from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Lorraine Cross , the Jagiellonian dynasty coat of arms
Largest sphere of influence of the Jagiellonians in Europe since 1490 through the acquisition of the Hungarian crown up to the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the beginning of the almost 200-year Turkish Wars in Central Europe

The Jagiellons (also Jagellons ) were a male line of the House of Gediminas originating from Lithuania and a European dynasty that provided the Polish kings and the grand dukes of Lithuania from 1386 to 1572 . They were also Hungarian , Croatian and Bohemian kings from the 15th century .

The founder of this dynasty is considered to be the Lithuanian Grand Duke Jogaila (Polish Jagiełło ), who ascended the Polish throne in Kraków as Władysław II Jagiełło in 1386 by marrying the Polish Queen Hedwig von Anjou .

Jogaila was married four times, most recently to Sofia from the Lithuanian-Ruthenian Princely House Holszański since 1422 . With him she had two sons, Władysław III. and Casimir IV. The Polish throne was inherited by Władysław, who, after being elected King of Hungary , fell in the battle of the Turks near Varna in 1444 while saving Constantinople . Casimir (IV.), Grand Duke of Lithuania since 1440, was appointed to the Polish throne as King Casimir II in 1447. His marriage to Elisabeth von Habsburg , daughter of the Roman-German King Albrecht II , had thirteen children. He made marriages with many European dynasties.

In Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, too, Jagiellonian princes were able to establish themselves as kings, first in competition, then (after the interlude Matthias Corvinus ) in cooperation with the Habsburgs . Vladislav II of Bohemia, Hungary and Croatia ruled in three countries, as did his son Ludwig II. After his unfortunate death in the Battle of Mohács in 1526 , he was defeated by the Habsburg Ferdinand I and the magnate Johann Zápolya (brother-in-law of Sigismund I and Vladislav II ., as well as uncle and regent Ludwig II.) inherited. Zapolya also married Sigismund's daughter Isabella in 1539 and both sons bequeathed the Hungarian crown to the Principality of Transylvania .

With Sigismund II August , King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the Jagiellonian dynasty died out in the male line in 1572, whereupon the hereditary kingship in Poland and Lithuania was replaced by an elective kingship . Both countries merged to form Rzeczpospolita , an aristocratic republic under the " presidency " of an elected king or electoral grand prince at the head of the state.

Thanks to their diverse connections with the noble families of Europe, the Jagiellonians ruled the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Hungary and the Kingdom of Croatia around 1500. They strove to maintain a balance with the Roman-German Empire , the Ottoman Empire and the consolidation of the property on the eastern flank on the territory of the former Kievan Rus against the Grand Duchy of Moscow . Therefore, in the Treaty of Vienna in 1515, Sigismund I gave the crowns of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia to the descendants of Ludwig II's marriage with the House of Habsburg . In Ostpolitik, the Jagiellonians were able to maintain the balance of power in the face of the growing power of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. This conflict, in which the Kingdom of Poland found itself drawn as a result of the Muscovite-Lithuanian Wars and the Lublin Union of 1569, was only resolved after long wars under the rule of King Stephan Báthory . The descendants of Jagiełło, who created the largest state in Central Europe during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, also laid the foundation for the Jagiellonian idea, which was still used in the 20th century in the idea of ​​'Poland from sea to sea' means from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea , lived on.

20th century

The supporters of the Polish politician Józef Piłsudski , who, after the restoration of Poland in 1918, sought the annexation of Lithuania and other territories that were lost to Russia before 1772 in the east , also called themselves “Jagiellons” . This direction of the Polish interwar period was opposed by the supporters of Roman Dmowski , who justified territorial claims in the west with reference to the earlier Polish dynasty of the Piasts .

See also


  • Almut Bues: The Jagiellonians. Ruler between the Baltic Sea and the Adriatic (= Kohlhammer-Urban pocket books. 646). Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-17-020027-2 .