|Manfred is crowned King of Sicily .||Mongols conquer Baghdad .|
|1258 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||706/707 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1801/02 (southern Buddhism); 1800/01 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||620/621 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||655/ 656 /657 (Year 7/8. January // 28/29. December)|
|Jewish calendar||5018/19 (August 30/31)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1568/69 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1569/70 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1314/15 (turn of the year April)|
The central global political event of 1258 is the conquest of Baghdad by the Mongol Empire under the aegis of Möngke Khan . The Mongolian army is led by Khan Hülegü , who is also held responsible for the subsequent destruction in the city. The event that marked the end of the Abbasid dynasty in Baghdad is a severe blow to Islam , whose so-called Golden Age ends with the city itself remaining depopulated for years.
Politics and world events
Mongol storm in Asia
- January 22nd : The main Mongol army, led by Hülegü , arrives from the west of Baghdad during the Mongol storm . The attack on the capital of the Islamic caliphate state and at that time one of the most important world metropolises, personally commissioned by the Great Khan Möngke Khan , begins on January 29th .
- February 10 : The Mongols succeed in conquering Baghdad in less than three weeks . In the following massacre, between 100,000 and a million people are killed or enslaved. The House of Wisdom and all other libraries in the city are destroyed. A few days later, presumably on February 20, Caliph al-Musta'sim bi-'llah , who refused to surrender the city, is executed. This ends the rule of the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad, which will be depopulated for several years, and the so-called heyday of Islam .
- The Trần dynasty in Vietnam is able to repel a first attempt at conquest by the Mongols . The victory is largely thanks to the military skills of General Trần HĐạng Đạo .
- February: In the war of Saint-Sabas between the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Genoa and their respective allies, a partial peace is concluded in anticipation of further fighting against the Muslims.
- Although Hugo II of Cyprus has no legal claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem , which is nominally ruled by Konradin von Hohenstaufen, who is also a child and is still in Europe, the six-year-old and his mother Plaisance of Antioch are named by Plaisance's brother Bohemund VI . brought to Acre and made "Lord of Jerusalem" or regent.
- After the death of Sultan Abu Yahya Abu Bakr , power struggles broke out within the Merinid clan in Morocco . In these the governor of Fez , Abu Yusuf Yaqub asserts himself as the new ruler.
- The English King Henry III. convenes for the second time after 1257 a “great council” in which the barons take part. He must agree to the establishment of a reform commission.
- June: With the Provisions of Oxford , a comprehensive reform program is passed, which is supposed to give the barons greater control.
- Llywelyn ap Gruffydd , ruler of Gwynedd , is the last native Welsh ruler to be princeps Walliae ( Prince of Wales ).
Holy Roman Empire / Kingdom of Sicily
- June 28 : In the Great Arbitration , based on an arbitration tribunal initiated by Albertus Magnus , the Archbishop of Cologne Konrad von Hochstaden and the citizens of Cologne settle disputes that have lasted for years.
- July 22 : . Meinhard II of the House of Meinhardiner after his father's death I. Meinhard Count of Tyrol and Gorizia . In the same year he married Elisabeth of Bavaria , the widow of the Roman-German King Konrad IV and mother of the last Staufer Konradin.
- August 10th : Manfred , from Staufer , who was previously imperial administrator for his nephew Konradin , was crowned King of Sicily and Apulia , contrary to Konradin's claims , and was then excommunicated by Pope Alexander IV .
Other events in Europe
- May 11th : In the Treaty of Corbeil , James I of Aragón gives up inheritance claims to two French counties, while France's King Louis IX. recognizes that Northern Catalonia and Barcelona remain with the Kingdom of Aragón .
- August: Eight-year-old Johannes IV. Laskaris becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire in exile in Nikaia after the death of his father Theodor II . Despot Michael Palaiologos takes over the reign for the minor.
- Louis IX of France forbids the judgment of God and the feud . It also bans private warfare, arson, and the destruction of plows.
City rights and first documentary mentions
- Memel receives Lübsches town charter .
- The places Berleburg , Biesenthal , Collex-Bossy , Grafenried , Mönchweiler , Molpertshaus , Reuenthal , Siegelsbach , Wellendingen and Wohnste are first mentioned in a document.
- Under King Afonso III. an official survey is carried out in Portugal , in the course of which numerous municipalities are mentioned in documents for the first time.
- 1257/1258 : Konrad von Würzburg writes the strophic allegories Lamentation of Art .
- "Invoked habits" for stonemasons in Paris (see guild )
- since 1258: Niccolò Pisano , the most important European sculptor of the Middle Ages, verifiable in Tuscany
- February 1 : Johann III. is elected Bishop of Prague to succeed Nikolaus von Újezd , who died on January 17th, and is consecrated in Vienna on May 12th .
- February 8 / September 2 : The Mariensee monastery is founded.
- July 12th : Godfrey de Ludham is elected Archbishop of York. He succeeds Sewal de Bovill , who died on May 10th . It will be consecrated on September 22nd and the temporal will be handed over on December 1st . The enthronement takes place around Christmas.
- October 21 : The Upper Silesian monastery Rauden is donated by Duke Wladislaus von Opole .
- Duke Sambor II of Pomerania founds the Pelplin Monastery .
- The Cluny Monastery can be granted a protective privilege of the French King Louis IX. exhibit and thus give up the exclusive ties to the papacy.
- St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna is on fire.
- In Europe, 1258 is considered the year without a summer with continuous rain and bad harvests. Is responsible for probably a volcanic eruption in 1257 , which is probably around the Samalas in Rinjani -Vulkankomplex on the island of Lombok is in Indonesia.
Date of birth saved
- April 9 : Hugo II , Count of Blois and Dunois and Lord von Guise from the House of Châtillon († 1307 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Berke Qan , Sultan of the Mamluks in Egypt († 1280 )
- Heinrich I , Count of Holstein-Rendsburg († 1304 )
- Heinrich von Stretelingen , German nobleman and minstrel († 1294 )
- Johanna , Countess of Blois, Chartres, Dunois and Mistress of Guise († 1292 )
- Primislaus , Polish nobleman, Duke of Ratibor († 1306 )
- Otto von Wölpe , provost of Minden and Count von Wölpe († 1307 )
Born around 1258
- Adolf II , Count of Waldeck and Bishop of Liège († 1302 )
- John de Clinton, 1st Baron Clinton , English nobleman († 1310 )
- Bernhard von Gordon , French medic and author († around 1318 )
- Eleanor de Montfort , English noblewoman and Princess of Wales († 1282 )
- Nicholas Trivet , Anglo-Norman chronicler and Dominican († 1328 )
First half of the year
- January 6th : Konrad I. von Wallhausen , Bishop of Meißen
- January 17th : Nicholas of Újezd , Bishop of Prague
- January 18 : Konrad I. von Tölz and Hohenburg , Bishop of Freising
- around February 20 : al-Musta'sim bi-'llah , last Abbasid caliph (* 1212 )
- March 24th : Florens the Vogt , Regent of Holland (* around 1228 )
- April 5 : Juliana von Lüttich , German nun and mystic (* around 1192 )
- April 14 : Rüdiger von Bergheim , Bishop of Chiemsee and Bishop of Passau (* around 1175 )
- May 10 : Sewal de Bovill , Archbishop of York
- June 2 : Edmund de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln , English nobleman (* around 1230 )
- June 2 : Peter of Portugal , Count of Urgell and Lord of Mallorca (* 1187 )
Second half of the year
- July 22 : Meinhard I. , Count of Gorizia and Istria, Count of Tyrol and Vogt of Aquileia, Trent, Bressanone and Bolzano (* 1193 / 94 )
- July: William de Clare , English knight (* 1228 )
- before August 6: Berthold I. , Count of Ziegenhain and Nidda (* around 1207 )
- August 8 : Henry of Lexinton , Bishop of Lincoln
- August 18 : Theodor II. Laskaris , Byzantine emperor in exile in Nicaea (* around 1222 )
- August 25 : Georg Muzalon , advisor to the Byzantine emperor in exile Theodor II Laskaris (* around 1220 )
- August 28 : Gerhard II. Zur Lippe , Archbishop of Bremen and Bishop of Hamburg (* around 1190 )
- September 12th : Tesauro dei Beccheria , Italian nobleman, Abbot General of the Vallombrosans
- November 8th : Gremislawa of Lutsk , Princess of Krakow (* around 1190 )
- November 23 : John Fitz Geoffrey , English nobleman and Justiciar of Ireland (* around 1206 )
- December 20th : Bruno von Isenberg , Bishop of Osnabrück
- December: Johann von Arsuf , Lord of Arsuf, Bailli and constable of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (* around 1211 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Abu Yahya Abu Bakr , first sultan of the Merinids in Morocco
- Bartholomaeus Brixiensis , Italian canon lawyer (* around 1200 )
- Brancaleone degli Andalò , Italian knight and Roman tribune
- Patrick de Chaworth , Anglo-Norman nobleman (* around 1220 )
- Walter Comyn, Lord of Badenoch , Scottish nobleman and politician
- Götshangpa Gönpo Dorje , Mahasiddha of the Drugpa Kagyü school of Tibetan Buddhism (* 1189 )
- Gottfried III. von Rancon , Lord of Rancon and Taillebourg
- Guillaume de Bussy , Bishop of Orléans
- Guillaume de Chateauneuf , Grand Master of the Order of St. John
- Ibn Abī l-Hadīd , Iraqi scholar (* 1190 )
- Stephen of Lexinton , Abbot of Clairvaux Monastery
- Osman I , founder of Ottoman dynasty and the Ottoman Empire (* 1324 / 1326 )
Died around 1258
- Henry III. von Volmestein , German nobleman
- Philippe de Nanteuil , French knight, participant in the crusade and trouvère