Jacopo Tiepolo († July 19, 1249 ) was the 43rd Doge of Venice . He ruled from 1229 to 1249.
The Tiepolo family belonged to the so-called “apostolic” families of Venice. Two doges emerged from the family. Jacopo's grandson was Baiamonte Tiepolo , whose name is linked to one of the extremely rare attempts at overthrowing the Lion Republic.
Jacopo had held important positions in his political career. He was Podestà of Treviso and Constantinople , the first Duke of Candia (Crete) and he was the naval commander of the Venetians on the crusade to the Holy Land . His first marriage was to Maria Storlado. In his second marriage he married Valdrada, a daughter of the King of Sicily, Tankred (1189-1194) and sister of the wife Constanza of his predecessor in the Doge's office, Pietro Ziani . In addition to a daughter, he had four sons, all of whom held important positions in the republic . Son Lorenzo Tiepolo was elected 46th Doge.
The Doge's Office
Jacopo Tiepolo was elected after the abdication of his predecessor Pietro Ziani after a long conclave in which there was a tie between him and Marino Dandolo , so that the lot was finally decided. This choice was one of the causes of continued tension between the Dandolo and Tiepolo families. His policy of providing his sons with important offices also aroused displeasure, as every form of nepotism was rejected in the republic and patronage of offices within the family was expressly forbidden in the Doge's Promissio . The Dogaressa also ignored the promissio without hesitation by accepting expensive gifts and buying her own castles near Constantinople.
Constitution of Venice
During his reign, the main features of Venice's constitution emerged, but it was repeatedly adapted to changing political circumstances. Over the centuries that followed, an elaborate balance of power between the various legislative, judicial and administrative bodies, combined with a system of mutual control, was achieved in Venice, which gave rise to the extraordinary permanence and stability of the Lion Republic that is in Europe was unique.
Under Tiepolo, the Consiglio dei pregadi emerged , the nucleus of the later Senate, in which at the beginning mainly trade policy issues , later mainly foreign policy, were discussed and decided, the committee of the Quarantia , a kind of civil court, consisting of 40 participants and the Maggior Consiglio , which had been the legislative body of the republic since 1297 and which perhaps emerged from the Arengo , the open citizens' assembly , but still existed the traditional Assembla popolare , a plenary assembly of Venetian citizens that met in St. Mark's Square, and which in the early days of the Republic had elected the Doge, until in the serrata of 1297 the eligibility for the Doge election was restricted to members of certain noble families who were later entered in the city's Golden Book .
In 1232 he issued an improved version of the oldest penal code in Venice, the Promissio maleficiorum . In 1242 he contributed to the codification of the laws of Venice by commissioning a revision of the municipal statutes.
In 1232 Emperor Friedrich II visited the city. He gave Venice further trading privileges in the Kingdom of Sicily . From the moment Tiepolo took office, the republic was under pressure on all sides. It was not until 1234 that Tiepolo was able to put down the years of uprising in Crete and to re-establish Venice's rule over the island.
Venice was not spared from the fighting in northern Italy between the Guelphs and Ghibellines , which supported the papal and imperial sides and which determined the politics of the Italian city-states in the 12th and 13th centuries, although it did not take sides. Ezzelino da Romano , a partisan of the emperor, had already conquered Vicenza and Verona and was preparing to attack Treviso, where Pietro Tiepolo, a son of Jacopo's podestà, was. Pietro fell at the battle of Cortenuova in 1237 as podestà of Milan into the captivity of the emperor, in which he died. If you follow the work of Pandolfo Collenuccio, it was hung in Trani in 1240 in such a way that the passing Venetians could see it hanging on a tower.
In Istria there were constant uprisings, which were fueled by the intrigues of King Bela of Hungary and Ancona threatened to fall into the sphere of influence of Constantinople. Under the leadership of the Doge, the Venetians succeeded in setting the Ancona fleet on fire, placing Istria and parts of the Dalmatian coast and several cities in northern Italy under Venetian "protection". Ferrara, the most important transshipment point for trade to Northern Italy and Europe, was forced to only handle Venetian goods or goods imported via Venice. In 1239 the Doge joined the anti-Imperial alliance with Genoa and the Pope. Since 1245, the city has come closer to the emperor again, probably against the will of Jacopo Tiepolo.
Tiepolo donated a piece of land to the Dominican Order on the edge of the urban development at that time, on which the Order built the Church of San Zanipolo , or Zanipolo for short. The church subsequently became the most important burial place for Venetian doges.
Tiepolo abdicated for reasons unknown in May 1249 and died in his home on July 19. Jacopo Tiepolo was the first doge to be buried in a coffin on the facade of the church. The remains of the second Tiepolo doge, Lorenzo, were also buried in his sarcophagus .
The simple marble coffin box is covered with a gable roof, which is divided into five fields, which show reliefs of the Doge's coat of arms of the Tiepolo to the right and left. The front side, framed by Doric columns, is provided with an inscription plaque flanked by angels on the right and left.
- Ester Pastorello (Ed.): Andrea Dandolo, Chronica per extensum descripta aa. 460-1280 dC , (= Rerum Italicarum Scriptores XII, 1), Nicola Zanichelli, Bologna 1938, pp. 291-302. ( Digital copy, p. 290 f. )
- Andrea Da Mosto : I dogi di Venezia. Florence 2003. ISBN 88-09-02881-3
- Claudio Rendina: I dogi. Storia e segreti , Rome 1984. ISBN 88-8289-656-0
- Giorgio Cracco : Venezia nel medioevo. Dal secolo XI al secolo XIV , Torino 1986, pp. 73ff.
- P. Preto: Tiepolo : 2. T., Jacopo, in: Lexikon des Mittelalters , Vol. 8, Col. 764-765.
- ^ Pandolfo Collenucio: Compendio dell 'istoria del regno di Napoli , i Giunti, Venice 1613, p. 97.
Doge of Venice
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Doge of Venice|
|DATE OF BIRTH||12th century or 13th century|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 19, 1249|