from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Heraklion Municipality
Δήμος Ηρακλείου
Heraklion (Greece)
Basic data
State : GreeceGreece Greece
Region : Crete
Regional District : Heraklion
Geographic coordinates : 35 ° 20 '  N , 25 ° 8'  E Coordinates: 35 ° 20 '  N , 25 ° 8'  E
Area : 245.12 km²
Residents : 173,450 (2011)
Population density : 707.6 inhabitants / km²
Community logo:
Heraklion municipality logo
Seat: Heraklion
LAU-1 code no .: 7101
Districts : 5 municipal districts
Local self-government : f125 city districts
19 local communities
Website: www.heraklion-city.gr
Location in the Crete region
File: 2011 Dimos Irakliou.png
f9 f8

Heraklion ( Greek Ηράκλειο ( n. Sg. ), Outdated and Iraklion , in the part of the city itself used letters Heraklion , ancient Greek Ἡράκλειον , Heraklion , in the Middle Ages Chandakas, in the time of Venetian rule Candia, after Turkish Kandiye , modern Greek Μεγάλο Κάστρο Megalo Kastro ) is the largest city on the southern Greek island of Crete and the seat of the administrative region of Crete. The name is etymologically derived from Herakles (see history ). In the case of scientific literature, it should be noted that the name Hieraklion (derived from Hieron ) is also used in more recent texts .


Heraklion is the fourth largest city in Greece with an official population of 173,450 and the largest non-mainland city in the country. The real number of inhabitants in 2006 was probably well over 200,000. Heraklion is the capital of the administrative region (" Periferia ") of Crete and the regional district of Heraklion and, next to Rethymno, one of the two locations of the University of Crete .



Heraklion is roughly in the middle of the north coast of the 250 km long and up to 70 km wide island of Crete. It is located on a coastal plain in front of a fertile hill country directly on a bay of the Aegean Sea , about four kilometers north of the ruins of the Minoan palace complex of Knossos .

Crete, and thus Heraklion, is a highly frequented tourist destination from April to October. The distance to the other cities of Crete is 130 km to Chania , to Rethymno 75 km, to Agios Nikolaos 60 km, to Ierapetra 90 km and to Sitia 120 km.

City structure and neighboring communities

Heraklion is divided into five municipality districts, which correspond to the areas of the municipalities that were merged in 2011. The previously existing municipalities continue to exist as urban districts (with over 2000 inhabitants) or local communities and elect local representatives. In addition, the core city of Heraklion was divided into four boroughs in 2014.

To the west, the city is now bordered by the municipality of Malevizi , to the south by Gortyna , to the southeast by Archanes -Asterousia and to the east by Chersonisos .


The climate of Crete is Mediterranean . From January to March the weather is mostly inconsistent. Often snow falls in the mountains. A rapid rise in temperature is typical for April and May, when most plants have their main flowering period. The months June to August are very hot and mostly dry. A slow cooling starts from September and lasts until October. Due to the high mountains of Crete, weather conditions often change quickly and winds arise, which also intensify into a hurricane-like storm.

Heraklion is located on the north coast of the island of Crete. The climate here is considered to be temperate and dry and warm. From May to September there is hardly any rain, on average the sun shines 70 percent of the days of the year. Since measurements began in 1949, the mean annual temperatures have fluctuated between 17.5 ° C and 20.5 ° C.

Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: Hellenic National Meteorological Service , Klima Iraklio ; wetterkontor.de
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Heraklion
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 15.3 15.5 16.7 20.0 23.5 27.3 28.7 28.5 26.4 23.4 20.0 17.0 O 21.9
Min. Temperature (° C) 9.0 8.9 9.7 11.8 15.0 19.1 21.6 21.8 19.3 16.5 13.4 10.8 O 14.8
Temperature (° C) 12.1 12.2 13.5 16.5 20.3 24.4 26.1 26.0 23.5 20.0 16.6 13.7 O 18.8
Precipitation ( mm ) 90.1 67.6 58.2 28.5 14.2 3.5 1.0 0.6 17.7 64.9 59.0 77.9 Σ 483.2
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 3.8 4.3 5.7 7.6 9.7 11.7 12.0 11.2 9.4 6.4 5.0 3.9 O 7.6
Rainy days ( d ) 16.0 13.6 12.0 7.7 4.4 1.3 0.3 0.4 2.4 7.8 10.6 15.1 Σ 91.6
Water temperature (° C) 16 15th 16 16 19th 22nd 24 25th 24 23 20th 17th O 19.8
Humidity ( % ) 68 67 66 62 61 57 57 58 61 66 67 68 O 63.2
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec



In Minoan times , one of the four ports of Knossos was located near today's city . The Dorians called the place Ἡρακλεία Hērakleia , German 'Heracles city' . According to the myth, Heracles went ashore here to catch the Cretan bull .

Arabs and Byzantines (824–1206)

Until the Arab conquest of Crete in 824, the place shared the fortunes of the rest of the island. The Arabs fortified the place they Arab خندق, DMG Ḫandaq  called 'ditch', from which Greek Χάνδαξ Chándax or Χάνδακας Chándakas . In 960 Nikephoros Phokas conquered Chándax for the Byzantine Empire and drove the Arabs out of Crete. The bishopric of Crete was moved from Gortyn to Chandax. Until the eleventh century, many Greeks from the mainland and Asia Minor moved to the up-and-coming city, about whose history little is known in the 10th to 12th centuries.

Venetians (1206–1669)

When the Byzantine Empire was broken up by the fourth crusade , Crete was initially to fall to the Lombard margrave Boniface I of Montferrat . However, he was more interested in Saloniki and exchanged it with the Republic of Venice . The Italianized version of the city's name, Candia , under the Venetians , was soon carried over to the entire island of Crete. The city of Candia became the residence of the Duca , the "Duke of Crete" appointed by the Republic of Venice . The first duke was Jacopo Tiepolo . The city also became the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop. The land-owning aristocracy of the island, newly composed by the Mark Republic, had to be present in the city of Candia and maintain residences in keeping with their status. The most important trade goods, namely iron, wheat and olive oil, were declared state monopolies. The port underwent significant expansion in the first six decades of the 14th century, but this was partially financed in 1359 with the introduction of the tornesello , an artificially overpriced coin that only circulated in the eastern colonies. Nevertheless, there was a long phase of prosperity and relative peace on the island from 1229, when the last Greek uprising collapsed, to 1363, apart from the uprising under Alexios Kalergis (1283-1299), which covered almost the entire island.

When the Empire of Nikaia succeeded in regaining Constantinople in 1261, which meant that Venice had long been denied access to the local market, Candia became the most important Venetian port in the Aegean. At the same time, Venice, especially its arsenal, benefited from the one-sidedly dictated economic relations. Candia, whose area included about 800 km² of land, which corresponded to almost a tenth of the island's area, exacerbated the problem of the lack of rural labor, because it attracted fled servants by giving them freedom. In addition, the mostly Greek Orthodox servants there were not pressured to convert to the Roman Catholic faith. To this end, Candia cornered the colonists by decreing in 1302 that anyone who did not know their liege should automatically be subject to Candia. The port of Candias caused enormous technical problems, especially since, in contrast to the Romans, no technology was known to build permanently under water. From 1333, Francesco delle Barche of said arsenal, who became known for the mechanical shovel with which one could clean the bottom of the Venice lagoon , was the chief engineer in the port expansion . His report, which is extremely difficult to interpret, has been preserved. The pier was 270 m long, the passage to the port was 60 m wide, with the port wall running from southwest to northeast due to the strong winds from the north-northwest in winter, just like at the Muslim port before. However, this port had become too small, so that Francesco had it expanded by more than 26 m to the northeast in a semicircle. For this purpose, an almost 140 m long breakwater was placed in front. But this new, northeastern breakwater turned out to be unstable and collapsed in the middle of the 14th century. At the same time, Francesco had to constantly dredge the harbor, which threatened to silt up with sand from the inflowing streams and sea sand. The sand was sold, but he underestimated the influx of sand from the Dermata, one of the six streams around Candia, just as the Muslims had done. On the contrary, this silting up could explain why Candia did not have a significant port in the Muslim era and why it was not in use during the brief reign of pirate Enrico Pescatore from 1207 to 1209. His ally, Alamanno da Corta, anchored in Faraskea near Paleokastro or northwest of Candia. This silting up was apparently unstoppable, because from 1333 to 1356 its depth was reduced by half from 4.86 m; however, in Candia almost all rubbish was thrown into the harbor, and whole boats were sunk there. This made the port unusable for the Venetian merchant ships with a draft of 3 to 3.5 m. Nevertheless, efforts were continued, especially since an arsenal for building ships had existed in the port since 1325 and the city was the administrative center of the most important island for Venice.

The Senate provoked uprisings on the island, in particular the great uprising of 1363 to 1366, through drastic tax increases, restrictions on the Cretans' own-account trade in favor of the Venetian long-distance merchant families, as well as extensive services . After the reconquest of the capital, which was celebrated for the first time in Candia on May 10, 1365, this victory was celebrated every year with processions and horse races. The uprising weakened the influence of the local Venetian nobility in the long term and strengthened the Greek families. The continued monopoly of Venice ensured that many milites switched to other agricultural products such as wine, sugar cane or cheese, from which Candia profited greatly. In 1407, in breach of the principles of the Serrata , with which the Venetian aristocracy had sealed themselves off against climbers for more than a century, a member of a Greek aristocratic family received a seat and vote in the Grand Council of Candia, which was otherwise reserved for Venetian nobles. In view of a marriage ban between Venetians and Cretans, this was a significant step that helped promote the assimilation of the Venetians to the Greek archon families.

After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Candia became a spiritual and cultural center in the eastern Mediterranean. The Cretan painting school with its most important representatives, Michail Damaskinos and Domenikos Theotokopoulos (El Greco), was born. From 1462 onwards, the city's fortifications were constantly expanding due to the growing Ottoman threat.

Port with fortress Koules (Rocca al Mare)

From 1648 the Ottomans besieged the city. The 21-year siege of Candia went down as the longest siege in history. After bloody battles in which the Venetians are said to have lost 30,000 and the Ottomans 120,000 men, the Turks conquered the city and with it all of Crete.

Ottomans (1669-1913)

Under the Turkish rule, the city now called Kandiye lost much of its importance to Canea , today's Chania. After the conquest by the Turks emerged alongside the Turkish form Kania of the modern Greek name Μεγάλο Κάστρο Megálo Kástro , German , big castle ' on (from Latin castrum borrowed).

The city ​​still bore the name Megalokastro after Crete became autonomous in 1898. The independence of the island was preceded, among other things, by a large massacre by Turks of the Greek population of Heraklion. Several hundred Christians died. The British consul and 17 British soldiers were also killed. With the autonomy of Crete, Heraklion began to rise again.

Connection to Greece, flight of the Turks, immigration from Asia Minor

After connecting Crete to Greece in 1913 which was based on the ancient names of high linguistic form Ἡράκλειον Iráklion assumed name.

The catastrophe in Asia Minor brought 20,000 Greeks from the area around Smyrna to Heraklion within a few days in 1923 . 8000 refugees were settled in the new district of Nea Alikarnassos east of the old fortress walls.

Destruction in World War II and the post-war period

During the Second World War , Heraklion was bombed and badly destroyed by the German Wehrmacht on May 14, 1941 in preparation for the Merkur company . The city and airfield of Heraklion were occupied by the British who were attacked by the East Group (second wave) under Major General Ringel . In particular, the losses of the Parachute Fighter Regiment 1 under Colonel Bräuer were particularly high.

The reconstruction of the city, which was now sprawling into the surrounding area, was largely haphazard and was marked by an enormous increase in the population, wild construction activity and land speculation.

Since 1972, the city administrative center of the island, since the language reform in 1976 under the vernacular name Ηράκλειο Heraklion .

Population development

Since the annexation to Greece, the city has experienced extraordinary population growth.

Although Heraklion suffered severe damage during World War II, many people from the war-ravaged Cretan mountain villages sought a new existence in the city. Slums emerged in the outskirts. Some of them were only replaced by simple residential complexes in the 1960s. The rural exodus continued, however, and new city quarters sprawled without any urban planning.

The incorporation in early 2011 made Heraklion the fourth largest city in Greece (in terms of population).

Population development of the city of Heraklion
year 1800 1850 1900 1920 1928 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
Residents 15,000 18,910 22,501 29,491 39,231 54,878 63,765 84,354 111,335 120,563 137.711 173,450
Swell: I. Perdikogianni: A Study of evolution , eprints.ucl.ac.uk (PDF) Iraklio-Chania National Statistic Service of Greece:
Statistical Yearbook 2006 statistics.gr (PDF) p. 44
2011 census



Politically, as the heirs of Eleftherios Venizelos , the Cretans see themselves mostly connected to the center-left. The anti-monarchist legacy of Venizelos was particularly evident in the 1974 referendum, when only a tiny minority voted to keep the monarchy.

Since 1974 the socialist PASOK has won the largest share of the vote in all parliamentary elections in Heraklion - as in the rest of Crete - even in the elections in which it fell significantly behind the conservative Nea Dimokratia at the national level . In the 2012 election , radical left-wing SYRIZA received the most votes.

Parliamentary elections

Parties 1996 2000 2004 2007 2009 June 2012
PASOK 51.0% 54.2% 52.7% 51.2% 62.7% 18.6%
Nea Dimokratia 30.8% 32.3% 37.4% 32.6% 23.7% 20.1%
Synaspismos / SYRIZA 6.6% 4.3% 4.2% 6.3% 3.7% 33.6%
KKE 4.8% 4.4% 4.5% 5.6% 4.4% 3.0%
LAOS 0.7% 1.9% 2.1% 0.8%
DIKKI 3.8% 3.4%
ANEL 8.0%
DIMAR 7.9%


Mayor is Giannis Kourakis (* 1955); Until his election as mayor in 2003, he had been a member of parliament for PASOK and state secretary for sport since 1993 .

Culture and sights

Buildings worth seeing

The Venetian Loggia
Morosini fountain
Funerary inscription Nikos Kazantzakis
  • The port fortress Koules from the 16th century at the Venetian port, where the Venetian arsenals (warehouses) have been preserved, for a long time protected access to one of the most important ports of the Republic of Venice.
  • The 5.5 kilometer long ring of the Venetian fortress walls with the bastions and moats in front of them, which withstood the Turkish siege for 21 years, is lined with green areas and is practically completely preserved.

Other architectural evidence of the Venetian past that is worth seeing are concentrated in the city center:

  • The two-story Venetian loggia, built in the Italian Renaissance style between 1626 and 1628, with its arcade was the center of social life in the Venetian period. Today the town hall is located in the rear part.
  • The Agios Titos Church , consecrated to the first bishop of Crete, was built as a mosque from 1869 during the Ottoman period and consecrated as an Orthodox church in 1925. It houses a highly venerated relic, the skull of Saint Titus set in gold.
  • The Morosini Fountain [also the Lion Fountain] (built in 1628) on the Platia Venizelou , which is surrounded by numerous street cafes, forms the heart of the city. The fountain, consisting of eight relief-decorated water basins with a water bowl carried by four stone lions in the middle, was fed by a 15 km long aqueduct from the springs of Archanes .
  • In the mornings, there is a lively crowd at the market stalls on Marktstrasse Odos 1866, selling food and everyday objects of all kinds. There are numerous restaurants in the side streets.
  • On the Martinengo Bastion at the southernmost point of the Venetian city wall lies the grave of the Heraklion-born and raised poet Nikos Kazantzakis (1883–1957), the creator of " Alexis Sorbas ", who was denied burial in a churchyard because of his unorthodox views.
    It bears the well-known grave inscription chosen by the poet himself:

«Δεν ελπίζω τίποτα. Δε φοβʊμαι τίποτα. Είμαι λέφτερος. »

“I hope nothing. I fear nothing. I am free."


  • The Archaeological Museum at Platia Eleftherias , the traffic junction in the city center, offers a globally unique overview of the Minoan culture.
  • The Historical Museum (Odos Sofoklis Venizelou) offers insights into Cretan culture from the early Christian (e.g. Zou calendar ) to modern times. The focus is on the Byzantine-medieval collection (with El Greco's only painting in Crete), the exhibition on the Cretan uprisings and a folklore collection. Memories of the writer can be found in a Nikos Kazantzakis room. The German attack on Crete and the time of occupation are also dealt with.
  • The Icon Museum in the church of Agia Ekaterini on the square of the same name shows icons and frescoes.
  • The Natural History Museum, located on the Sofokli-Venizelou, provides an insight into the flora and fauna of the eastern Mediterranean and the like. a. with a life-size exhibit of a dinotherium and an earthquake simulator


The Cretaquarium is a public show aquarium. It was opened in 2005 and focuses on the marine animals of the Mediterranean.


With OFI Kreta and Lyttos Ergotelis , Heraklion can boast two football clubs that have long been represented in the top Greek league, the Super League , and both currently play in the second-rate football league . OFI plays its home games in the new Theodoros Vardinogiannis Stadium (also called Γεντί Κουλέ Gedí Koulé ), and Lyttos Ergotelis in the Pankritio Stadio , which was also the venue for some matches at the 2004 Olympic Games .

Economy and Infrastructure


The city has the most important port of Crete with regular ferry connections to Piraeus ( ANEK-Lines -Superfast, Minoan Lines ), Santorin (Anek / Aigaion Pelagos, Hellenic Seaways, SeaJet), Milos (Anek / Aigaion Pelagos), Sitia - Kassos - Karpathos - Chalki - Rhodes (Anek / Aigaion Pelagos). Cruise ships often dock during the holiday season.

The Heraklion Airport is the largest and busiest of the island. It is only about three kilometers from the center in the east of the city (Nea Alikarnassos district) and is named after the writer Nikos Kazantzakis . The facilities are used both civilly and militarily. Especially the summer has a very high volume of tourist traffic with flights to many European cities. a. in German-speaking countries, Scandinavia, Great Britain, Russia and Eastern Europe. In Greece there is a dense frequency of flights to Athens all year round. A new airport, the second largest in the country after Athens, is to be built in the small town of Kastelli , 36 km southeast of Heraklion . The opening was originally planned for 2015, but the start of construction has been delayed and, according to politicians, the new airport will not open until 2018 at the earliest.

Public transport on the island is almost exclusively handled by the buses of the Greek company KTEL. There are bus connections to almost all places in Crete, every hour during the day to Rethymno, Chania and in the opposite direction to Sitia and Ierapetra.

Public city transport is also operated via a dense bus network.

In the south of the city runs the so-called New Road, a motorway-like expressway, which has two or more lanes in both directions and connects Heraklion with Agios Nikolaos in the east and Rethymno and Chania in the west.

Crete does not have a railroad.


The daily newspapers Patris and Messogios are published in Heraklion, and the TV and radio station Crete TV & Radio 98.4 FM (ΚΡΗΤΗ TV), which also publishes the newspaper Nea Kriti, as well as the TV station Creta Channel ( Παγκρήτια Τηλεόραση ) and among others the radio stations Heraklio 106.2 FM, Super Radio 90.4, Yperychos 92.1 FM and Studio 19 FM 101.9.

University of Crete

Heraklion is one of the two locations of the University of Crete .

The plans to found a university in Crete entered a decisive phase in the 1960s. The Cretan cities fought bitterly over the seat of the university. General Stylianos Pattakos , originally from Rethymno, who , as Interior Minister for a long time, was the “second man” of the military regime , managed to get the seat of his hometown. This decision was called into question after the collapse of junta rule. Prime Minister Konstantin Karamanlis resolved the dispute through a compromise: Heraklion received the medical and scientific faculties and Rethymno the humanities faculties, Chania became the seat of the State Technical University of Crete .

While the humanities faculties are located in Rethymno, the medical / natural science faculties are in Heraklion, the faculties of medicine, physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, computer science and applied mathematics. A new faculty for materials research and technology has been added.

The university, founded in 1973, began teaching in 1984. Since 1989 the Medical Faculty has been working on a campus near Voutes, 7 km southwest of the city center, with a newly built university hospital with a capacity of 820 beds. The new buildings for the faculties of physics and biology were also completed here. The construction of new buildings for the other faculties is still in progress.

education and Science

The following other scientific institutes and research centers are located in Heraklion:

  • Institute for technological education, corresponds to the German universities of applied sciences with Bachelor and Master courses (Technological Educational Institute, T. E. I.);
  • Foundation for Research & Technology - Hellas (FORTH) with institutes for electronic structure and lasers, molecular biology and biotechnology, computer science, applied and computer mathematics, Mediterranean studies, chemotechnology and chemical high-temperature processes and a biomedical research institute, as well as the Skinakas observatory and the science publisher Crete University Press ( CUP);
  • Science and Technology Park of Crete (STEP-C), a research and technology park under the FORTH;
  • Hellenic Center for Marine Research, a government research center for oceanography, marine biology, inland waterways, aquaculture;
  • CretAquarium, the largest aquarium in the Eastern Mediterranean

The European School in Heraklion teaches in English.

European establishment

Heraklion is also home to the headquarters of the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) , an institution of the European Union.

sons and daughters of the town

El Greco (1541-1614)

Twin cities


  • Costis Davaras: Knossos and the Museum of Herakleion. Athens 1986.

Web links

Commons : Heraklion  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Results of the 2011 census. ( Memento of the original from November 13, 2011 in the Internet Archive ; PDF) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Greek Statistical Office ELSTAT @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.statistics.gr
  2. Το Μεγάλο Κάστρο - Ηράκλειο. ( Memento of the original from June 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Kritikoi.gr @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.kritikoi.gr
  3. Nikolaus Creutzburg: The paleogeographical development of the island of Crete from the Miocene to the present. In: Kretika Chronika. Hieraklion 1963 (cited as literature in: Leo Hautzinger: Genus Orchis L. (Orchidaceae); Sectio Robustocalcare Hautzinger. In: Annalen des Naturhistorisches Museum in Wien. 81, Vienna 1978, p. 70, PDF (4.8 MB) on ZOBODAT ).
  4. Holger Heinrich Dathe: Hylaeus (Spatularicella) longimaculus, locations 1942 Hieraklion. 1981.
  5. Josef J. de Freina: P. minoica sp. n., location according to REISSER 1958 and 1962 in village about 25 km SW Hieraklion . In: Mitt. Münch. Ent. Ges. 96, Munich, September 30, 2006, pp. 21-27, ISSN  0340-4943
  6. Irina Laube and a .: Niche availability in space and time: migration in Sylvia warblers. International conference of the International Biogeographic Society, 7. – 11. January 2011, Hieraklion, Greece, p. 2, bik-f.de (PDF; 145 kB).
  7. Division of major Greek cities into districts. PDF; 121 kB Greek government newspaper, February 7, 2014 ( Memento from April 16, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  8. Climate Crete ( Memento from October 1, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  9. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis, Station Data: Heraklion (Airport). National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Institute for Space Studies (English).;
  10. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (v4), Station Data: Heraklion. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Institute for Space Studies (English).;
  11. The ancient Greek city Ἡράκλειον Hērakleion was in Macedonia.
  12. Ruti Gertwagen thinks that the Byzantine era was “obscure” ( The Venetian Port of Candia, Crete (1299–1363): Construction and Maintenance . In: Irad Malkin, Robert L. Hohlfelder (ed.): Mediterranean Cities. Historical Perspectives , London 1988, pp. 141-158, here: p. 141).
  13. Ruti Gertwagen : The Venetian Port of Candia, Crete (1299-1363): Construction and Maintenance , in: Irad Malkin, Robert L. Hohlfelder (ed.): Mediterranean Cities. Historical Perspectives , London 1988, pp. 141–158, here: p. 142.
  14. ^ Egbert Scheunemann: Rebels in Crete . ISBN 3-8370-0553-4 , p. 234, accessed on August 24, 2011.
  15. Crete's Union with Greece . ( Memento of the original from April 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Pancretan association of Melbourne Australia, accessed on August 24, 2011. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.pancretan.com.au
  16. statistics.gr (PDF)
  17. Parliamentary election 1996
  18. Parliamentary election 2000
  19. Parliamentary election 2007  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / ekloges.singularlogic.eu  
  20. Parliamentary election 2009
  21. Parliamentary election June 2012 ( Memento of the original from June 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / ekloges.ypes.gr
  22. Άγιος Τίτος (Greek)
  23. Heraklion Airport. Guide of Heraklion Airport in Crete, Greece. www.heraklion-airport.info, accessed on July 16, 2012 (English).
  24. The new airport in Kastelli on Crete. Radio Crete, accessed December 1, 2016 .
  25. website. Institute for Technological Education, accessed May 9, 2008 .
  26. website. Hellenic Center for Marine Research, accessed May 9, 2008 .
  27. website. CretAquarium, accessed May 9, 2008 .
  28. Eberhard Fohrer: CretAquarium: the largest sea aquarium in the eastern Mediterranean. Retrieved May 9, 2008 .
  29. website. European Network and Information Security Agency, accessed May 9, 2008 .