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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
declares himself
the Great Khan of the Mongols .
Ulrich's seal from 1259
Ulrich I von Württemberg
Agnes von Schlesien-Liegnitz .
Hyperpyron Michaels VIII
Michael VIII. Can be next to John IV.
To co-emperor in the Byzantine Empire cry.
1259 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 707/708 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1251/52
Buddhist calendar 1802/03 (southern Buddhism); 1801/02 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 65th (66th) cycle

Year of the Earth-Sheep己未 ( at the beginning of the year Earth-Horse 戊午)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 621/622 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 637/638
Islamic calendar 657/658 (turn of the year 17th / 18th December)
Jewish calendar 5019/20 (September 19/20)
Coptic calendar 975/76
Malayalam calendar 434/435
Seleucid era Babylon: 1569/70 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1570/71 (turn of the year October)

Spanish era 1297
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1315/16 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

Byzantine-Frankish Wars

The world of states of Romania after the 4th crusade in 1204

Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire 1259

South East Asia

Monument to King Mengrai

Mangrai becomes ruler of the Thai empire Ngoen Yang after the death of his father and begins an expansion policy against the neighboring small empires .


The Danish King Christoph I , who is in battle with Prince Jaromar II of Rügen and with the aspirant to the throne Erik Abelsen , wants his son Erik to be crowned his successor. However, Jakob Erlandsen , Archbishop of Lund , refuses to do so , who at the same time forbids all bishops in the country to perform the coronation. Christoph had him arrested on February 6th and humiliated publicly, whereupon the Roskilder Bishop Peder Bang pronounced the interdict against the king. He has the churches in Skåne and Sjælland closed and everyone involved in the archbishop's arrest is banned. The king then has the churches opened by force. Peder Bang then flees to Rügen . From there he returns in April with Prince Jaromar and Erik Abelsen and rages cruelly in Sjælland . The king has to retreat to Jylland and Jaromar II takes Copenhagen in May , with much of the city burned down after looting.

On May 29, Christoph I dies surprisingly in Ribe, which feeds rumors about his murder. King's widow Margarete Sambiria , who tries to maintain stability, releases Archbishop Erlandsen and enfeoffs Erik Abelsen with Schleswig . They mobilized a Zeeland peasant army against Jaromar, but they were defeated by Jaromar's troops on June 14 at Næstved . After the devastation of Zealand , Skåne and Lolland , he landed with his troops on Bornholm and destroyed the royal fortress of Lilleborg there . Nevertheless, Erik V is crowned King of Denmark at Christmas.

Holy Roman Empire

The cities of Lübeck , Stralsund , Wismar , Kiel and Rostock found the Wendish Association of Cities . It serves to secure the trade routes on land and at sea and is considered to be the nucleus of both the later Wendish quarter and the German Hanseatic League as a whole.

Western Europe

Treaty of Paris

City rights and first documentary mentions


  • Stade receives stacking rights from the Archbishop of Bremen .
  • Germany: "From March to August there is hardly any rain, there is an abundance of all fruits, especially wine, so that the empty barrels are worth more than the wine itself" (see web links).

Science and culture

Self-portrait of Matthew Paris from his chronicle
  • around 1259: Bologna issues the oldest known regulations on book lending.



Date of birth saved

Exact date of birth unknown


First half of the year

Second half of the year

Exact date of death unknown

Died around 1259

Web links

Commons : 1259  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files