Duchy of Sagan

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Coat of arms of the Dukes of Sagan

The Duchy of Sagan was created in 1274 through a spin-off from the Duchy of Glogau . Under Duke Heinrich IV it was subordinated to the Crown of Bohemia as a fiefdom in 1329 and was ruled by the Glogau branch of the Silesian Piasts until 1472 . Then it came successively to the Saxon Wettins , Albrecht von Wallenstein , the Bohemian Lobkowitz and the Courland Duke Peter von Biron and his descendants. After the First Silesian War , in 1742 almost all of Silesia fell to Prussia . In 1844 it was constituted by the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. As the Prussian throne of the Principality of Sagan , which existed until 1919. The place of residence was the city of Sagan (today Żagań in the Lubusz Voivodeship in Poland).


After the death of Duke Konrad II of Silesia in 1273/74, his heir was passed to his three sons, Konrad III. "Köberlein" , Primislaus I. and Heinrich III. divided. The area of ​​Sagan was for Konrad III. "Köberlein" outsourced. Since Primislaus I died in 1289, Sagan fell after Konrad III. Death to Heinrich III in 1304. "Sperling", who in turn associated it with Glogau. He died in 1309 and left the sons of Heinrich IV. "The Faithful" , Konrad I , Boleslaus , Johann and Primislaus II. They initially managed their inheritance together under the tutelage of their mother Mechthild until 1312. To prevent their territories from being split up, they first divided their property into two parts on February 29, 1312, with Henry IV and his two youngest brothers Johann and Primislaus / Primko II receiving the western area with Sagan. In 1314 they lost Sagan, among others, which their relative, the Brandenburg Margrave Waldemar , had appropriated by way of pledge. After his death in 1319 they got it back and divided it up again. Sagan fell to Henry IV, who now dubbed Duke of Sagan . In 1329 he voluntarily handed over his territory in Breslau as a fiefdom to the Bohemian King John of Luxembourg and thus to the Crown of Bohemia , which was confirmed in 1335 with the Treaty of Trenčín .

After Heinrich IV's death in 1342, he was followed by his son of the same name, Heinrich V "the Iron" as the sole heir. He left the sons of Heinrich VI in 1369 . d. Ä. , Heinrich VII. "Rumpold" and Heinrich VIII. They administered their inheritance together until 1378, then Heinrich VI dubbed it. d. Ä. as the Duke of Sagan . After his death in 1393 he was followed by Henry VIII "Sperling", who connected Sagan with his half of the ducal Glogau. Since at his death in 1397 his sons Johann I , Heinrich IX. , Heinrich X. and Wenzel were still minors, until 1403 they ruled the undivided inheritance together with their mother, under the tutelage of their uncle Ruprecht I of Liegnitz. In 1403 the eldest brother Johann I took over the reign of Sagan and ducal Glogau, at the same time for his younger brothers. In 1413 the now independent area of ​​Sagan was spun off for him, while at the same time he had to renounce the succession in the ducal part of Glogau. In 1414 he could from the v. Hakenborn acquire the (Lower) Lausitzian rule of Priebus . It was thereby attached to the Duchy of Sagan and thus to Silesia. Like his brothers, Johann paid homage to the Bohemian sovereign Sigmund in Breslau in 1420 . After the death of his brother Heinrich X. in 1423, John I, who refused to be satisfied with Sagan, feuded with his brother Heinrich IX. the inheritance of Heinrich X.

Johann I died in 1439 and bequeathed Sagan to his four sons Balthasar , Rudolf , Wenzel and Johann II. He led his father's battle for Glogau against Heinrich IX. away. With a partition treaty concluded in 1450, the eldest brother Balthasar received the Duchy of Sagan and Johann II. The area separated from it by Priebus . Since Johann II felt disadvantaged, he contested his property with Balthasar and in 1461 seized Sagans. Balthasar, who was a supporter of the Bohemian King George of Podebrady , succeeded in retaking Sagan in 1467, but John II, who supported the opposing king Matthias Corvinus , took it again in 1472. He had his brother Balthasar arrested in the round tower of the city fortress Priebus, where he died of starvation on July 15, 1472. Then Johann II reunited the dominions of Priebus and Sagan and sold the duchy in the same year on December 12th to the Saxon Duke Albrecht the Courageous .

During the rule of the Wettins , who introduced the Reformation in the Principality of Sagan , the affiliation to Silesia was relaxed. In 1549, Duke Moritz von Sachsen Sagan had to cede to the Bohemian sovereign King Ferdinand I , who gave him some Bohemian enclaves in exchange. As a result, Ferdinand I succeeded in eliminating the Wettin family from among the Silesian princes. Three years later Ferdinand I. gave Sagan a pledge to Margrave Georg Friedrich I von Hohenzollern , who in exchange had to forego the Duchy of Opole - Ratibor . After the pledge was released by the Crown of Bohemia, however, he lost it in 1558. In the same year Ferdinand I pledged it to the Breslau bishop Balthasar von Promnitz . After his death in 1562 it was inherited by his nephew Seyfried von Promnitz , whose descendants kept it until 1601.

Sagan Castle, owned by the Talleyrand-Périgord dukes from 1842 to 1945 Park side of the castle
Sagan Castle , owned by the Talleyrand-Périgord dukes from 1842 to 1945
Park side of the castle

In 1628, Emperor Ferdinand II, in his capacity as King of Bohemia, transferred the fallen fiefdom to his general Albrecht von Wallenstein, and at the same time raised it again to a duchy. After Wallenstein's death in 1634, the Duchy of Sagan was confiscated by Ferdinand II, who on July 2, 1646 left it to his supporters, Prince Wenzel Eusebius von Lobkowitz auf Raudnitz , who dubbed it as the Duke of Sagan.

Seal mark Glogau - Saganer principality landscape

Lobkowitz initially did not pursue the Counter-Reformation initiated by Wallenstein . The 1,602 sold to the city of Sagan Chamber goods he bought back determined and pulled out a completed fiefdom. This enabled him to expand the duchy's property considerably. He had the Sagan Castle rebuilt according to plans by the Italian architect Antonio della Porta . More than a century later, his descendant Joseph Franz Maximilian von Lobkowitz († 1816) sold the Principality of Sagan on March 29, 1786 to Duke Peter von Biron from Courland , who died in 1800. He was followed by his eldest daughter Wilhelmine , who was inherited by her sister Pauline in 1839 . It was bought by her sister Dorothea in 1842 , who was married to Count Edmond de Talleyrand-Périgord , a nephew of the French Foreign Minister Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand . For them and their descendants, the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV created the Prussian Throne Fief Principality of Sagan in 1844 , whose prince was a member of the Silesian provincial parliament and the Prussian manor house . In 1929 the title of duke expired, in 1935 the feudal status.

Politically, the area formed from 1741 the Silesian district of Sagan , which was dissolved in 1932 and transferred to the districts of Sprottau , Grünberg i. Schles. and Rothenburg (Ob. Laus.) was divided. Until the expropriation in 1945, the former estate with the Sagan Castle remained in the possession of the Dukes of Talleyrand-Périgord .

Dukes of Sagan

St. Emmerams-Basilika Regensburg, graves Franz von Lobkowicz, Duke of Sagan (d. 1695) and Maria Anna von Lobkowicz, Duchess of Sagan (d. 1693).


Web links

Commons : Duchy of Sagan  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Anton Leipelt: History of the city and the Duchy of Sagan. 277 p., Sorau, Rauert, 1853 Online at Google Books (p. 186)
  2. http://territorial.de/ndschles/sprottau/landkrs.htm