Turkish Wars

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Siege and relief of the city of Vienna in September 1683. Monumental painting in the Army History Museum in Vienna

Under the Turkish Wars or, more accurately, the Ottoman Wars , one understands the wars between the Ottoman Empire , which after the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 sought to expand north and west in Europe, and European states. The most important opponents of the Ottomans were initially the Republic of Venice , the Kingdom of Hungary , the Habsburg Monarchy with the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and Poland-Lithuania , from the late 17th century Russia was added as an opponent .

France allied itself several times with the Ottomans against common enemies. Even Sweden waged wars against neighboring countries if they are already dealing with the gate at war. Poland-Lithuania was in the meantime allied with the khanate of the Crimean Tatars in the 17th century . Polish patriots sought alliances with the Ottomans in the 18th and 19th centuries.

In the Holy Roman Empire , considerable financial and organizational expenditures were made at times (cf. Reichstürkenhilfe ) in order to counter the Turkish threat, which was increasingly highlighted by the media after the invention of the printing press .

The Orthodox states went through heavy fighting in the 15th and 16th centuries, in which the conflicting parties called on the Ottomans for help. The majority of the “Turks” in the Sultan's army , however, were not the Turkic-speaking Muslims from Anatolia , but from the beginning members of the regional population ( Greeks , Bulgarians , Albanians , Serbs , Bosnians , Wallachians ). It wasn't necessary to convert to Islam to make a career in the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman auxiliary peoples were predominantly Orthodox Christians. The conquest of Southeast Europe was therefore not a pure invasion from Asia, but also a kind of " civil war " between supporters and opponents of the Ottomans.


Beginning with the Ottoman victories on the Amselfeld in 1389 and in the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, especially after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 and the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the expanding Ottoman Empire came into direct contact with the states of Central Europe . Venice initially tried to secure its influence in the eastern Mediterranean through numerous wars , but had to take into account its trade relations with the Sublime Porte .

After the Battle of Mohács, the Ottoman Empire continued its efforts to conquer Central Europe. At that time Hungary was weakened by the power struggle between Ferdinand I and Johann Zápolya . The Ottoman army , supported by Zápolya, advanced quickly to Pressburg during the First Austrian Turkish War , but then turned its attention to Vienna . After a one-month siege from September 21 to October 15, 1529, the Turks withdrew. This latent danger prompted Charles V to adopt a more active defense strategy. In 1530 there was some fighting between the emperor and the Turks on the territory of Hungary . For Karl it was not only about the victory against the Ottomans, the idea of ​​the Hungarian crown also played a role here. In 1532, the emperor concluded the Nuremberg Religious Peace with the Protestant imperial princes , which caused Suleyman I , who stood with his army on the Austrian borders, to withdraw without a fight. On July 23, 1533, a peace treaty was signed with the Ottomans and an armistice with Zápolya.

There was another attack by the Turks in 1537. The Ottomans defeated Ferdinand's armies on the border with Slovenia . In 1538 another peace treaty was signed, from which Zápolya emerged victorious. In 1541 the Turks conquered Buda and occupied what is now Hungary and parts of Croatia for a long time . In 1544 the city of Kraljeva Velika fell into the hands of the Turks, from where they organized their attacks on Zagreb . In 1557 Ferdinand appointed Adam von Trott as Reich Field Marshal General for a new campaign against the Turks in Hungary, which was, however, broken off when the imperial estates did not approve the necessary funds. Already over 70 years old, Süleyman set out on another army campaign against Hungary in 1566, but died during the siege of Szigetvár on September 5, 1566.

Tripoli in what is now Libya , which had been under Arab rule during the Middle Ages, came under Spanish rule in 1509 . Emperor Charles V ceded the city in 1530 the Knights of St. John as a fief, but already in 1551 it was used by the Turks under Turgut Reis conquered, who then by the Sultan to Bey was appointed by Tripoli.

The main burden of the defensive wars was borne by the Kingdom of Hungary until 1525 , then by Habsburg Austria in association with other states of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. It set up the " military border " in Croatia in particular , which was populated with fortified farmers . After the diplomatic attempts to extend the peace between the Turkish and Habsburg empires in 1663 failed, the Grand Vizier Ahmed Köprülü set an army of around 100,000 men on the march in Edirne on April 12, 1663 . His destination was Buda , which was reached at the end of June. On August 7th, the Turks defeated the imperial troops in the Gran area . The empire was also hit hard by the loss of the Neuhäusl fortress ( Nové Zámky ), which the Turks conquered on September 25th. Then the Grand Vizier withdrew with part of his army to winter in Belgrade . With about 40,000 men, he started a new campaign against the Habsburg Empire on May 8, 1664 . A part of the imperial army, which was commanded by General Raimondo Montecúccoli , tried to conquer the Canischa ( Nagykanizsa ) fortress before the Turks arrived . But the siege was unsuccessful and Montecúccoli had to withdraw again.

Map of Croatia with the Turkish-Habsburg border at the beginning of the Great Turkish War

As the Turks approached, reinforcements for the imperial army arrived, including Bavaria, Swabia, Lower Saxony, Westphalia, Franconia and even a French auxiliary corps. This army with a strength of around 25,000 men took up position near Mogersdorf on July 30, 1664 , after the Turks had moved into neighboring St. Gotthard ( Szentgotthárd ).

Since the attempts to cross the river Raab were foiled by the imperial and Grand Vizier Ahmed Köprülü believed that not all of the imperial troops had yet arrived in Mogersdorf, he let the army go into attack position. After a nightly artillery fire , around 12,000 Turks attacked the imperial troops on the morning of August 1st. After a bloody ten hour battle, Montecúccoli emerged victorious. The Turks lost around 10,000 men that day, while only 2,000 were killed on the imperial side. The Turks had also lost their reputation of invincibility on this day, because for the first time a Turkish army was defeated by an occidental force in an open field battle. On August 10, 1664, Emperor Leopold I and Grand Vizier Ahmed Köprülü concluded the Treaty of Eisenburg for a period of 20 years . Both warring parties had other concerns at the moment. The Grand Vizier wanted to bring the 19-year war against Venice to an end on Crete , and the Emperor could now finally turn to the French King Louis XIV , who was threatening the western imperial rule with his expansion plans.

The peace treaty was not renewed in 1682 after almost twenty years. Encouraged by the French King Louis XIV and to support the extremely successful anti-Habsburg Kuruc uprising under Prince Emmerich Thököly in Upper Hungary , Sultan Mehmed IV set out on March 31, 1683 with around 150,000 men from Edirne to Belgrade , where they left at the beginning of May arrived.

It was not until June 27 that the Sultan decided that Vienna should be the destination. In the meantime, the imperial general, Duke Karl von Lorraine , attacked the fortresses Neuhäusl and Gran ( Esztergom ) in Upper Hungary with the tactic “attack is the best defense” . When he noticed that the Turks were marching directly to Vienna and threatened to cut off his way back, he withdrew to Vienna with 30,000 men, where he secured the north bank of the Danube with the cavalry, while he left his infantry behind to defend the city. The emperor had fled Vienna at the insistence of the advisors, which he later regretted, because he lost his reputation among the people. Around 11,000 imperial soldiers and 5,000 citizens ready to fight were available to the city commandant, Count Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg, to defend Vienna.

On July 14th, 1683, the siege of Vienna (Second Siege of the Turks) began and lasted until September 12th. On the morning of September 12th, the attack began in the Battle of Kahlenberg by the 80,000-strong relief army under Poland's King Jan III. Sobieski . The Turks were driven out that same day.

In 1684 the Empire, Poland and Venice united to form the Holy League . Charles of Lorraine went on a new campaign to Ofen ( Buda ) with almost 18,000 soldiers . After the main army crossed the Danube at Gran on June 13, the vanguard of the imperial army under the command of Maximilian Lorenz von Starhemberg and the general of the cavalry Margrave Ludwig von Baden appeared on June 15 before Vicegrad ( Visegrád ). On June 16, the city of Gran was taken by imperial troops, despite its strong walls, after a gate with the gun was destroyed. Most of the Turkish occupation forces were killed and the city sacked. Only a few Turks were able to retreat to the castle on the rock above the city. After only one and a half days of siege, the remaining Turkish occupation surrendered on June 18.

Ottoman state tent, early 18th century; in front of it the mortar from Belgrade (Museum of Military History, Vienna)

On June 27, the imperial army met a 17,000-strong Turkish army near Waitzen ( Vác ). Although the Turks had entrenched themselves in a favorable position, Charles of Lorraine opened the fight with cannon fire. The center of the imperial troops was led by Maximilian Lorenz von Starhemberg, and after a rather short battle, the Turkish troops were defeated. Even Waitzen fell into the hands of the imperial family that same day. On June 30, the main imperial army entered the city of Ofen, which had been set on fire by the Turks shortly before. After the army had changed the bank of the Danube again at Waitzen, the siege of Ofen began with 34,000 men on July 14, 1684, the anniversary of the beginning of the siege of Vienna, which was defended by around 10,000 Turks with over 200 guns. The siege was abandoned after 109 days because the weather was bad, the morale of the troops was catastrophic and the Turks had brought in a relief army.

It was only in a new campaign on September 2, 1686 that the League's troops succeeded in conquering Ofen. In the following years, with the victories in the Battle of Zenta and the Battle of Peterwardein, the multi-ethnic kingdom of Hungary was liberated from the Ottomans. Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden , known as the Turks Louis, and the general Prince Eugene of Savoy played a decisive role in this .

Another ally of Austria in the so-called Holy League was the Republic of Venice , which from 1684 conquered the entire Morea peninsula ( Peloponnese ), which before that was part of the Ottoman Empire. With this war Austria rose to become a great power and the Ottoman Empire lost more and more power.

The armed conflicts between the Christian states of Europe and the Ottoman Empire were fought on three continents. In addition to Southeastern Europe , contested Italy was also temporarily fought, where an Ottoman army conquered Otranto as early as 1480 . Pirate fleets allied with the Ottomans undertook raids against Spanish and Italian coastal cities in the 16th century. Habsburg Spain, for its part, undertook campaigns against the Ottoman Empire and its vassals in North Africa conquered Tunis in 1535 , while the conquest of Algiers failed in 1541. Through the colonial acquisitions of Portugal in India , Asia also became the scene of the conflict with the Ottoman Empire. From their bases on the west coast of India, the Portuguese launched attacks on Ottoman port cities. In return, the Ottomans attacked Diu in 1538 , which was defended by its Portuguese colonial rulers. In 1550 the Portuguese advanced to the Ottoman-ruled Basra in Mesopotamia .

From the end of the 17th century, Russia expanded southwards, starting in 1739 with the long-term goal of retaking Constantinople for Orthodox Christianity . As heirs to the Byzantine empire, the Russian tsars also claimed protection over the Orthodox peoples in the Ottoman Empire. There was also the right to pass through the straits, which would enable economic advantages. Since Russia was able to prevail in the wars against the Turks and gained considerably in influence, while the Ottoman Empire continued to lose ground ( "the sick man on the Bosporus" ), the position of the other European states changed. Their interest now consisted in preserving the Ottoman Empire in order not to endanger their economic relations and not to risk political instability in the region. They wanted to prevent Russia from gaining any further territorial and influence, which could have led to Russian hegemony . That is why they supported the Ottomans in the Crimean War against Russia and in 1878 prevented an imminent Russian capture of Constantinople.

Overview of the Turkish Wars

war from ... to Course / remarks
1st Venetian Turkish War 1423-1430  Venice, as the leading trading and maritime power in the Mediterranean, began to oppose the Ottoman Empire with the help of its mercenary armies when it saw its commercial interests threatened by the expansion of the Turks towards the Adriatic Sea . In order to secure its trading privileges in the Ottoman Empire, however, it soon made peace again and ceded Thessaloniki to the Turks.
2. Venetian Turkish War (also known as the "long Turkish war") 1463-1479 After the fall of Constantinople (May 29, 1453), the Turks began conquering Greece and driving the Venetians from mainland Greece and much of their Albanian possessions. One of Venice's allies in this war was the Albanian prince Georg Kastriota, known as Skanderbeg .
3. Venetian Turkish War 1499-1503 Venice used internal disputes between the Ottomans to acquire Cyprus in 1489 . Despite the support of Spain , Portugal , France, the Papal States and the Johanniter , Venice had to give up other Greek cities and pay tribute.
Siege of Rhodes 1522-1523 The Order of St. John (cf. History of the Order of St. John ) had settled on the island of Rhodes in 1309 and controlled sea trade in the eastern Mediterranean from there. After a first unsuccessful siege in 1480, a large Ottoman invading army landed on the island on June 26, 1522 in order to gain control of the eastern Mediterranean for the Ottoman Empire. The up to 160,000 invaders faced a few thousand defenders. After heavy fighting, the Johanniter had to surrender on December 22nd and withdrew on January 1st, 1523.
1. Austrian Turkish War
4. Venetian Turkish War
1526-1555 The Hungarian King Ludwig II , the adopted son of Emperor Maximilian I , married Maria von Habsburg in 1515. His sister was again with Ferdinand I married. In order to act against the consolidating alliance, Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent attacked the Hungarians and defeated them on August 29, 1526 in the battle of Mohács , in which Ludwig II fell. From September 26th to October 14th 1529 there was the first siege of Vienna , but the poor supply situation forced the Turks to retreat. In the "Turkish Year" of 1532, Charles V and Suleyman faced each other with their armies, but without a decisive battle. Venice entered the war in 1537, and in 1538 its fleet, commanded by Andrea Doria , was defeated by the Turks in the naval battle of Preveza . Venice concluded a separate peace in 1540, again to save its trade privileges, and ceded areas in Dalmatia , the Aegean Sea and the last cities on Morea ( Peloponnese ) to the Turks. In 1552 the Ottomans triumphed over the Austrians at Palast . As a result, the Kingdom of Hungary was divided into three parts, the later Emperor Ferdinand I had to pay an annual tribute of 30,000  ducats to the Ottomans.
Siege of Malta 1565-1565 After the Turks drove the Order of St. John from Rhodes in 1522, Emperor Charles V offered the order the island of Malta as the new seat of the order. The Johanniter settled on the island in 1530. On May 18, 1565, 40,000 Turks began the siege of Malta on the orders of Suleyman the Magnificent. The approximately 9,000 knights of the order withstood the siege until the Ottomans had to break off the siege on September 8, after losing an estimated 20,000 men because of the impending autumn storms.
2. Austrian Turkish War 1566-1568 The occasion was an uprising by Prince Johann II of Transylvania, Sigismund Zápolya . In 1566 there was a successful Ottoman siege of Szigetvár . In the first peace of Adrianople , the loss of Szigetvár was recognized, otherwise the status quo was restored.
Campaign of the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire against Astrakhan 1569 After the Russian conquest of the Kazan and Astrakhan Khanates , the Ottoman Empire wanted to bring these formerly Muslim empires in the Volga region back into its sphere of influence and, together with the Crimean Khanate , undertook a campaign against Astrakhan. In order to be able to use the Ottoman fleet for troop transport, the construction of a canal between two tributaries of the Don and Volga was started. However, the siege was unsuccessful.
5th Venetian Turkish War 1570-1573 In 1570 the Turks conquered Cyprus ; Spain, the Papal States and Venice merged on May 20, 1571 to form the Holy League . Their fleet under Don Juan de Austria defeated the Ottomans on October 7, 1571 in the naval battle of Lepanto . Despite the victory, Venice concluded a separate peace in 1573, renounced Cyprus and paid 300,000 ducats to the Ottoman Empire.
3rd Austrian Turkish War ( Long Turkish War ) 1593-1606 Defense war of the Austrians, justified by almost annual Turkish incursions; 1606 Peace of Zsitvatorok , the emperor was recognized by the sultan as an equal negotiating partner, a one-off payment of 200,000  guilders ended the annual tribute.
1. Polish Turkish War 1620-1621 Polish attempts to gain influence in Transylvania and Moldova led to the dispatch of an Ottoman army, which was victorious at Ţuţora on the Prut at the end of 1620 . In the following year Sultan Osman II personally led an army to Moldova, which unsuccessfully besieged Chotyn . In the peace treaty, Poland renounced its claims to Moldova.
2. Polish Turkish War 1633-1634 After the death of the Polish King Sigismund III. Wasa attacked Russian troops Poland-Lithuania . Abaza Mehmed Pascha , the Turkish Beylerbey from Eyâlet Silistra , saw his chance and also invaded Poland. The Polish hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski organized a swift and energetic defense and was able to repel the Ottomans.
6. Venetian Turkish War 1645-1669 The war took place mainly in Crete . After the Turks began to conquer the island on June 24, 1645, they besieged the heavily fortified capital Candia (today's Heraklion ), which was defended by mercenaries, for 21 years from 1648 before it was conquered in 1669.
4. Austrian Turkish War 1663-1664 After tension in Transylvania , the Turks began an offensive against Emperor Leopold I in 1663 and captured several fortresses in Upper Hungary (including Neuhäusl ). In 1664, however, they were subject to the imperial troops at Levice and St. Gotthard on the Raab . The peace of Vasvár that followed soon confirmed the status quo, including the Turkish possession of Neuhäusl.
3. Polish Turkish War 1672-1676 The Cossacks in the Polish-dominated right bank Ukraine under the leadership of Hetman Doroshenko placed themselves under the protection of the Sublime Porte; thereupon demanded the cession of the territories from Poland; In 1672 the Ottoman Empire started the war; after heavy defeats Jan Sobieski led the Poles to victory on November 11, 1673 in the battle of Chotyn ; Sobieski was then the Polish King John III. Sobieski elected. The war ended after eventful successes in the Treaty of 1676, in which Podolia with Kamieniec Podolski and most of the right-bank Ukraine were assigned to the Ottoman Empire.
1. Russian Turkish War 1676-1681 After conquering Podolia in the war against Poland, the Ottomans wanted to extend their rule to the Ukraine east of the Dnieper . The Cossacks, especially from left-bank Ukraine under Hetman Ivan Samoylowitsch, allied themselves with Russia and with their help drove the Turkish-friendly Hetman Doroshenko from his capital Chyhyryn in right-bank Ukraine in 1674. Doroshenko conquered the loyal Cossack troops Chyhyryn in 1676 with him, but was returned shortly afterwards besieged again by the Cossacks from left bank Ukraine and the Russians and this time imprisoned. Thereupon the Turkish Sultan Ibrahim Szejtan and Juri Chmelnyzkyj sent as his vassals to the Ukraine in 1677 with an army of about 120,000 men in the direction of the left bank of Ukraine, which was defeated in a battle. In 1678 the Sultan renewed his will to subjugate the whole of Ukraine and sent up to 200,000 men under Kara Mustafa against about 120,000 Russians and Ukrainians in Tschyhyryn. The Russian army was able to break out of the siege, cross the Dnepr and repel further Turkish attacks. Finally, a peace treaty was signed that reaffirmed the Dnieper as a border.
Great Turkish War
4th Polish Turkish War

5th Austrian Turkish War
2nd Russian Turkish War
7th Venetian Turkish War
1683-1699 Again in coordination with France, the Turks began an offensive; 1683 came on July 14th to the second siege of Vienna , that of Pope Innocent XI. initiated Holy League by Sobieski and Duke Charles V of Lorraine succeeded by his victory in the Battle of Vienna on September 12, the city of shock ; while pursuing the troops, Gran was retaken and after an unsuccessful siege in 1684, Ofen was recovered in 1686 . By 1687, Francesco Morosini recaptured the Peloponnese ; In 1686 Russia joined the war against the Ottoman Empire, in 1688 France opened the Palatinate War of Succession , which helped to relieve the Turks; August 19, 1691 Victory of Ludwig Wilhelm I of Baden (Türkenlouis) over the Turks at Novi Slankamen ; September 11, 1697 Victory of the Austrians under Prince Eugene at Zenta ; January 26, 1699 Peace of Karlowitz : The Ottoman Empire had to accept extensive territorial cedings: Hungary, Transylvania, Batschka to Austria, Podolia to Poland, Azov to Russia and Peloponnese to Venice; Beginning of the end of the Ottoman Empire, Austria became a great power.
3rd Russian Turkish War
(part of the 3rd Northern War )
1710-1711 After Peter I. the Swedes under Charles XII. Had fought in the Battle of Poltava in 1709 , they fled to the Ottoman Empire. The Russian troops occupied Bessarabia , but were trapped on the Prut and had to surrender in the Peace of the Prut on July 22nd; Azov and parts of Ukraine became Ottoman again, Karl was allowed to leave freely.
Venetian-Austrian Turkish War
8th Venetian Turkish War
6th Austrian Turkish War
1714-1718 First Venice lost the Peloponnese in 1715; Croatians successfully held Sinj ; In 1716 the Austrians demanded the return of the area to Venice; on August 5, 1716, Prince Eugene defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Peterwardein , in 1717 he conquered Belgrade ; in the Peace of Passarowitz of July 21, 1718 Austria received Belgrade and some other territories; Venice no longer took part in the Turkish wars.
Russian-Austrian Turkish War
7th Austrian Turkish War
4th Russian Turkish War
1736-1739 War of Austria to conquer Bosnia ; Victories of the Turks in Serbia ; In 1735 the Crimea was devastated by the Russians; In 1737 Bessarabia was occupied by Russia; Peace of Belgrade on September 18, 1739 , Austria lost the conquests from the last war again, Russia could not enforce the desired right of free passage for its ships on the Azov and Black Seas . Despite an alliance concluded with the Ottomans in 1738, Sweden initially remained neutral; Only after peace was concluded did it attack the Russians and therefore hoped in vain for a two-front war in the war over Finland . For its successful weapon aid against the Austrians, however, France received additional privileges (capitulations) in 1740.
5. Russian Turkish War 1768-1774 In the Polish civil war the Turks were called to help by the Confederation of Bar , Russia occupied Moldova and Wallachia , in 1770 the Turkish fleet in the port of Çeşme was destroyed by the Russian , June 20, 1774 victory of the Russians under Rumjanzew near Kozluca in Bulgaria and Continuation of the advance on Shumen ; July 21, 1774 Peace of Küçük Kaynarca , southern Ukraine with the mouths of the Bug , Dnepr and Don came to Russia, Crimea became independent and annexed by Russia in 1783, Russian ships were allowed to cross the straits, Russia was granted protectorate rights over Orthodox in the Ottoman Empire , first partition of Poland .
Russian-Austrian Turkish War
8th Austrian Turkish War
6th Russian Turkish War
1787-1792 War for the division of the Ottoman Empire, August 24, 1787 Turkey declares war on Russia, February 9, 1788 Austria enters the war, 1789 Austrians conquered Belgrade and Bucharest , Russians occupied the Principality of Moldova , 1790 victory of the Austrians at Kalafat , one closed against Russia and Austria in 1790 The Ottoman-Prussian alliance forced Emperor Leopold II to make peace between Sistowa and the Sultan on August 4, 1791 ; January 9, 1792 Peace of Jassy , Dnepr became the border river between Russia and the Ottoman Empire; Austria refrained from the plan to smash the Ottoman Empire because it was more and more in competition with Russia; Prussia gave Russia a free hand to partition Poland for the second time ; In 1787 Tsarina Catherine II undertook an inspection trip to the newly conquered Crimea
Egyptian expedition of the French 1798-1801 Formally, in order to restore the sultan's authority and free the country from feudal Mamluk rule, the French Republic occupied Egypt, contrary to the traditional alliance policy of the kingdom under Napoleon . Under pressure from the British navy, the Ottoman Empire concluded an alliance with Great Britain and Russia, a multiple enemy of the war, in 1799; a French advance into Syria failed before Akko because of the Turkish-British resistance. A complete British-Turkish reconquest of Egypt did not succeed, despite fighting at Abukir, before the British-French peace treaty of Amiens in 1802.
7. Russian Turkish War 1806-1812 Russia came to the aid of the Serbian uprising of 1804, it occupied the Principality of Moldova and Wallachia; on May 28, 1812, Russia had to conclude the Treaty of Bucharest in order to focus on the anticipated attack by Napoleon . Russia received Bessarabia, the Prut became the new frontier between the two empires; In 1813 Serbia was subjugated again by the Turks, and the southern Slavs , in their striving for independence, relied on Russia and no longer on Austria.
8.Russian Turkish War
(end of the Greek War of Independence )
1828-1829 Encouraged by the Serbian uprising, the Greeks also rose in 1821; Russia occupied Moldova and Wallachia, in 1829 the Russians crossed the Balkan Mountains for the first time ; September 14, 1829 Second Peace of Adrianople ; Russia received territories south of the Caucasus ; Moldova, Wallachia and Serbia became autonomous and came under Russian influence, the straits were free for all ships.
9. Russian Turkish War
(part of the Crimean War )
1853-1856 The request of the Russian Tsar Nicholas I for a protectorate for his Orthodox co-religionists in the Ottoman Empire was rejected by the Sublime Porte, Russia occupied the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia; Great Britain and France supported the Turks and captured Sevastopol in the Crimean War ; In the Paris Peace of March 30, 1856, Moldova and Wallachia came under a protectorate of the Western Powers, southern Bessarabia fell to the Moldova, Danube shipping was internationalized, the Black Sea demilitarized; Russia's internal crisis emerged and led to reforms, including peasant liberation .
10. Russian Turkish War
( Balkan Crisis )
1877-1878 After the defeat of Serbia in the Serbian-Turkish War (1876–1878), Russian troops continued the war, reoccupied the former principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia , which had now merged to form Romania , conquered Pleven and stood before Constantinople when peace came on March 3, 1878 came from San Stefano : The Ottoman Empire had to bow to a dictated peace favorable to Russia . Since this increase in power went too far for the great powers Austria-Hungary, Great Britain and France, the Balkans were divided up again at the Berlin Congress on July 13th: Romania, Serbia and Montenegro became independent, Bulgaria received a special status, but remained tributary to the Ottoman Empire , Austria-Hungary was allowed to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina , Great Britain received Cyprus , while Rascia , Albania , Macedonia and Rumelia remained with the Ottoman Empire.

Museum reception

The Turkish Wars of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries occupy a large part of the exhibition in the permanent exhibition of the Vienna Army History Museum . Numerous objects are open to the public, including several horse tails and the infamous Sipahi's reflex arcs . Special pieces are also a Turkish chain mail from the possession of the imperial general Raimondo Montecuccoli , who was victorious at Mogersdorf , a silver Turkish calendar watch, a Turkish standard ( Sancak-i Şerif ) captured in 1683 before Vienna and the seal of the Turkish sultan Mustafa II , which was given by Prince Eugene of Savoy was captured in the Battle of Zenta in 1697. Another loot of Prince Eugene (from the Battle of Peterwardein 1716) is a Turkish state tent, which has been preserved in fragments and can also be seen in the permanent exhibition.

The Karlsruher Türkenbeute in the Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe is also accessible to museums . This is a collection of trophies that were captured by the Baden margraves in the Turkish Wars in the 17th century . The collection includes the chain mail of Kara Mustafa Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Janissaries , as well as armor and weapons.

See also


Web links

Wikisource: Turkish Wars  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Eva Maria Müller: Austria and the Ottomans: History lessons in the new middle school in Graz . Diploma thesis, University of Graz - Institute for History, Supervisor: Klaus-Jürgen Hermanik, Graz 2015, p. 31ff. [1]
  2. ^ Vienna (OTS): District Museum 11: Ottoman Wars and Industrialization. APA , September 10, 2009, accessed September 3, 2019 .
  3. ^ Konrad Clewing, Oliver Jens Schmitt: Geschichte Südosteuropas. Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2012, p. 147.
  4. ^ Konrad Clewing, Oliver Jens Schmitt: Geschichte Südosteuropas. Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2012, p. 148.
  5. Adam von Trotte. In: Johann Heinrich Zedler : Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 45, Leipzig 1745, column 1211.
  6. Frank fighters : Ivan (IV.) The terrible. Hans-Joachim Torke (Ed.): The Russian Tsars. 1547-1917. Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-42105-9 , p. 35.
    Guido Hausmann: Mütterchen Wolga. A river as a place of remembrance from the 16th to the early 20th century. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2009, ISBN 978-3-593-38876-2 , p. 124.
  7. ^ Manfried Rauchsteiner : The Army History Museum in Vienna. Photos by Manfred Litscher. Styria, Graz a. a. 2000, ISBN 3-222-12834-0 .
  8. Johann Christoph Allmayer-Beck : The Army History Museum Vienna. Volume 2: Room I: From the beginnings of the standing army to the end of the 17th century. Kiesel, Salzburg 1982, ISBN 3-7023-4007-6 , p. 30.
  9. Heeresgeschichtliches Museum (Ed.): Prinz Eugen von Savoyen 1663–1736. Exhibition for the 300th birthday October 9 to December 31, 1963. Vienna 1963, p. 178.
  10. Karlsruhe Turks' Booty. Retrieved July 18, 2019 .