Calendar overview 1249
Louis IX. take the Egyptian city of Damiette during the
Sixth Crusade .
|1249 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||697/698 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1792/93 (southern Buddhism); 1791/92 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||611/612 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||646/647 (turn of the year April 15/16)|
|Jewish calendar||5009/10 (September 8/9)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1559/60 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1560/61 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1305/06 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 27th : A delegation led by André de Longjumeau breaks on behalf of the French King Louis IX. and the Cypriot King Henry I set out from Cyprus in the direction of the Karakoram to start negotiations with the Mongolian Great Khan.
- Spring: Violent clashes break out between the branches of the Maritime Republics of Genoa and Pisa in Acre , which under pressure from Louis IX. be terminated quickly.
- May 19 : The cruise lines set sail from the Kingdom of Cyprus and sail for Egypt . On June 4th she reached the Nile Delta . There the crusaders beat an Ayyubid army under the leadership of the Mamluken Fachr ad-Din Yusuf , which tries to prevent the landing. The defeated retreat south to the provincial capital Achmoum-Tanah, where Sultan al-Salih camps with the main army.
- June 6th : During the Sixth Crusade, the Crusaders take the Egyptian city of Damiette almost without a fight after it has been evacuated by the defenders. As-Salih retreats up the Nile to Al-Mansura . Ludwig does not allow the retreating Ayyubid army to be pursued, but stays with his army in Damiette for five and a half months. He is giving away a promising opportunity to advance through the Nile Delta to Cairo before the summer floods of the Nile begin. Instead, he is waiting for reinforcements from his brother, Count Alfons of Poitiers . Sultan al-Salih has laboriously restored the morale of his troops and has concentrated his main army.
- October 24th : Alfonso of Poitiers arrives in Damiette with a large contingent of troops and a full war chest.
- November 20 : The crusaders begin the inland advance, which is held up by the muddy terrain, the numerous river branches and diseases.
- Sultan al-Salih dies on the night of November 22nd to 23rd . His young son and heir Turan Shah is in distant Syria and is in no way prepared for a takeover. Thereupon a favorite slave of the dead sultan, Schadschar ad-Durr , who has some influence at the court in Cairo, takes the reign of her stepson. Together with some loyal officials, she manages to keep the Sultan's death a secret for the time being and to establish an order in which the previously disgraced Mamlukenemir, Fachr ad-Din Yusuf , receives supreme command of the army. The slow advance of the crusaders benefits her.
- December 20 : The Sixth Crusade arrives in the city of Al-Mansura , and the Crusaders begin the siege of the city.
Holy Roman Empire / Imperial Italy
- May 26th : In the Battle of Fossalta , the Bologna militias , led by their mayor Filippo degli Ugoni and their Bishop Ottaviano degli Ubaldini, defeat the imperial troops under the command of King Enzio of Sardinia near Modena . Enzio is captured by the Bolognese.
- July 1st : With the Weißenfels contract , most of the Thuringian counts recognize the Wettin Heinrich III. of Meissen , the illustrious, as the new Landgrave of Thuringia . Nevertheless, the Thuringian War of Succession continues for around 15 years.
Other events in Europe
- May: For unknown reasons, Jacopo Tiepolo abdicates as Doge of Venice . He dies on July 19th and is the first doge to be buried on the facade of the Church of San Zanipolo . Marino Morosini is elected as his successor .
- July 8th : After the surprising death of Alexander II in the Hebrides, he is followed by his eight-year-old son Alexander III. on the Scottish throne. The first years of his rule are marked by the struggle for power between two warring parties: Walter Comyn , the Earl of Menteith, fights against the legal advisor Alan Durward , who ruled the country on behalf of Alexander.
- The Teutonic Order defeats the Prussians . The first Prussian uprising ends with the Treaty of Christburg .
- The Portuguese King Alfonso III. conquers the cities of Faro and Silves in the Algarve .
- The second Swedish crusade to Finland begins under the leadership of Birger Jarl .
Other events in North Africa
- After the death of Abu Zakariya Yahya I , his son Muhammad I al-Mustansir succeeds him to the throne of the Hafsids in Ifrīqiya .
First documentary mentions
- First documentary mention of Brügglen , Büren zum Hof , Frenkendorf , Hermigene , Gebrazhofen , Merkendorf (Middle Franconia) , Muskau , Schalunen , Schrozberg , Schwabsoien , Sigmaringendorf and Urtenen-Schönbühl
science and technology
- University College, the oldest of the 40 colleges at the University of Oxford , is founded.
- March 9th : After the death of Siegfried III. Pope Innocent IV of Eppstein wants the Speyer bishop Heinrich von Leiningen as his successor as Archbishop of Mainz . Instead, Christian II von Bolanden is elected by the cathedral chapter and consecrated in July or August by the Archbishop of Cologne , Konrad von Hochstaden .
- July 15 : After the death of Heinrich von Hohenlohe , Gunther von Wüllersleben becomes the eighth Grand Master of the Teutonic Order .
- before November 5th: Rudolf I becomes Bishop of Schwerin as successor to the late Wilhelm .
Date of birth saved
- July 9 : Kameyama , Tennō of Japan († 1305 )
- December 26th : Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall , English magnate († 1300 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- December 19: Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln , English magnate, diplomat and general
- Friedrich of Baden-Austria , Margrave of Baden and Duke of Austria († 1268 )
- Johann I , Duke of Saxony-Lauenburg († 1285 )
- Peter Mauley , English nobleman and military man († 1308 )
- Menachem ben Solomon , a Jewish scholar and expert Talmud in France († 1306 / 1316 )
- Robert III , Count of Flanders († 1322 )
- Walter V of Châtillon , Lord of Châtillon, Count of Porcéan and Connétable of France († 1329 )
- Yeshe Rinchen , Tibetan monk, imperial teacher of the Mongolian Emperor Shizu (Kublai Khan) († 1295 )
Born around 1249
- Erich V. Klipping , King of Denmark († 1286 )
- Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford , English magnate († 1298 )
- Constance of Sicily , Queen of Aragon and Sicily († 1302 )
First half of the year
- January 15 : Archambault IX. , Lord of Bourbon (* around 1205 )
- January 15 : Ludwig , Count of Ravensberg
- January 16 : Lüthold II von Rötteln , Bishop of Basel
- March 9 : Siegfried III. von Eppstein , Archbishop and Elector of Mainz, Arch Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire (* around 1194 )
- March 25th : Peter , Count of Vendôme (* around 1200 )
- March 27th : Otto III. of Holland , Bishop of Utrecht
- before April: Johann I , Count of Montfort
- April 13th : Leutold I. , Styrian Ministeriale
- April: Petrus de Vinea , Protonotarius and Chancellor of the Roman-German Emperor and King of Sicily Friedrich II. (* Before 1200)
- May: Richard von Chieti , illegitimate son of Friedrich II. (* Around 1223 )
- before June: Jaczo von Salzwedel , vassal of the Pomeranian dukes and founder of the Gützkow county
- June 5th : Hugo X of Lusignan , Lord of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Angoulême
- 5 / June 6 : Eustorgue de Montaigu , Archbishop of Nicosia
- June 28 : Adolf I , Count von der Mark, von Altena and von Krickenbeck as well as Vogt of the Cappenberg Monastery and the Werden Monastery, founder of the city of Hamm (* before 1182)
Second half of the year
- July 6 : Rudolf I , Count of Habsburg-Laufenburg, Landgrave in Klettau
- July 8 : Alexander II , King of Scotland (* 1198 )
- July 15 : Heinrich von Hohenlohe , Grand Master of the Teutonic Order (* around 1200 )
- July 19 : Jacopo Tiepolo , Doge of Venice
- after summer: Gui de Melun , French crusader and chronicler
- September 27 : Raymond VII , Count of Toulouse and Margrave of Provence (* 1197 )
- October 9 : Peter Karlotus , Bishop of Noyon (* 1205 / 1209 )
- October 23 : Johannes Bonus , Italian lay brother (* 1168 )
- November 15 : Guillaume III. des Barres , French knight and crusader (* around 1187 )
- November 22nd / November 23rd : as-Salih , Sultan of the Ayyubids in Egypt
- December 18 : Konrad II of Riesenberg , Bishop of Hildesheim
Exact date of death unknown
- Ulrich II. , Count von Pfannberg, district judge of Styria and Vogt of St. Paul
- Wilhelm , Bishop of Schwerin
- Wilhelm von Auvergne , French philosopher and bishop of Paris (* around 1180 )
- Abu Zakariya Yahya I. , ruler of the Hafsids in Ifriqiya (* 1203 )
Died around 1249
- 1248 /1249: John I , Count of Dreux and Braine (* 1215 )
- 1249/ 1250 : Pierre de Courtenay , French knight and lord of Conches-en-Ouche and Mehun-sur-Yèvre (* around 1218 )