Route (traffic route)
The route (in Switzerland the route or the route ) describes the planned or existing course of a traffic route between two locations.
The term "route" is preferably used for the abstract guidance of roads , rail lines and canals : road route, railway route, canal route. In a figurative sense, routes of supply and disposal lines are also referred to as routes. For example, long-distance gas routes or high-voltage routes over land or in factories are also planned using the same methods.
The term alignment describes the design and definition of the alignment of an overland route in terms of position, height and cross-section.
The course of a route is represented with the help of the mathematically defined axis in the terrain (so-called spatial alignment ), which in turn consists of various route elements. The route points at which neighboring route elements of a component collide are called major route points . Points, according to which the course of a route must align, are called constraint points .
A Kilometrierung done one-dimensional along the pipeline route and is usually the Kruger Gaussian coordinate system as an overarching frame of reference taken.
To set a route between start and finish, so they trassieren be using different design methods routing elements combined to form a spatial line. This spatial line must (depending on the type of route) meet driving dynamics, safety-related and structural aspects. Further influencing factors are that the route with its buildings fits into the landscape, which is necessary for the lowest possible mass movements or artificial structures for an economical route.
The course of the line is based as far as possible on the existing constraint points and the terrain. The compulsory points, such as development, topography, other traffic routes, further crossings, make an adjustment of the spatial line necessary. For example, line routes can be determined by the need to route them along roads and railway lines. Crossing points of existing lines with new routes can lead to constraint points.
When working out a new route, various work steps are usually carried out. At the beginning, the planned route is entered in the form of a freehand line in the existing terrain. In rough terrain it may be necessary to use the zero line method. The advantage of this method is that, on the one hand, the longitudinal inclination is limited and, on the other hand, the lowest possible earth movement is generated. As soon as the freehand line has been worked out to a satisfactory degree, it can be transferred to individual routing elements.
The following two design methods have proven effective:
With the tangent method, a tangent polygon is first placed over the freehand line, with the tangent sides running through the turning points of the route. The intersection points of the tangents are then rounded, so that a series of compound curves results. The trassierte in this way axis is usually a relatively inharmonious lines, since the clothoid a turning line are often different, and also an intermediate line is inserted. Furthermore, the amount of work involved in this method is very great, as a lot of trial and error has to be made before all alignment parameters are met.
Base circle method
With the base circle method, the course of the freehand line is covered by a series of counter-curved arcs. These arcs are then connected to one another by coordinated spiral lines with clothoid parameters of the same size. The advantage of this design method is that fewer routing elements are created and the lines are much more harmonious. In addition, the amount of work involved in the elaboration is limited.
The term is used for temporal courses (processes) as it is necessary in rail traffic for timetable planning, timetable route .
- ↑ E.g. in the Road Act of September 3, 1965 . In: Législation cantonale. Canton of Valais, May 16, 2013, accessed on June 15, 2017 (PDF, 0.5 MB, German), Art. 164
- ^ Otto Lueger: Lexicon of the entire technology and its auxiliary sciences . Leipzig 1910, p. 601 ff . ( Online version ).
- ^ Günter Wolf: Street planning. Werner Verlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-8041-5003-9 , page 158