County of Glatz
The Glatz ([ glaːts ]; schlesisch and glätzisch Grofschoaft Glootz or Groofschoft Glootz , Czech Kladske Hrabství , polish Hrabstwo Kłodzkie ) as part provincia Glacensis to Czech rule area and had been 1348 immediately followed by a secondary land of the crown of Bohemia . After the First Silesian War it fell to Prussia in 1742 and was incorporated into the Province of Silesia in 1818 . The area of the County of Glatz covered an area of 1636 square kilometers and was roughly identical in terms of area to today's Polish powiat Kłodzki , which is also known as Ziemia Kłodzka (Glatzer Land) .
Geography and landscape
The Glatzer Land is characterized by a low mountain range and surrounded by mountain ranges as natural borders, which is why it is also known as the Glatzer Kessel . Due to its geographical location with easily accessible passes in the south and west and the Neisse breakthrough near Wartha , the area has been a transit or connecting country between Bohemia , Moravia and Silesia since ancient times .
The surrounding the Glatz mountains are: In the east the Owl Mountains ( Góry Sowie ) and the Golden Mountains ( Góry Złote ), to the south the Śnieżnik Mountains ( Masyw Śnieżnika ) and Biel Mountains ( Bialskie ), in the West Habelschwerdter Mountains ( Bystrzyckie ) and the Eagle Mountains ( Orlické hory ) and in the northwest the Heuscheuergebirge ( Góry Stołowe ).
The main river is the Glatzer Neisse ( Nysa Kłodzka ), which flows into the Oder . Right tributaries are the Wölfel and the Landecker Biele ( Biała Lądecka ), left tributaries are the Habelschwerdter Weistritz ( Bystrzyca ), the Reinerzer Weistritz ( Bystrzyca Dusznicka ) and the Steine ( Ścinawka ).
The administrative center of the County of Glatz was the town of Glatz , which until 1763 was the residence of the Bohemian sovereign or his governor, the governor . It was the seat of the royal office, the Glatzer estates and the Glatzer Landtag, to which the high nobility, the knights and, as a third estate, the free judges belonged. The free judges lost their status in 1622 to the immediate cities.
The Kłodzko Land and large parts of Silesia belonged to the Great Moravian Empire in the 9th century . In the 10th century it belonged as provincia glacensis to the domain of the Bohemian prince Slavnik , the father of St. Adalbert . The Prague cathedral dean Cosmas reported in his Chronica Boemorum that Slavnik died in 981 a. a. owned the Glatz castle ( castellum kladsko ). As a border castle, it protected the so-called Böhmenweg, which led from Prague via Königgrätz , Nachod and Wartha to Breslau . A settlement developed around the castle, which in 1114 was named "urbs" ( city ) in a document .
In 995 all of Bohemia came under the rule of the Přemyslids , who, as the kings of Bohemia, were electors of the Holy Roman Empire . The repeated incursions of the Bohemian Duke Soběslav to Poland and vice versa of the Polish Duke Bolesław III. Wrymouth to Bohemia were mediated by Emperor Lothar III. ended with the peace of Pentecost of Glatz in 1137. In addition to Bohemia's relinquishment of sovereignty over Silesia, a clear border line was also established. The Glatzer Land, which was then included in the Königgrätzer Land , remained with Bohemia. The first known by name Glatzer burgrave was Hroznata in 1169, followed in 1175 by Ryvín / Rivinus and in 1177 by Witigone Witiko von Prčice .
In the 13th century, under King Wenceslaus I and intensified under his son Ottokar II. Přemysl, the settlement of the Kłodzko Land, to which the Braunau Land belonged until 1260 , with Germans began. The settlement was directed by the Kłodzko burgraves in their capacity as governors of the Bohemian king. At the beginning of the 13th century, the burgrave Smil von Ronow held the office .
In 1310 the Luxembourgers took over rule in the Kingdom of Bohemia and thus also in the Glatzer country. Under King John of Luxembourg , Ernst von Hostině (Latin Arnestus de Hostina , Czech Arnošt z Hostýně ), whose name is supposed to be derived from today's Hostinka near Bohemian Skalitz in Eastern Bohemia, was Burgrave of Glatz . His son Ernst grew up in Glatz and, as Ernst von Pardubitz, became the first archbishop of Prague and advisor to Emperor Charles IV. In 1348, Charles IV separated the Glatzer district from the Kingdom of Bohemia, which was part of the Holy Roman Empire , and placed it under - like Silesia and Upper Lusatia - directly the superior crown of Bohemia . During his reign, the Glatzer Land experienced a cultural and religious bloom.
Under Charles's successors, the whole of Bohemia got into religious disputes, which resulted in a departure from the Roman Church and the Hussite Wars . From the border Hummel castle from the took Hussites from 1425 numerous incursions into the Glatzer country. They besieged Karpenstein Castle and destroyed Schnallenstein Castle and the towns of Habelschwerdt , Wünschelburg and Neurode . In the battle of Altwilmsdorf on December 27, 1428, the leader of the Glatzer army, Duke Johann von Münsterberg , and 400 of his fellow soldiers died. King Sigismund pledged its now orphaned principality to Puta the Elder on August 13, 1429 . J. von Častolowitz for his services in defending against the Hussites and in 1431 also granted him the right of lien for the Glatzer Land and for Frankenstein . As early as 1422 Puta d. J., who excelled in the fight against the Hussites, held the office of Governor of Kłodzko, and in 1426 King Sigismund granted him the privilege of the Kłodzko Mint . After Puta's death in 1434, his widow Anna von Kolditz administered the inherited estates together with the Glatzer governor Marquard von Mittelwalde and sold them in September 1440 to Hynek Kruschina von Lichtenburg , whom she married three weeks later.
A few weeks after Hynek's death in 1454, his son Wilhelm Kruschina sold the lands formerly belonging to the Častolowitz family as well as the pledges over Glatz, Münsterberg and Frankenstein to the then provincial administrator and later King of Bohemia, Georg von , presumably on the basis of a preliminary contract still signed by his father Podebike . Since this already legally owned the neighboring large Nachod rule and the Hummel rule , he succeeded in expanding his territory in Eastern Bohemia and with the Duchy of Münsterberg, which he acquired from Ernst von Troppau in 1456 , also exerting influence in Silesia.
Elevation to the county
The utraquist King George of Podebrady, elected by the Bohemian estates in 1458 , raised the Glatzer Land to a county as early as 1459 in order to secure his sons a rule appropriate to their rank. The survey was in the same year by Emperor Friedrich III. accepted. At the same time, Georg's second eldest son Viktorin was appointed Imperial Count and first Count of Glatz. In 1462 the emperor extended the elevation to Viktorin's brothers Heinrich d. Ä. and Heinrich d. J. from. The Glatzer estates got a certain independence through the elevation to the county. They claimed the same status for the county as Silesia, Moravia and Lusatia had as incorporated countries of the Crown of Bohemia.
After King George's death in 1471, his son Heinrich d. Ä. the county of Glatz, the duchy of Munsterberg, the dominions of Hummel and Nachod and the East Bohemian possessions. In 1473 he returned to the Catholic faith. In 1477 he incorporated the Hummel lordship, which was also part of the Podiebrads estate and which up until then belonged directly to the Königgrätzer Kreis , into his county of Glatz and at the same time enlarged it to include the parishes of Lewin and Tschorbeney and the two villages of Schlaney and Brzesowie . The extended rule of Hummel, however, continued to be given as an independent fief until its dissolution at the end of the 16th century.
Heinrich d. Ä. had the Kłodzko Castle expanded into a representative castle, which he lived in until his death in 1498. He was followed by his sons Albrecht , Georg and Karl , who initially ruled together.
Mortgaging the county
Due to the high debt that their father left behind, they had to sell the county to their future brother-in-law Ulrich von Hardegg as early as 1501 . However, Albrecht, Georg and Karl kept the title of Counts von Glatz, which they also passed on to their descendants, who died out in the male line in 1647. During the reign of the Bohemian King Vladislav , a general assembly took place in Glatz in 1512. Ulrich von Hardegg, who resided at Glatzer Castle, sold the county in 1524 to his brother Johann von Hardegg, who was called "the Magnificent" because of his wealth.
After decades of political and religious turmoil and a treaty of inheritance from 1515 between the Habsburgs and the Jagiellonians , Hungary and the Crown of Bohemia with their neighboring countries came to the Habsburg dynasty in 1526. They were rulers of the County of Glatz in their capacity as kings of Bohemia. Ferdinand I confirmed the brothers Hardegg their privileges, including half of the income from the Grafschafter mines belonged. Since Johann von Hardegg resided at the Upper Austrian castle Heinrichsburg, he appointed the Glatz castle lord Hans Prag von Wellnitz as administrator from 1527. In 1530 Ferdinand I summoned the first Bohemian general assembly of his government to Glatz.
In 1534 Johann von Hardegg sold the county to King Ferdinand I. Since the king could not raise the purchase price, the legal transfer did not take place until 1537. In the same year, Ferdinand Hans appointed Prague of Wellnitz to the state governor of Glatzer and pledged the county - probably due to lack of money. to the Bohemian magnate Johann von Pernstein . It remained in his possession until his death in 1548.
Wittelsbach era and end of the pledge
Johann von Pernstein's sons sold the county in 1549 to the Salzburg administrator at the time, Duke Ernst von Bayern , who had already been accepted as a Bohemian Landsasse by the Bohemian estates in 1546 . He reformed the Glatzer administration with qualified civil servants whom he had brought with him from Salzburg or Bavaria and had the palace expanded during his reign. Although he no longer held an ecclesiastical office, he pursued the goals of the Counter-Reformation intensively and, together with King Ferdinand I, convened a synod in 1558 to review the religious status of the clergy.
After Ernst's death in 1560, his nephew, Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria, inherited the county. Since he did not intend to keep her, he did not pursue the measures taken by his uncle to re-catholicize, so that Lutheranism could spread during these years. In 1567, Duke Albrecht campaigned for the privileges of free judges and in the same year sold the county to the ruling Bohemian sovereign Maximilian II .
Since Maximilian II could not pay the deposit, it was raised by the Glatzer estates. That is probably why they received the promise from Maximilian that the county should no longer be pledged.
At the beginning of the Thirty Years' War the Grafschafter estates supported the Protestant Bohemian rebels. 1619 was King Ferdinand II. Deposed and Frederick of the Palatinate elected successor, but already in 1620 after the victory of imperial troops in the Battle of White Mountain had to flee. In contrast to the Bohemian estates, the Glatzer estates did not submit to the emperor. As a result, imperial troops occupied the county and included Glatz, which only surrendered on October 28, 1622. The conqueror Philipp Rudolf von Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn was appointed the new Governor of Glatzer.
Imperial punitive measures followed for the Glatzer country, in the course of which the local nobility were largely expropriated. The cities of Glatz, Habelschwerdt, Wünschelburg, Landeck , Reinerz and Lewin temporarily lost their privileges.
In the further course of the war, the Kłodzko Land and its population had to endure numerous marches, billeting and looting by imperial and Swedish troops. Many villages were desolate and uninhabited at the end of the war in 1648.
Emperor Ferdinand III. commissioned the Jesuits , who had returned to Glatz in 1624, with the re-Catholicization of the country. The residents returned - partly voluntarily, partly under duress - to the Catholic faith. Education as well as social and religious life reached a high level. Numerous churches and castles were rebuilt or redesigned in Baroque style during this period .
The last sovereign of the Habsburg era was the Austrian Archduchess Maria Theresa in her capacity as Queen of Bohemia.
In the three Silesian Wars (1742–1763) the county of Glatz was the deployment and combat area of the Austrian and Prussian troops. Although it did not belong to Silesia, the Prussian King Frederick II enforced its cession to Prussia because his strategic location seemed important to the defense of Silesia. With the Peace of Berlin (1742) and finally with the Hubertusburg Peace of 1763, the County of Glatz came into the possession of Prussia. The governing body and the previous self-government were dissolved. The function of governor was replaced by the district administrator. Due to the increase in the power of the landlords , there were occasional peasant unrest. The Catholic state of Glatzer had to endure the distrust of the Protestant ruling house.
In 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars , the fortress Glatz was enclosed and besieged by French troops, but under the orders of the Governor General of Silesia, Friedrich Wilhelm von Götzen the Elder, it was closed. J. , to be successfully defended.
On October 9, 1807, the estate was abolished, in 1808 a new class regime followed, and in 1810 the freedom of trade was introduced. With the administrative division of territory decreed in 1818, the county no longer formed its own territory and was subordinated to the province of Silesia . In 1818 the district of Habelschwerdt was formed from the southern part of the Glatz district . The part remaining in the district of Glatz was divided into the districts of Glatz and Neurode in 1854 .
After the First World War in 1918, the newly founded Czechoslovakia raised claims to the County of Glatz, which were rejected in the Versailles Treaty of June 28, 1919. The county was also affected by the economic problems caused by the war. An upswing could only be recorded from around 1924.
As a result of the administrative reform of 1932, the Neurode district was dissolved and returned to the Glatz district.
From 1933 onwards, Czechoslovakia built heavy fortifications as part of the Czechoslovak Wall around the County of Glatz, which protruded into the country, from the Rehorn Mountains to the Jeseníky Mountains , as this was the main point of attack on the land. With the Munich Agreement of 1938, however, these became meaningless.
During the Second World War , the county was spared from fighting and destruction. Bombed out from other parts of Germany were therefore also evacuated to the county.
After the war, the county of Glatz, consisting of the districts of Glatz and Habelschwerdt, came under Polish administration in 1945 - together with almost all of Silesia - in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement . After a period of lawlessness, the German population was largely expelled from 1945–1946. The new residents were mainly displaced persons from eastern Poland , which had fallen to the Soviet Union . The area of the former County of Glatz is now called Ziemia Kłodzka . After a few administrative reforms, it now mainly forms the powiat Kłodzki within the Lower Silesian Voivodeship .
Although the Glatzer Land has been under the sovereignty or feudal sovereignty of the dukes and kings of Bohemia since time immemorial, it also had other owners or beneficiaries through pledging, sale or military conquest:
- King Bolesław I the Brave conquered all of Bohemia in 1003 and thus also the Kłodzko region, but was driven out of it again by King Henry II in 1004 .
- Probably as the marriage property of his Bohemian wife Judith, the Glatzer country came from 1076-1093 to the Piast duke Władysław I. Herman and
- 1093–1107 as a Bohemian fiefdom to his son Bolesław III. Crooked mouth .
- The Piast Duke Heinrich IV. Probus received the Glatzer Land from the Roman-German King Rudolph I of Habsburg in 1280 for lifelong enjoyment . After his death it fell back to Bohemia as a settled fief in 1290.
- Also for lifelong enjoyment , Duke Heinrich VI. from Breslau 1327 the Kłodzko Land. He died in 1335.
- 1336–1341 Duke Bolko II of Münsterberg was a pleasure owner of the Glatzer country.
Church and religious conditions
Ecclesiastically, the Glatzer Land as part of Bohemia has been part of the diocese of Regensburg since its Christianization around the middle of the 9th century . After the diocese of Prague was founded in 973 , it was subordinate to the Archdeaconate of Königgrätz , together with Eastern Bohemia , but later received its own dean's office in Glatz . The first known dean ( dean ) was the Schwedeldorfer pastor, who is documented for the year 1269. After the elevation of the diocese of Prague to an archbishopric in 1344, Ernst von Pardubitz was appointed the first archbishop who, according to his will, found his final resting place in the parish church of Glatz in 1364.
In 1336 the Bohemian King John of Luxembourg granted the knights of the Glatz province patronage over the churches on their estates. In contrast to Bohemia, the county remained Catholic during the Hussite Wars . Nevertheless, since King Georg Podebrady was close to the Hussites, the Pope placed the interdict on it, which was only lifted after George's death.
At the beginning of the 16th century, Lutheran teaching was able to spread. Even Caspar Schwenckfeld , in Glatz citizenship gained, and the Baptist found for their teachings, numerous followers. Ernst von Bayern , to whom the county was pledged from 1548, pursued the goals of the Counter-Reformation very consistently, but died in 1560. His nephew and heir, Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria , continued his uncle's measures to re-Catholicize the country only weakly he did not intend to keep the county.
Although the Jesuits took over the Augustinian Canons' Monastery below the castle in 1597 , in which they established a Jesuit college , their efforts to recatholize were initially unsuccessful. At the beginning of the Thirty Years' War, Dean Hieronymus Keck from Altwilmsdorf was the only pastor in the county who remained Catholic. The Jesuits expelled in 1618 returned to Glatz in 1624, but in 1622 their Jesuit college in the former Augustinian monastery was destroyed during the fighting for Glatz. Since they were nevertheless commissioned with the re-Catholicization of the country, the building of the Johanniterkommende was assigned to them, while the Johanniter had to leave Glatz. In 1627 the Jesuits were also granted patronage rights over the parish church. As a result of the Thirty Years' War , the county was largely re-Catholicized .
As part of the Prague Archdiocese, the Glatzer Land belonged to the Archdeaconate of Königgrätz. After Königgrätz was raised to a diocese in 1664, the Prague Archbishop Ernst Adalbert von Harrach restructured his archbishopric. The archdeaconates were dissolved and new vicariates established. Glatz became a separate vicariate of the Archdiocese of Prague.
After the Prussian takeover in 1763, the Prussian king assured the freedom to practice one's religion. Nevertheless, the Glatzer chaplain Andreas Faulhaber was executed because he did not want to reveal the secret of confession. In 1810 the Archbishop's Vicar of the County of Glatz was given the official title of Grand Dean , unique in the church, by the Prussian King , which was at the same time associated with the dignity of an honorary canon in Breslau. With the arbitrary appointment, the king tried to free the county from belonging to the Prague Archdiocese, which he did not succeed. ( It was only incorporated into the Archdiocese of Wroclaw in 1972. )
In 1920, the Archbishop of Prague, František Kordač, raised the Glatzer Vicariate to a General Vicariate , in which in 1925 90% of the population were Catholic. The church official census of 1940 showed 55 parishes with 165,095 Catholics.
Free religious practice was also suppressed during the Nazi dictatorship . The youth chaplain of the County of Glatz, Kaplan Gerhard Hirschfelder , opposed the party-political influence on the youth. He was arrested in 1941 and died of exhaustion in the Dachau concentration camp in 1942 .
- In 1169 the Bohemian King Vladislav II. Glatzer had donated property to the Order of St. John and in 1183 confirmed the Church of St. Mary and in 1184 the Church of Wenceslas to him.
- Around 1243, King Ottokar II. Přemysl the Johanniter transferred the Glatzer parish church, at which a Johanniterkommende was built.
- In 1248 a monastery was built by the Minorites .
- In 1349, the first Archbishop of Prague, Arnestus von Pardubitz, founded the Glatzer Augustinian Canons' Monastery on Schlossberg from his own funds , which was confirmed in 1350 by the Bohemian sovereign Charles IV.
- In 1473, Duke Heinrich the Elder gave the Franciscans not only the George Chapel but also land for the construction of a monastery in Glatz.
- In 1597 the Augustinian Canons and in 1627 the Johanniterkommende was taken over by the Jesuits, who established a Jesuit college .
The Glatzer Land was strongly influenced by its German Catholic inhabitants, who built numerous chapels , wayside shrines , Marian columns and crossroads . Throughout the ages, the inhabitants made pilgrimages to the pilgrimage churches in Albendorf , Maria Schnee and Altwilmsdorf. The churches of Wartha and Grulich outside the county were also popular pilgrimage destinations.
The Protestant church in the County of Glatz only rose again after the Prussian occupation. Their share of the population was 9% in 1925. Many of the Protestant residents migrated to Glatz from other parts of Prussia, where they were employed as employees of the administrative and military authorities. There were Protestant parishes in Glatz, Habelschwerdt, Hausdorf- Ludwigsdorf , Kudowa , Landeck, Mittelwalde, Neurode, Reinerz, Strausseney and Wünschelburg.
The Glatzer Kessel is rich in mineral and medicinal springs and has had a rich bathing culture since the Middle Ages. Many of the sources were described by Georg Aelurius in his Glaciographia from 1625. They are partly carbonated and partly sulfur-containing and are suitable for drinking and bathing cures, which are supported in their healing effects by a mild climate.
The well-known baths Landeck, Reinerz, Kudowa, Altheide and Langenau played a major role in the economic development of the Glatzer country. With the construction of modern bathing, spa and lodging houses, the creation of well-tended parks and a rich range of cultural and leisure activities, the number of those looking for relaxation and vacationers rose steadily.
- Eduard Ludwig Wedekind : History of the county Glatz. Chronicle of the cities, towns, villages, colonies, castles etc. of this sovereign county from the earliest past to the present . Neurode 1857. ( e-copy )
- Christian Friedrich Emanuel Fischer: Geographical-statistical manual about Silesia and the county Glatz .
- Johann Gottlieb Kahlo: Memories of the Royal Prussian sovereign Graffschaft Glatz from their first origins to present times . Berlin / Leipzig 1757 ( e-copy ).
- Alfons Nowack : The hermitages in Silesia and the county of Glatz from the Middle Ages to the present. Wroclaw 1939.
- Horst-Alfons Meißner, Michael Hirschfeld (ed.): The county of Glatz between 1918 and 1946. Articles about a Silesian cultural landscape. 2nd Edition. Aschendorff, Münster 2013, ISBN 978-3-402-12896-1 .
- Arno Herzig , Małgorzata Ruchniewicz : History of the Glatzer Land . Hamburg / Wrocław 2006, ISBN 3-934632-12-2 .
- Arno Herzig, Małgorzata Ruchniewicz: A short history of the Glatzer country . Bergstadverlag Wilhelm Gottlieb Korn, Freiburg / Görlitz 2011, ISBN 978-3-87057-308-9 .
- Franz Jung (Ed.): On the way through the centuries. Contributions to the church history of the Grafschaft Glatz , self-published by the visitor for the believers from the Grafschaft Glatz, Münster 2005, ISBN 3-00-015240-7 .
- Hans Veit: On the history of the Glatzer country. In: Cultural workbooks. Issue 35, 1996, ISBN 3-925103-83-X .
- Joseph Kögler : The chronicles of the county Glatz . Revised and edited by Dieter Pohl. 5 volumes, 1992-2003.
- Arno Herzig: Reformatory movements and denominationalization. The Habsburg re-Catholicization policy in the County of Glatz . Hamburg 1996.
- Aloys Bach : Documented Church History of the County of Glaz. Wroclaw 1841.
- Peter Güttler: The Glatzer Land . Düsseldorf 1995, ISBN 3-928508-03-2 .
- History of Silesia. Volume 1: From prehistoric times to 1526. Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1988, ISBN 3-7995-6341-5 .
- Ondřej Felcman, Ladislav Hladký, Jaroslav Šůla: Právní postavení Kladska v Českém Státě do roku 1742. In: Kladský Sborník 2, 1998, pp. 9-33.
- Michael Hirschfeld: Grafschafter clergy as historical researcher between the Enlightenment and the First World War. In: Specialized prose research - Crossing borders. Volume 10, 2014, pp. 241-252.
- Dieter Pohl : Brief history of the county of Glatz . (PDF)
- Entry in online lexicon on the culture and history of Germans in Eastern Europe ; accessed October 23, 2015
- glatzer-bergland.eu - Glatzer Bergland Online (German, Polish)
- History (czech)
- Franz Volkmer : The privileges of the nobility and the royal cities of the County of Glatz from January 15, 1629. In: Quarterly publication for history and local history of the County of Glatz. 6th year 1886/87, pp. 64–79.
- Zdeňka Hledíková : Arnošt z Pardubic: arcibiskup, zakladatel, rádce ; Vyšehrad 2008.
- Czechoslovak memoranda for the peace conference of Paris 1919, Memorandum No. 9: The problem of the Glatzer region
- Radek Bláha, Věra Němečková: Hradec jako středisko církevní správy ve 13. stoleti . In: Radek Bláha et al. (Ed.): Hradec Králové . Nakladatelství Lidové noviny 2017, ISBN 978-80-7422-504-8 , p. 51f.
- Arno Herzig , Małgorzata Ruchniewicz : History of the Glatzer country . Hamburg / Wrocław 2006, ISBN 3-934632-12-2 , p. 31.