the Great Khan of the Mongols .
Ulrich I von Württemberg
Agnes von Schlesien-Liegnitz .
Michael VIII. Can be next to John IV.
To co-emperor in the Byzantine Empire cry.
|1259 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||707/708 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1802/03 (southern Buddhism); 1801/02 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||621/622 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||657/658 (turn of the year 17th / 18th December)|
|Jewish calendar||5019/20 (September 19/20)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1569/70 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1570/71 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1315/16 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 1 : Michael Palaeologus can be next to since last year reigning nine-year John IV Laskaris. To co-emperor in the Empire of Nicaea , a successor state of the Byzantine Empire , cry and brings up 1453 ruling family of the Palaiologoi to power. Since the Latin emperor Baldwin II still rules Constantinople , he ruled temporarily from Nicaea .
- September: In the Battle of Pelagonia that of Sebastocrator defeated John Doukas Palaiologos led Empire of Nicaea , the Principality of Achaia after Michael II Komnenos Dukas Angelos. Of Epirus has overflowed to Nikaia. Prince Wilhelm II of Villehardouin is captured. Johannes Palaiologos then conquered Thebes and made the Principality of Achaia, until then the strongest Frankish state in Greece , a vassal of Nikaias.
- August 11 : Möngke Khan , grandson of Genghis Khan , dies during the siege of Sichuan on the Ruhr during his China campaign. In a power struggle against his younger brother Arigkbugha , his younger brother Kublai Khan declares himself Great Khan of the Mongols, contrary to all traditions .
South East Asia
The Danish King Christoph I , who is in battle with Prince Jaromar II of Rügen and with the aspirant to the throne Erik Abelsen , wants his son Erik to be crowned his successor. However, Jakob Erlandsen , Archbishop of Lund , refuses to do so , who at the same time forbids all bishops in the country to perform the coronation. Christoph had him arrested on February 6th and humiliated publicly, whereupon the Roskilder Bishop Peder Bang pronounced the interdict against the king. He has the churches in Skåne and Sjælland closed and everyone involved in the archbishop's arrest is banned. The king then has the churches opened by force. Peder Bang then flees to Rügen . From there he returns in April with Prince Jaromar and Erik Abelsen and rages cruelly in Sjælland . The king has to retreat to Jylland and Jaromar II takes Copenhagen in May , with much of the city burned down after looting.
On May 29, Christoph I dies surprisingly in Ribe, which feeds rumors about his murder. King's widow Margarete Sambiria , who tries to maintain stability, releases Archbishop Erlandsen and enfeoffs Erik Abelsen with Schleswig . They mobilized a Zeeland peasant army against Jaromar, but they were defeated by Jaromar's troops on June 14 at Næstved . After the devastation of Zealand , Skåne and Lolland , he landed with his troops on Bornholm and destroyed the royal fortress of Lilleborg there . Nevertheless, Erik V is crowned King of Denmark at Christmas.
Holy Roman Empire
The cities of Lübeck , Stralsund , Wismar , Kiel and Rostock found the Wendish Association of Cities . It serves to secure the trade routes on land and at sea and is considered to be the nucleus of both the later Wendish quarter and the German Hanseatic League as a whole.
- May 28 : The Treaty of Paris between Henry III. of England and Louis IX. of France regulates the claims of England to French territory . Ludwig achieves the renunciation of England on Normandy and other areas as well as the feudal oath for the English possessions in south-west France.
- In the Provisions of Westminster , which build on the Provisions of Oxford resolved in the previous year, further reforms are decided, which affect, among other things, the judiciary and the rights of the lower nobility (see History of England ).
- Agnes von Schlesien-Liegnitz becomes the second wife of Ulrich I , the founder, Count von Württemberg .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- Amersfoort receives city rights from Hendrik van Vianden .
- Benken , Bünzen , Courtepin , Fischingen TG , Gipf AG , Greppen , Hausach , Holderbank , Jaberg , Leinzell , Neuenkirch , Vyšší Brod (German Hohenfurth) , Schupfart , Wies , Willadingen and Wolf are first mentioned in a document.
- The Upper Castle in Siegen is first mentioned in a document.
- May 7th : Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden gave Cologne the right to stack . After that, all merchants traveling to and from Cologne have to “stack” their goods and offer them for sale.
- Stade receives stacking rights from the Archbishop of Bremen .
- Germany: "From March to August there is hardly any rain, there is an abundance of all fruits, especially wine, so that the empty barrels are worth more than the wine itself" (see web links).
Science and culture
- With the death of Matthew Paris , historian in the Benedictine monastery of St Albans , near London, his major work, the ending as Universal Chronicle scale Chronica Majora . The history , written in Latin , begins with the creation of the world and goes back to 1259.
- around 1259: Bologna issues the oldest known regulations on book lending.
- March 14th : Otto von Hadmersleben donates the Marienstuhl Monastery at the instigation of his wife, Jutta von Blankenburg .
- June 1st : Wok von Rosenberg founds the Hohenfurt monastery in Bohemia.
- At the General Chapter of the Dominicans in Valenciennes (Flanders) the u. a. decided by Albertus Magnus with new study conditions developed. This is the first time that the study of Artes liberales is permitted and the term study solemne is a particular study . The papal cloister is planned for the women's monasteries .
- The Bledzew Monastery and the Wyden Monastery are founded.
- Thomas Aquinas teaches in Orvieto , Viterbo and Rome for the next ten years .
- Bonaventure wrote the Itenerarium mentis in Deum , in which he describes the ascent of the soul to God in six stages, which correspond to six soul forces.
- The Cologne beguines send Christine von Stommeln back to her parents because of her constant demonic experiences.
Date of birth saved
- March 25 : Andronikos II , Emperor of the Byzantine Empire († 1332 )
- June 25 : Hugo XIII, the brown , lord of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Angoulême († 1303 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Richard Og de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster , English nobleman († 1326 )
- Ubertino da Casale , Italian theologian and Franciscan († after 1328)
- Cerverí de Girona , Catalan trobador († 1285 )
- Hugo V of Tübingen , Count Palatine of Tübingen († 1277 )
- Wulfing von Stubenberg , Dominican and Bishop of Lavant and Prince-Bishop of Bamberg († 1318 )
First half of the year
- February 1 : Thomas II , Lord of Piedmont, Count of Flanders and Hainaut and Count of Savoy (* 1199 )
- April 22nd : Adolf IV. , Count von Berg (* 1220 )
- between 19 and 21 May: Pietro Capocci , Italian cardinal, papal legate for Germany (* around 1200 )
- May 21 : Fulk Basset , Bishop of London
- May 29th : Christopher I , King of Denmark (* around 1219 )
- June 21 : Otto II von Lippe , Bishop of Munster
Second half of the year
- August 11 : Möngke Khan , Great Khan of the Mongols (* 1209 )
- September 3 : Dietrich von Grüningen , knight of the order, landmaster and German master of the Teutonic Order (* around 1210 )
- September 21 : Johannes von Diest , Bishop of Lübeck
- September 25th : Gerhard I. Wildgraf von Dhaun , Archbishop of Mainz and Imperial Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire
- September / October: Ezzelino da Romano , Italian prince (* 1194 )
- November 5th : Arnold II of Isenburg , Archbishop of Trier
- before November 25th: Margaret of Scotland, Countess of Kent , Scottish noblewoman (* between 1187 and 1195)
- November: Ali I , Sultan of the Mamluks in Egypt
Exact date of death unknown
- Guigues V. , Count of Forez
- Heinrich I , Lord of Heinsberg (* before 1224)
- Matthäus Paris , English chronicler, historiographer, cartographer, goldsmith and sculptor (* around 1200 )
- Mathilde von Dammartin , French noblewoman, Countess of Dammartin and Boulogne and Queen of Portugal (* around 1200 )
- Badr ad-Din Lulu , ruler of Mosul
Died around 1259
- Heinrich Seemann , Canon of Regensburg and founder of the monastery