would have meant incorporation into the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB).
At the end of the 1970s, the RhB reflected on its strengths. Determined, she began to market her route for tourism. The top product was the Bernina Express , the Glacier Express was expanded together with MGB and its predecessors, which meant that capacity utilization could be increased even in the off-season thanks to visitors from all over the world. In addition, the staffing of low-turnover train stations was lifted. PostBus was given the service of remote villages , which meant that regional trains could be dispensed with in the Thusis – Samedan section. The line from Mesocco to Bellinzona was initially closed for passenger traffic and now, after the closure of the largest freight customer, also for freight traffic.
The passenger-kilometers exceeded the mark of 200 million in 1980 and 300 million in 2001; In 2009, 383 million passenger kilometers were covered. Freight traffic again reached 56 million tonne-kilometers in 1990 and has since fluctuated in a range from 44 to 59 million tons.
Opening of the club line
The RhB received an additional boost from the construction of the Vereina line , which leads from Landquart via Klosters through the Vereina tunnel, which was opened in 1999, into the Lower Engadine. In addition to people, this line also transports passenger cars and trucks, which can save the arduous journey over the Flüela Pass. In 2009, 478,000 vehicles were transported through the Vereina tunnel.
The Lower Engadine is three hours, the cantonal capital of Chur and the centers of the Swiss through the tunnel by two, in winter Central Plateau moved closer. The frequencies of the club line, which is largely financed by the federal government, have so far exceeded all expectations and brought a certain economic boom and day tourism to the Lower Engadine.
Despite all the innovations, the RhB's economic problems have not been resolved; constant efforts are required with traffic income (2008: 121 million Swiss francs) and limited public funds (compensation from the federal government and the canton of Graubünden in 2008: 137 million Swiss Francs). In addition, since 2000 the vehicles have had to be procured with interest-bearing loans, as the public sector no longer grants interest-free loans for this purpose. This in turn increases operating costs.
Current construction work
In the summer of 2019, the line from Susch to Scuol will be closed in order to be able to carry out extensive renovations. The largest construction project is the construction of a new second tunnel tube for the Albula Tunnel since 2015, and the new tunnel tube was pierced in 2019. Since the route network of the Rhaetian Railway is largely single-track with many passing points, some points will be expanded to double-track, e.g. B. from Samedan to Bever, including reconstruction of the Bever train station, from Thusis towards Tiefencastel and from Landquart to Malans.
Increase in profitability
On August 24, 2006, the Board of Directors of the Rhaetian Railway decided to reduce the workforce by 145 employees by the end of 2008. According to the Board of Directors, such a step is essential in order to secure the existence of the Rhaetian Railway in the medium term. The financial resources freed up as a result are urgently needed to ensure the upcoming rehabilitation of the routes (for example, around a third of the over 150 bridges are in need of rehabilitation) and to purchase modern rolling stock. The downsizing, which corresponds to a reduction of the current workforce by a tenth and mainly affects the areas of workshops and station staff (the staff will be withdrawn from the Untervaz, Ospizio Bernina and Campocologno stations; private operators are being sought for further stations), will be largely without Layoffs occur. However, around 40 layoffs are said to be unavoidable.
The Albula Line and the Bernina Railway are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List
On December 21, 2006, an application dossier was submitted to UNESCO in Paris with the aim of including the Albula and Bernina lines as UNESCO World Heritage. This finally took place on July 7, 2008. The continuation of the route from Thusis to Tirano is thus secured in the long term. The UNESCO World Heritage label applies not only to the RhB line in the narrower sense, but also to a strip along the railway line. This protected area includes individually defined important cultural assets , sites and landscape elements and is 500 to 1000 meters wide. Finally, a so-called buffer zone ("backdrop") was defined, which encompasses the cultural landscape seen from the railway line.
Because of the inclusion of Tirano , Italy was jointly responsible for the World Heritage candidacy. However, Switzerland was in the lead. The Federal Office of Culture was in charge of the application dossier . In future, the role of the federal government will be limited to monitoring the UNESCO guidelines. With their candidacy, the federal government and the canton of Graubünden committed themselves to preserving the uniqueness of the Albula and Bernina lines, including their surroundings. However, this does not mean that outdated facilities may no longer be modernized in the future.
After the Semmering Railway in Austria and the Mountain Railways of India ( Darjeeling Railway , Nilgiribahn , Kalka-Shimla Railway ), the Albula and Bernina Railway is the third world heritage to include railway lines.
Change at the top
In autumn 2015 it became known that the previous director of the RhB, Hans Amacker, who had been absent due to illness since March, is retiring early. In December, the Rhaetian Railway announced in a press release the election of a successor to Amacker. The board of directors decided on Renato Fasciati (* 1975), who moved from Zentralbahn to the Graubünden railway company in summer 2016 . Christian Florin (* 1965), Head of the Infrastructure Business Unit, is his deputy.
The network of the Rhaetian Railway
The line from Landquart to Davos
The Landquart – Davos Platz railway has been connecting the health resort of Davos with the Chur Rhine Valley since 1890 .
The route from Davos to Filisur
The Davos Platz – Filisur railway has been connecting the health resort of Davos with the Albula Railway in Filisur since 1909 .
The line from Landquart to Thusis
The Landquart – Thusis railway has been connecting the municipalities of Landquart and Thusis with the canton capital Chur since 1896 .
Albula Railway (Thusis – St. Moritz)
In 1903 St. Moritz was connected to the existing network of the Rhaetian Railway via the Albula Railway.
The route from Samedan to Pontresina
The Pontresina line has been connecting Samedan with Pontresina since 1908
The line from Reichenau-Tamins to Disentis / Mustér
The Reichenau-Tamins – Disentis / Mustér line provides the connection to the main line of the Matterhorn-Gotthard Railway . The route is also used by the Glacier Express and connects the Vorderrhein Valley with the Alpine Rhine Valley .
The line from Pontresina to Scuol
The Bever – Scuol – Tarasp railway connects the Lower Engadine with the Bernina and Albula railway .
Bernina Railway (St. Moritz – Tirano)
The Bernina Railway is the single-track railway line between St. Moritz and the Bernina Pass to Tirano in Italy . It is one of the steepest adhesion railways in the world.
The railway line Chur-Arosa was built by the corporation Chur-Arosa train 1914 to the spa town of Arosa to tap. A parliamentary initiative in 2008 to connect this line with the Landwasser Valley is currently not viewed as a priority by the Graubünden government in view of the limited financial resources.
The Misoxerbahn was completed in 1907 by the independent Società Ferrovia elettrica Bellinzona – Mesocco and was owned by the Rhaetian Railway from 1942 to 2003; from 1972 it was only operated in freight traffic and was limited to the Castione-Arbedo-Cama route after storm damage. It never had a track connection to the rest of the RhB network. At the beginning of 2004, the infrastructure concession was transferred to SEFT (Società Esercizio Ferroviario Turistico), which also had a passenger transport concession in order to be able to carry out a scheduled FM (Ferrovia Mesolcinese) museum railway operation. Scheduled operation ended when the passenger transport license expired at the end of the 2013 season. A museum with exclusively original Ticino and Misox vehicles is to be built in the former Grono depot. The remaining vehicles are to be sold or scrapped. In June 2014, around 300 meters of catenary were dismantled in Roveredo, which means that continuous operation is no longer possible. On August 4th, the head of the Federal Department for the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC) revoked the infrastructure concession for the Castione-Arbedo-Roveredo-Calancasca bridge. The concession for the upper section of the Grono – Cama route is therefore still valid until 2020.
With the Vereina tunnel , a winter-safe connection between the Prättigau and the Engadin was established.
The planning work began in the 1970s. It was decided to build a railway tunnel with a train loading facility for motor vehicles .
In 1991, construction work began on the 19.1 kilometer longest meter-gauge tunnel in the world, the Vereina tunnel, accompanied by expansion work, particularly in Prättigau. In November 1999, six months earlier than initially planned, the line between Klosters and Sagliains or Susch was opened. There are a total of three car trains.
RhB rolling stock
The RhB maintains or has maintained the following vehicles:
|designation||Company number||number||Working time||Wheel alignment||comment||image|
|G 3/4||1-16||16||1889-1928||1'C n2t||Landquart – Davos|
|G 2 × 2/2||21 and 22||2||1891-1920||(B) B n4t (converted to (1'B) B n4t)||Landquart – Davos, originally numbers 6 and 7|
|G 2/2 + 2/3||23 and 24||2||1896-1926||(B) B1 'n4t|
|G 2/3 + 2/2||25-32||8th||1896-1921||(1'B) B h4t|
|G 4/5||101-129||29||1904-1927||1'D n2v (101-106), 1'D h2 (107-129)|
|Gm 3/3||231-233||3||1975–||C de|
|Gm 4/4||241||1||1989–||B'B 'ie||MaK 400 BB|
|Gmf 4/4||242 and 243||2||1991–||B'B 'de|
|Gmf 4/4 II||234 01 to 234 04||4th||2013–||Bo'Bo'-de||Formerly 287 01 to 287 04|
|Ge 2/2||161 and 162||2||1911–||Bo||Bernina Railway 61 + 62|
|Ge 4/4 81||81||1||1916-1970||C'C '(after modification B'B')||Blonay – Chamby 81 museum railway|
|Ge 4/4 182 (Bernina crocodile)||182||1||1928-1977||Bo'Bo '||Bernina Railway 82|
|Ge 2/4||201-207||7th||1912-2006||1'B1 '||After rebuilding 1943–46: 205, 207, 211–213, 221–222|
|Ge 3/3||214 and 215||2||1984–||Co|
|Ge 4/6||301, 302, 351-355, 391||8th||1913-11984||1'D1 '|
|Ge 6/6 I.||401-415||15th||1921-2008||C'C '||crocodile|
|Ge 4/4 I.||601-610||10||1947–||Bo'Bo '||4 pieces available|
|Ge 4/4 II||611-633||23||1973–||Bo'Bo '|
|Ge 4/4 III||641-652||12||1993–||Bo'Bo '|
|Ge 6/6 II||701-707||7th||1958–||Bo'Bo'Bo '|
|According to 2/4||211||2||1967-2002||1'B1 '||ex Gea 2/4 211, ex Ge 2/4 202|
|According to 4/4||801 and 802||2||1968–||Bo'Bo '|
|ABe 4/4||3, 6-8, 11||5||1908-1998||Bo'Bo '||Bernina Railway|
|ABe 4/4||23||1||1911-1969||Bo'Bo '||Bernina Railway BCFe 4/4 23, 1956 renovation|
|ABe 4/4 I.||30-37||8th||1908-2015||Bo'Bo '||Bernina Railway 1-14, 22; 1947–1953 remodeling|
|ABDe 4/4||38||1||1911-2016||Bo'Bo '||Berninabahn 21, 1949 renovation|
|ABe 4/4 II||41 - 49||9||1964–||Bo'Bo '||for the Bernina Railway, withdrawn from scheduled traffic in October 2010|
|ABe 4/4 III||51-56||6th||1988–||Bo'Bo '||for the Bernina Railway|
|De 2/2||151||1||1909–||Bo||Bernina Railway 51|
|BCe 4/4||451-455||5||1957-1997||Bo'Bo '||Bellinzona-Mesocco-Bahn 1–3, 1945–1951 conversion to ABDe 4/4|
|BCFe 4/4||481-484||6th||1914-1958||Bo'Bo '||Chur-Arosa-Bahn 1–4, parts of the electrical equipment in 481 ″ –486 ″ reused|
|BCFe 4/4||485-486||6th||1925-1969||Bo'Bo '||Chur-Arosa-Bahn 5-6, BCFe 4/4 486 renamed to ABDe 4/4 487|
|ABDe 4/4||481 ″ -486 ″||6th||1957-1997||Bo'Bo '||for Arosabahn|
|ABe 4/4||487 "-488||2||1973-1997||Bo'Bo '||for Arosabahn, sold to CJ|
|BDe 4/4||491||1||1958-2003||Bo'Bo '||for Bellinzona – Mesocco|
|ABe 4/4||501-504||4th||1939-1999||Bo'Bo '||501 received|
|Be 4/4||511-516||6th||1971–||Bo'Bo '||Main network pendulum (STNP)|
|ABe 4/16||3101-3105||5||2011–||Bo'Bo '+ 2'2' + 2'2 '+ 2'2'||«Allegra» trunk network multiple unit (STZ)|
|ABe 4/16||3111-3166||56||2019–||Bo'Bo '+ 2'2' + 2'2 '+ 2'2'||"Capricorn" multiple unit, regional multiple unit (RTZ)|
|ABe 8/12||3501-3515||15th||2010–||Bo'Bo '+ 2'2' + Bo'Bo '||«Allegra» two-voltage multiple unit (ZTZ)|
|Tm 2/2||15-26, 81-84, 91-93, 95-98, 111-120||33||1957–||Bo|
|ABDt||1711-1716||6th||1971–||2014 repainted red / dark red|
|BDt||1721-1723, 1731, 1741-1742, 1751-1758||14th||1982–|
|At||578 01-06||6th||2016-2017||Control car for the Albula articulated train "Alvra"|
|Bt||528 01-08||8th||2017–||Universal control car|
|Xrotd||9211/9212 (ex R 11/12)||2||1913-1968||(A1) 2 '|
|Xrotd ex BB||9213/9214 (ex R 13/14)||2||1912–||C'C '||Bernina Railway 1051/1052|
|Xrot et||9218/9219||2||1967-2015||9218: 2013 canceled
9219: 2015 to MGB
|Xrot m||9216||1||1958-2015||2015 to DFB|
New Capricorn multiple units
On April 15, 2019, the new Capricorn multiple units were presented to the public. A total of 36 four-car trains have been ordered, the first of which are to be used in autumn 2019. The four-car trains have 164 seats, 35 of which are in 1st class. The trains are manufactured by Stadler Rail and travel at a maximum speed of 120 km / h. At the beginning of June 2020, the RhB exercised an option with Stadler Rail and ordered 20 more trains.
Although the RhB, together with the MGB, as the largest narrow-gauge network, sets the standard in many ways, their vehicles today have features that are not or can hardly be found elsewhere. The RhB and MGB have remained true to the central buffer with two screw couplings to this day, while almost all of the smaller railways in Switzerland have switched to an automatic coupling. However, other couplings have been used to a limited extent for special purposes (RhB: Vereina car trains, suburban commuter trains, Capricorn). A different coupling was used for each new purpose, so that the RhB / MGB network is now confronted with a total of six coupling systems.
The vacuum brake has remained the main brake system to this day . However, it is increasingly being displaced by the vacuum-controlled compressed air brake that has long been used in control cars. The noise abatement (conversion to plastic brake pads ) of the passenger cars required the installation of anti-skid protection , which is only possible with air brakes. All new passenger cars are therefore now also delivered with vacuum-controlled air brakes, older ones are retrofitted. Air brakes have been used on the Vereina car trains, the suburban shuttle trains and the Capricorn since these vehicles were commissioned.
The electrical heating, introduced in 1913, uses 300 V from the transformer of the locomotive. In contrast, voltages of 1000, 1500 or 3000 volts are common on the European standard gauge network. In order to achieve the same heating output, the RhB therefore requires much larger currents; the maximum is currently 1000 amps. Since this is no longer sufficient for very long trains, some baggage cars were equipped as heating cars ; From the middle of the train, they heat the rear part, the locomotive the front part. In the longer term, the heating voltage is to be increased to 1000 volts.
Color of the rolling stock
The RhB has called itself “the little red one” for a long time, even though the RhB vehicles were not always red. Rather, there were a number of different colors at different times.
The general color of the car was initially dark green . The paint was supposed to protect the wood of the car bodies from weathering, at the same time it should not be too susceptible to dirt, as the wagons constantly drove in the plumes of smoke from the steam locomotives. The first electric locomotives (Ge 2/4 and Ge 4/6) also appeared from 1913 in wagon green paint. With the delivery of the "Crocodiles" Ge 6/6 401 to 415 from 1921 onwards, brown became the color of the rod electric locomotives, and the previously green locomotives were now also painted brown.
In 1929, dining car operations were introduced on the RhB, with cars that (until 1949) belonged to Mitropa . These cars were dark red . At the same time, the first two-tone car appeared, namely the As4ü 61 (later As 1161), which ran on the Glacier Express from 1930. This was followed by the A4ü 54 (A 1154) and the F4ü 4202 to 4203 (D 4202 to 4203), which from 1931 together with a green B4ü 1101 to 1109 (A 1101 to 1109) and a red Mitropa-Dr4ü 10 to 12 (WR 3810 to 3812) on the Engadin Express. Originally for the same purpose, the RhB bought four Pullman cars from the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits , which had been procured for the GoldenPass and were incorporated into the vehicle fleet in 1939 as green / crème AB4ü 241 to 244 (As 1141 to 1144). With the beginning of the Second World War and the associated slump in tourism, the wagons could hardly be used properly at first; They were initially used for special trips, especially by the army or army command, and after the war as reinforcement cars in 1st class.
In 1939 and 1940 twelve lightweight vehicles were delivered, four railcars (501–504) and eight center entry cars , which were initially used for fast, light express trains. These vehicles appeared in red and basically kept this color to this day, although the shade of red, the lettering and the decorative lines were adapted to the later versions.
In 1942/43 three railways operated with direct current from the beginning were integrated into the RhB, whose vehicles were not exposed to the "soot plague". The vehicles of the Chur-Arosa-Bahn were gray / white from the opening in 1914 until the integration into the RhB in 1942, those of the Bellinzona-Mesocco-Bahn were green / cream. The vehicles of the Bernina Railway were yellow until the merger in 1943, but it was more than ten years before the last vehicles had lost the paint of their former railway company. The Bernina Railway ABe 4/4 6, which operated in yellow until 1960, is particularly well known .
Now green / cream has been chosen as the color for all passenger coaches and direct current railcars. The first new builds in this paint scheme were the center entry carriages delivered by SWS from 1947 . Green / cream colored cars were still on the road until well into the 1960s. The last wagons were the B2 2075 to 2076 in this livery before they were scrapped in 1983 or went to the Öchsle narrow-gauge railway .
The single-axle locomotives delivered from 1947 (Ge 4/4 I 601 to 610, Ge 6/6 II 701 to 707, Ge 4/4 II 611 to 620) appeared in green . The same color was previously considered the norm for luggage trolleys. SIG's entry carriages delivered in 1956 were also painted in green again. Little by little, the passenger cars and direct current railcars were also painted completely green from 1956.
In 1957 the first new railcars for direct current lines were delivered, these appeared in red and from 1962 the old direct current railcars were also given this color. With the introduction of control cars, which was decided soon thereafter, it was decided to design all shuttle trains in red. The first to come into operation in 1968 were the four first-class A 1253 to 1256 cars, which were to run on the shuttle trains to Arosa in winter and on the Glacier Express in summer. Thus, this express train was also completely red for the first time, as the second-class cars provided by FO and BVZ were also red. The new wagons (ABt 1701–03, B 2315–19 and D 4231–32) for the Arosa line were also delivered in red.
The other passenger cars acquired during this period, i.e. the standard I carriages in normal length and in a shortened version for the Bernina Railway, were painted green, like the older cars. From 1973 onwards, the vehicles were no longer labeled with the letters "RhB", but provided with the newly introduced logo. From 1983 (delivery EW III), this logo was supplemented with the railway name on the right in one of the three national languages occurring in Graubünden, i.e. Rhaetian Railway, Ferrovia retica or Viafier retica. From this point in time, the technical addresses were also summarized in a block below the wagon number and from 1985 this contained extended information, in particular the weight when loaded, which is decisive for the load calculation.
All main network standard cars II (EW2) were also delivered in green (until 1980), but shortly afterwards it was decided to generally switch to red, which took about ten years. Initially, the color change was limited to cars that could be used on the Bernina line. The first in the paint shop were the short Bernina-B 2307 to 2314 from 1968 in 1981. The A 1261 to 1262 (EW2 shortened) were delivered red in 1978 because they are equipped with a control line, in 1982 the BD 2471-74 (also EW2 shortened ) without control line in red. The second series Ge 4/4 "was delivered in red in 1984. Shortly before that, in 1983, a special paintwork in red with brown ribbon windows was introduced for the Bernina Express (10 EW3), with the 1985/86 also the A 1261, 1262 and BD 2473 and all shortened IV (11 EW4) standard cars in 1993. This window band was no longer suitable for the panorama cars with the large windows that were delivered from 2000. Therefore, between 1999 and 2004, all 24 cars were given the standard red paint The modern wagon painted in green, the B 2373 was overhauled in mid-December 1990.
The red painted cars have a silver painted roof, silver doors and a silver decorative line under the windows, which has been wider for a few years and is continued in red on the doors. The RhB logo was temporarily dispensed with and the lettering was integrated into the trim, but the logo has now been applied again as it has been customary since 1983. On locomotives and railcars, the decorative stripe runs at floor level, underneath they are painted dark gray. The Allegra multiple units delivered from 2009 take on the previous railcar paintwork with a low-lying decorative line, but underneath are painted dark red instead of dark gray. The Allegra color scheme has meanwhile also been used for the modernized Be 4/4 including intermediate and control cars as well as the Albula AGZ articulated trains that were acquired from 2015. The areas of the first class are marked with a yellow curve on the roof edge (only in the door area of the Bernina panorama cars).
The As 1141 to 1144 bought in 1939 were revised from 1974 to 1977 and were painted red / cream , followed by the As 1161 in 1985. It had been used as a measuring vehicle from 1973 for the commissioning of the Ge 4/4 II, and was thereafter parked in green / cream paint. In 1986 the A 1154, which was meanwhile green, also received this paint.
But after the entire fleet of vehicles was painted red, the dining cars in the train compositions were no longer noticeable. That is why blue was chosen as the new color of the dining car. While a light blue was initially applied, the paint is now a dark blue saloon car. Also to be mentioned among the blue vehicles are some vehicles that were painted in 1997 in the corporate color of the municipality of Arosa. From the time the Arosa Railway was switched to alternating current, they operated on the Arosa Express and, as contractually agreed, retained their special paintwork for around ten years, the last car (As 1256) until 2012. The Ge 6/6 I 412 was also completely in-line to match the Pullman car Painted blue. It kept this paintwork until it was scrapped and scrapped. In 1998/99 the As 1141 to 1144 changed to Pullman blue / cream and thus back to their original color , which they had worn at the MOB. The D2 4062 (today D2 4051), the As 1161, and finally at the end of 2010 the (kitchen-free) dining car WR-S 3820 (previously 3814), which was converted into a piano bar car, received this paint job. Another exception to the standard red are the yellow open panorama cars, which can be found mainly on the Bernina Railway.
The shunting tractors of the RhB are now painted orange , railway service vehicles are orange or yellow . Most of the freight cars are gray (older boxcars and some bulk freight cars are brown). Regardless of the owner, the cars on the Glacier Express have a uniform paint scheme in a bluish light gray with red car ends, the dining car is completely red.
Abolition of smoking places
Since December 2005, like all other railway companies in Switzerland, the RhB has no longer offered smoking places. With this measure, the railway hoped to increase the comfort for the rail passengers as well as considerable savings in maintenance. For example, the air conditioning no longer has to be separated into smoking and non-smoking areas.
AC trunk network
The Rhaetian Railway uses single-phase alternating current with a voltage of 11 kV and a frequency of 16.7 Hertz to drive its electrically powered vehicles in the main network , which is supplied via overhead lines as usual . The frequency corresponds to that of the rest of the Swiss railway network, while the voltage is 4 kV lower.
Energy is transported over medium distances via the railway's own supply network, which is operated as a single-phase three-wire network with the same frequency 16.7 Hertz but a voltage of 66 kV. This is linked to the SBB power grid in the Landquart substation . The electricity from the supply network is transformed down to the driving voltage of 11 kV in substations in Bever, Chur, Filisur, Küblis, Sagliains , Selfranga , Sils im Domleschg and Tavanasa and fed into the contact wire directly on site or via feed lines.
The energy for the supply network is provided by the Swiss energy supplier Repower AG . The feed takes place in four systems:
- In Bever and Landquart, the RhB operates a static converter with 18 MW active power (20 MVA reactive power ) at the substations . This generates single-phase alternating current with a frequency of 16.7 Hz with the help of energy from Repower lines of the 50 Hz three-phase network.
- One of the two generators in the Klosters hydropower plant operated by Repower is a traction current generator (16.7 Hertz, 8 MVA).
- In the hydropower plant Sils im Domleschg of the Hinterrhein power plant , two traction current generators with an output of 4 MVA each are installed. Participation energy from the canton of Graubünden, which is involved in the operator, is fed in here. According to the operator, 45 percent of the RhB's energy needs are generated here.
See also the list of traction power systems in Switzerland . The Rhaetian Railway consumed a total of 98.3 million kilowatt hours of traction energy in 2012 . The costs for this amounted to CHF 11.7 million in 2012.
A circuit of the 66 kV supply network has two insulated outer conductors . These are laid either as overhead lines or as cable lines. For reasons of landscape protection, the lines were mostly not laid on their own overhead line routes, but bundled with other overhead lines or the existing overhead and feed lines of the railway lines or designed as cable lines:
- Cable lines were laid through the Albula and Vereina tunnels. In addition, in the Davos area (from Davos Glaris to Davos Laret), in the settlement area of Filisur and in Val Bever between Spinas and the Bever substation, the line has been laid as an underground cable.
- The traction current overhead lines from Sils im Domleschg to Filisur, from Filisur to Preda , from Filisur to Davos Glaris and from Davos Laret via Selfranga and Küblis to Landquart were run as hybrid lines together with three-phase circuits for the national economic supply.
- The traction power line from Landquart via Chur and Farsch to Tavanasa, as well as the traction power line from Farsch to Thusis and the line from Bever to Sagliains, are mostly installed on extended contact line masts, for which insulating crossbars were installed above the contact line crossbars (and, if necessary, the feeder lines). If the supply line does not bypass the tunnel on its own route, it crosses this as a cable.
The Bernina Railway, which is operated with 1000 V direct current , has an energy supply that is independent of the main network. This takes place via a 23 kV three-phase line from Repower AG from Campocologno over the Bernina Pass to Pontresina, which runs essentially along the railway line. Transformers and rectifiers are installed at various points , via which the contact wire is supplied with the driving voltage. With the help of recently installed inverters , the recuperation current generated when braking the vehicles is fed back into the supply line.
- Various authors: Rhaetian Railway - 125 years of fascinating travel: the story & 125 stories . Orell-Füssli-Verlag, Zurich 2014, ISBN 978-3-280-05569-4 .
- Carl Camenisch: The Rhaetian Railway: with special consideration of the Albula route . Orell Füssli Verlag, Zurich 1904.
- Christian Perret (photographer); Rhaetian Railway (Ed.): Rhaetian Railway. Today - tomorrow - yesterday . Publishing association (Desertina Verlag, Disentis / M & T Helvetica, Chur / Terra Grischuna / Bottmingen) 1988, ISBN 3-907036-08-5 (Festschrift for the 100th anniversary of the railway).
- Hans-Bernhard Schönborn: The Rhaetian Railway . History and present. GeraMond , Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-7654-7162-9 .
- Claude Jeanmaire: The direct current lines of the Rhaetian Railway (BB - BM - ChA - RhB). Representation of these direct current railways, which are now united in the Rhaetian Railway, the routes from then and now, locomotives, railcars, small vehicles, passenger cars, goods and service vehicles through the ages / Narrow Gauge Lines of the Rhaetian Railways: Lokomotives, Electric Cars ... Archive No. 20, In: The electric and diesel traction vehicles of Swiss railways . Fourth part. Eisenbahn Verlag, Villingen 1975, ISBN 3-85649-020-5 .
- Wolfgang Finke, Hans Schweers: The vehicles of the Rhaetian Railway .
- Volume 1, Passenger Cars , Dining Cars, Baggage and Mail Cars [1889–1996]. Schweers + Wall , Aachen 1996, ISBN 3-89494-103-0 .
- Volume 2, Freight Cars, Special Cars, Private Cars [1889–1997]. Schweers + Wall, Aachen 1998, ISBN 3-89494-104-9 .
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- Volume 4, Service Vehicles, Snow Removal, Updates . [1889-2000]. Schweers + Wall, Aachen 2000, ISBN 3-89494-115-4 (supplements to volumes 1–3).
- Wolfgang Finke & Gian Brüngger: The vehicles of the Rhaetian Railway . Volumes 1–10, Passenger Cars, Locomotives, Freight Cars. Service vehicles . [1889-2016]. tram-TV Verlag, Cologne 2014-2016, ISBN 978-3-943846-00-3 .
- Beat Moser, Peter Pfeiffer: Railway Journal. The RhB, specials .
- Part 1. Disentis – Reichenau – Chur, Landquart – Chur-Reichenau – St. Moritz . Merker, Fürstenfeldbruck 1995, ISBN 3-922404-79-0 .
- Part 2. Bernina Railway and Bellinzona – Mesocco . Merker, Fürstenfeldbruck 1996, ISBN 3-922404-95-2 (2nd edition 2004: ISBN 3-89610-128-5 ).
- Part 3. St. Moritz – Samedan – Zernez – Scuol-Tarasp, Pontresina – Samedan and Chur – Arosa . The electric locomotives of the RhB. Merker, Fürstenfeldbruck 1998, ISBN 3-89610-038-6 (2nd edition 2005: ISBN 978-3-89610-150-1 ).
- Part 4. Landquart – Klosters – Davos – Filisur and Vereinastrecke Merker, Fürstenfeldbruck 2000, ISBN 3-89610-063-7 .
- Part 5. Nostalgia on a narrow track . Merker, Fürstenfeldbruck 2003, ISBN 3-89610-107-2 .
- Ueli Haldimann , Tibert Keller, Georg Jäger : Experience Chur-Arosa-Bahn - Foray through the Schanfigg , AS Verlag & Buchkonzept AG, Zurich 2014, ISBN 978-3-906055-25-1 .
- Hans Domenig: From the Tingelzüglein to the high mountain railway . In: Terra Grischuna , 59th year, issue 1, Terra Grischuna Verlag, Chur 2000, .
- Hans Hofmann: Rhaetian Railway Chur – Arosa. About the construction and operation of the railway . 2nd edition, Calanda, Chur 1993 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-905260-11-5 .
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- August Jenny: Arosa and the Chur-Arosa Railway [32 images based on original photos]. In: Orell Füssli's Wanderbilder No. 372–374. Orell Füssli , Zurich .
- B. Hartmann: The Chur-Arosa Railway . In: Heimatschutz - Ligue pour la Beaute , magazine of the Swiss Association for Heritage Protection , number 6, volume X, p. 81, Benteli , Bümplitz 1915.
- Hermann Hiltbrunner, Christian and Hans Meisser (photos): Graubünden: The Chur-Arosa Railway and the health resort Arosa (separate print), Sadag, Geneva [o. J., around 1915-1920].
- Ernst Andreas Weigert, Reto Steiner (ed.): Glacier Express . From St. Moritz to Zermatt. In: Eisenbahn-Kurier , EK , Freiburg im Breisgau, 2009. ISBN 978-3-88255-731-2 .
- Nadine Habbel, Ingrid and Achim Walder (eds.): Discover Graubünden with the Rhaetian Railway and PostBus . Route descriptions, sights, topographic maps. In: Walder travel guide . Walder, Kreuztal 2005, ISBN 3-936575-26-6 .
- 100 years of the Rhaetian Railway . Railway magazine, EZ-Special 3, Komet Verlag, Köniz 1989.
- Official website of the RhB
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- Max Hilfiker: Rhaetian Railway (RhB). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Entry on the UNESCO World Heritage Center website ( English and French ).
- The Rhaetian Railway recognized as world heritage . In: NZZ July 7, 2008, 10:16 pm
- Website of the Albula Railway Museum
- Director Schucan . In: Bündner Tagblatt , April 9, 2016, p. 32
- Adolf Collenberg: Achilles Schucan. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . August 19, 2011 , accessed June 5, 2019 .
- M. Tiepner, Unexecuted Bündner Bahnprojekte , in: Eisenbahn-Amateur 2/82 and 7/82
- Hans G. Wägli: Schienennetz Schweiz, A technical-historical atlas . AS-Verlag, Zurich 1998, ISBN 3-905111-21-7
- Figures from the RhB annual reports
- UNESCO website: The three railways are now listed under Mountain Railways of India
- Jenny commissioned to work out a suitability and feasibility study for a Schanfigg - Davos rail tunnel from October 21, 2008.
- Rhaetian Railway (RhB). Bellinzona FR - Mesocco In: discontinued-bahnen.ch by Jürg Ehrbar, accessed on June 13, 2020
- VAS 2004 084b: Transfer of license no. 5145 for the construction and operation of a railway infrastructure and transfer of license no. 591 for regular commercial passenger transport. Availability date March 25, 2004. see page no longer available , search in web archives: bav.admin.ch ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Christian Ammann: SEFT - what's next at Misox? , in: Eisenbahn-Amateur 10/2014, page 465,
- RhB profile 2013. (PDF; 2.7 MB) (No longer available online.) P. 29 , archived from the original on May 13, 2012 ; accessed on June 9, 2013 : “Passenger and control cars: 250; Panorama car: 47; Viewing and bicycle carriages: 31; Dining and service cars: 13; Baggage cart: 33; Shunting vehicles: 27; Locomotives / motor vehicles: 73; Multiple units: 20; Freight cars: 489; Company vehicles: 182; Total rolling stock: 1165 (as of January 2013) “ Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Abbreviation used in the RhB locomotive service plans
- Zaugg snow clearing system delivered: "Clear the way" for RhB trains (PDF) ( page no longer available , search in web archives )
- Southeast Switzerland: This is what the RhB's “Ibex” looks like. Somedia Press AG, accessed April 15, 2019 .
- southeast Switzerland: The ibex are ready for Graubünden (video). Somedia Press AG, accessed April 15, 2019 .
- 20 additional Capricorn multiple units for the Rhaetian Railway. Bahnoline.ch, June 12, 2020, accessed on June 14, 2020 .
- Wolfgang Finke, Hans Schweers: The vehicles of the Rhaetian Railway 1889-1996, Volume 1 Passenger car, dining car, baggage and mail car . Schweers + Wall Aachen 1996, ISBN 3-89494-103-0
- Gian Brüngger: Loki Special: 100-year-old mountain climbers, history of the first generation of railcars BCe 4/4 and BCFe 4/4 , Lokpress Goldach 2008, ISBN 978-3-9523386-1-2
- Gian Brüngger, Tibert Keller, Renato Mengotti: Adventure Bernina Railway. Terra Grischuna, Zurich / Chur 2010, ISBN 978-3-7298-1169-0
- Railway amateur 1/81
- Gian Brüngger, Tibert Keller, Renato Mengotti: Adventure Bernina Railway. 2010, ISBN 978-3-7298-1169-0
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- Railway Amateur No. 4/1975
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- Swiss Railway Review 4/1998, page 135. Financing by the municipality of Arosa, Arosa Tourismus and Arosa Bergbahnen AG.
- See, for example, the map in the report Strategic expansion of the electricity transmission grids required by 2015 (PDF), published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (2007), page 75.
- Press release Repower from May 27, 2004
- 117th Annual Report 2004. (PDF; 1.4 MB) Rhaetian Railway, p. 17 top right , archived from the original on March 25, 2013 ; Retrieved on March 25, 2013 (Swiss Standard German): "[...] a static converter with a maximum power output of 20 MVA each was installed in Landquart and Bever to ensure the long-term security of the RhB traction power supply. These converters draw 50 kV / 50 Hz energy from the national grid and convert this into 66 kV / 16.7 Hz energy. These two energy systems were connected to the grid in December 2004. In addition to these two new systems, 16.7 Hz energy will continue to be fed into the RhB network from Sils (2 × 4 MVA) and from Klosters (8 MVA). "
- Justus Mylius: Energy-efficient traction power supply reference systems + operating experience. (PDF; 4.5 MB) September 6, 2011, p. 18 , archived from the original on March 25, 2013 ; accessed on March 25, 2013 : “RhB Bever & Landquart - 2 units 36 MW / 40 MVA - 55 kV (110 kV); 50 Hz ↔ 66 kV; 16.7 Hz "
- Central Sils iD - electricity for Switzerland and the Rhaetian Railway. Kraftwerke Hinterrhein AG, archived from the original on March 25, 2013 ; Retrieved on March 25, 2013 (Swiss Standard German): “In the headquarters in Sils […] two single-phase groups are installed. These only produce electricity for the Rhaetian Railway, which - like the SBB - uses single-phase instead of three-phase electricity with a frequency of 16 2/3 instead of 50 Hz in its catenary network. "
- Electricity for the RhB - Electricity for Switzerland and the Rhaetian Railway. Kraftwerke Hinterrhein AG, archived from the original on March 25, 2013 ; Retrieved on March 25, 2013 (Swiss Standard German): "The two traction current generators cover 45% of the entire traction current requirement of the Rhaetian Railway."
- RhB profile 2013. (PDF; 2.7 MB) (No longer available online.) P. 21 , archived from the original on May 13, 2012 ; Retrieved on June 9, 2013 (figures also given there on energy consumption from previous years for comparison: 1995: 64'594 MWh, 2000: 83'332 MWh, 2005: 86'213 MWh, 2010: 100'289 MWh, 2011: 93 ' 491 MWh (last number according to RhB profile 2012)). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Annual Report 2012. (PDF; 7.7 MB) (No longer available online.) Rhaetian Railway, p. 65 , archived from the original on July 22, 2014 ; Retrieved June 9, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- InfoRetica 1/2007. (FLASH) (No longer available online.) Rhaetian Railway, p. 28 , archived from the original on March 22, 2016 ; accessed on March 30, 2013 : "In the Davos area, in the Filisur settlement area, in the Albula tunnel and in Val Bever, a total of almost 20 km of cable lines had to be laid [...]." Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- www.theeuropeanlibrary.org The Rhaetian Railway, with particular attention to the Albula route (accessed October 24, 2011)