from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The middle Surselva near Trun

The middle Surselva near Trun

location Graubünden , Switzerland
Waters Vorderrhein
Mountains Glarus Alps
Lepontine Alps
Geographical location 732 804  /  181860 coordinates: 46 ° 46 '29 "  N , 9 ° 10' 39"  O ; CH1903:  732 804  /  181860
Surselva (Canton of Graubünden)
Template: Infobox Glacier / Maintenance / Image description missing
The lower Surselva near Ilanz

The Surselva (  [ suʁˈsɛlvɐ ] ) is the valley of the Vorderrhein in the Swiss canton of Graubünden . It stretches from the Oberalp Pass in the west to the confluence with the Hinterrhein near Reichenau in the east. Their main places are Ilanz and Disentis / Mustér . The upper part of the Surselva (around Disentis) is called Cadi , the lower (around Ilanz) Gruob (advises Foppa ), the lowest part also includes the Ruinaulta . The Surselva region, founded in 2016 - spatially identical to the Surselva district formed in 2001 - includes u. a. In addition to the main valley, the right side valleys Val Medel , Val Sumvitg , Val Lumnezia , Valser Tal and Safiental . Please click to listen!Play

The name Bündner Oberland is also common in German for the Romansh-speaking part of the Surselva .


The Rhaeto-Romanic name Surselva means "above the forest". The forest is the still intact Grosse Wald (Romanesque Uaul Grond ) in the area of ​​the post-glacial Flims landslide , or the Ruinaulta . This rubble area was worthless for agriculture because of the relief, but also because there is no surface water, which is why it has not been developed and the forest area has not been preserved since the beginning of the first documented human settlement in the Bronze Age . Forest is also on the south side of the Rhine Gorge in those areas where the subsoil consists of landslide rubble.


The Romansh idiom Sursilvan is the official language in most of the Surselva communities . The Safiental and the communities of Vals and Obersaxen , all of them old Walser settlements, are German-speaking .

Religion and customs

The majority of the population is Catholic, which used to be reflected politically and culturally in the phenomenon of Lavina nera . The Safiental, Waltensburg / Vuorz and some communities around Ilanz have been reformed : Schnaus , Luven , Castrisch , Riein , Pitasch , Duvin and Flond . Both denominations are represented in Ilanz itself. In the Catholic parishes, the old religious traditions and customs, such as B. the Corpus Christi processions, still lived intensively. The population was able to preserve the rural traditions.

Besides the Domleschg and the Schamserberg , the Surselva is the only region in Switzerland where the Tiba was widely used as a signal and musical instrument on Maiensässen and the Alps.


The main branches of industry are local small businesses, agriculture and tourism, traditionally also crystal searching . There are only a few companies in the production or service sector based in the valley. The ski manufacturer Zai from Disentis is known beyond the region .


Until the middle of the 19th century there was no road in Surselva; it was not until 1846 that the valley was opened up via Flims . In 1858 the street reached Disentis and a horse mail started operating. In 1879 the road to Vals was built, in 1885 into the Safiental, in 1887 through the Val Lumnezia to Vrin and in 1894 to Obersaxen.

The Rhaetian Railway has been running to Ilanz since 1903 and to Disentis since 1912. The Matterhorn-Gotthard Railway connects to the RhB's Vorderrheinlinie in Disentis and provides the connection to the Gotthard Railway . In the east there is a connection to the SBB in Chur . The Gotthard Base Tunnel lies across the Tujetsch , the uppermost section of the Surselva . The main entrance shaft is in the Tujetsch capital Sedrun. Considerations to set up a crossing (transfer station Porta Alpina ) at this 800 m long shaft were rejected.

Main road 19 runs parallel to the narrow-gauge railway through the whole of Surselva to the Oberalp Pass and on to Andermatt in the canton of Uri . The Lukmanierpass road branches off into Ticino in Disentis . The crossings of the Kistenpass and the Panixerpass to the north ( Glarus ) and over the Greina into Ticino and over the Valserberg into the Rheinwald to the south are alpine hiking routes. The Senda Sursilvana runs through the Vorderrhein Valley .

The middle Surselva near Trun
The upper Surselva near Rueras / Sedrun


The main valley is primarily composed of forest and pasture land. The settlements only cover a small part of the area. In the side valleys there are still intact raised bogs and alpine floodplains.

Numerous wild animals such as ibex , chamois , red deer and roe deer live in the Surselva . Since the 1990s there have been isolated lynxes in the upper Surselva , which have probably migrated from the western Swiss Alps. Between 2002 and 2010, between Andiast and Ilanz north of the Rhine, there was at least one wolf that had migrated from Italy . As a sign of intact and undisturbed nature, the Surselva has a relatively large population of capercaillie .

Important mountain peaks are the Piz Terri (3149 m), the Fanellahorn (3124 m), the Piz Greina (3124 m), the Furggeltihorn (3043 m), the Faltschonhorn (3022 m), the Tomülhorn (2946 m), the Piz Val Gronda (2820 m), the Pazolastock (2739 m), the Alperschällihorn (3038 m) and the Piz Mundaun (2063 m).

On the 6-hour circular hike from Brigels - Crest Falla chairlift - Alp Quader - Rubi Sura - mountain lake behind the Péz d'Artgas - Kistenpass - Bifertenhütte - mountain lake - Rubi Sut - Uaul Scatlè (highest located spruce forest in Europe) - Brigels can tell the geological history of the region can be explored with the help of a guide. The handy guide describes places where the formation and geological structure of the Alps can be practically understood. There are fossils in the limestone layers near the Bifertenhütte.

Mountain huts of the Swiss Alpine Club (SAC) are the Badushütte , the Cavardirashütte , the Läntahütte , the Medelserhütte , the Maighelshütte , the Puntegliashütte and the Terrihütte .


Due to its location as a transit route to the Lukmanier and Oberalp Alpine passes , which is important in terms of transport policy, the Surselva has developed into one of the regions in Switzerland with the most castles.

In the lowest section of the valley, before the Flims Grosswald, there are the recently uncovered ruins of Wackenau Castle at the end of the Ruinaulta , at Trin the Canaschal Castle and the Crap Sogn Parcazi fortified church, as well as the Belmont Castle before Flims . In the Laax-Falera-Ilanz region stood the castles Lagenberg and Wildenberg and on the valley floor Valendas , Castrisch , Schiedberg near Sagogn , Löwenstein and Grüneck near Ilanz, Löwenberg near Schluein and in Ruschein the castle Frauenberg .

There were four castles near Waltensburg : Grünenfels , Jörgenberg , Kropfenstein and Vogelberg , in Zignau the Ringgenberg Castle and above Trun Cartascha , Salons , Friberg and the Schlans Tower .

The ruins of the castles Moregg , Schwarzenstein , Saxenstein and Heidenberg above Tavanasa are located in the municipality of Obersaxen .

Next up the valley northwest of the village Sumvitg the ruins of the tower of the castle Tuor in Siat the ruins Friberg and when Russ A Bridge stood the castle Hohenbalken . Farthest up in the valley was Pontaningen Castle near Sedrun .


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Neue Zürcher Zeitung: No more traces of wolf in the Surselva, December 28, 2010