Mongols start under Genghis Khan
war with the Chinese northern kingdom of Jin Dynasty .
|1211 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||659/660 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1754/55 (southern Buddhism); 1753/54 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||573/574 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||607/608 (turn of the year June 14/15)|
|Jewish calendar||4971/72 (9/10 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1521/22 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1522/23 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1267/68 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- March 26 : After the death of his father Sancho I climb Alfons II. The Portuguese throne, citing the same year, the Cortes , the first Portuguese Parliament one.
Occitania / Iberian Peninsula
- January: Peter II of Aragón , who needs calm conditions on his northern border because of an impending battle with the Moors, accepts Simon de Montfort's homage and legitimizes his conquests in recent years.
- The Albigensian Crusade increasingly focuses on the fight against the banished Count Raimund VI. from Toulouse . The siege of Lavaur begins in March and is captured on May 3rd . After taking the city, the mistress Guiraude is thrown into a well and stoned; 80 Cathar knights, including Aimery de Montréal , are hanged or - after the gallows collapsed - killed by the sword; another 300 to 400 people are burned at a stake.
- Raymond VI. takes a counterstrike and conquers the crusader castle Castelnaudary in one stroke.
- May: Simon de Montfort bribes Raimund's brother Balduin of Toulouse to his side, who joins the crusade. Then Montfort took possession of Castelnaudary again and subjugated several towns along the Tarn in a lightning action . He returns an offer of submission to Raimund.
- June 15 : The crusaders appear in front of Toulouse and the next day beat an opposing army at the bridge of Montaudran .
- June 29th : After devastating the surrounding area for two weeks, the crusaders have to break off the siege of the well-fortified Toulouse. De Montfort turned the retreat into a campaign of conquest against the county of Foix .
- An Almohad army under Sultan Muhammad an-Nasir crosses the Strait of Gibraltar and recaptures Christian territories on the Iberian Peninsula, including the order castle of the Order of Calatrava in Salvatierra. Simon de Montfort sends 50 crusaders under Guy de Lucy to the Iberian Peninsula to fulfill his military duty . But when he was besieged by an overwhelming Occitan force in Castelnaudary just a few weeks later, he ordered this contingent back, which Peter of Aragón saw as treason.
Holy Roman Empire / Italy
- September: The Pope Innocent III. Excommunicated Emperor Otto IV reached the Strait of Messina on his campaign against the Hohenstaufen Frederick II of Sicily . At the same time, the anti-welfare archbishops Siegfried of Mainz and Albrecht of Magdeburg , Landgrave Hermann I of Thuringia and the Bohemian King Ottokar I elect Přemysl Friedrich II as the "other emperor" ( alium imperatorum ) in Nuremberg . Faced with the threat to his claim to power, Otto rushed back to the empire north of the Alps via Milan in November in order to consolidate his rule there.
- In a feud with Thomas I of Savoy , Berthold V. von Zähringen tries to conquer the county of Valais . He crossed the Grimsel Pass with 13,000 men and set the two villages of Oberwald and Obergesteln on fire. The Valais, led by the Bishop of Sitten , Landrich von Mont , await the enemy at Oberbach on the Obergestlerfelde near Ulrichen. In the Battle of Ulrichen , Berthold is crushed. The remaining small remnants of his army withdraw over the Grimsel . There they are surrounded by pursuing Valais, beaten again and driven into what is later known as the Dead Lake .
Other events in Europe
- The Teutonic Order receives Burzenland in Transylvania from the Hungarian King Andreas II as a fief and establishes Kronstadt . Andreas hopes for the military support of the order against the Cumans .
- Campaigns by Johann Ohneland against Wales
The Rum Seljuks under Sultan Kai Chosrau I support the former Byzantine Emperor Alexios III. in his attempt to regain the crown and attack the Nikaia Empire . In the Battle of Antioch on the Meander, however, they suffer a crushing defeat. Kai Chosrau falls while Alexios is captured by his son-in-law Theodor I. Laskaris and put in a monastery. In the Sultanate of Rum there is a throne dispute between Kai Chosraus s sons Kai Kaus and Kai Kobad .
Other events in Asia
- History of the Mongols : Under Genghis Khan the Mongols begin the war with the Chinese northern empire of the Jin dynasty . The Chinese army is defeated in the battle near Zhangjjakou and finally defeated near the city of Mukden , which is captured.
- Aram Shah is defeated by Iltutmish after a military coup after only one year in reign . Nothing is known about his further fate. Iltutmish ascends the throne of the Sultanate of Delhi as the third sultan of the slave dynasty . The fledgling rule of Islam in India relies entirely on the military stationed in major fortresses such as Delhi , Gwalior , Ajmer , Kanauj and elsewhere. Due to the (still) negligible number of Muslims, administration and tax collection remain mostly in the hands of the long-established Indian authorities. The state is accordingly unstable and ambitious military officials try again and again to enrich themselves through an overthrow. Iltutmish's reign is therefore filled with almost uninterrupted battles with renegade governors and with Hindu princes.
First documentary mentions
- Asel is first mentioned in a document.
- The Oculus Memoriae list of goods is created in the Eberbach Monastery .
- Trading book of a Florentine (considered the oldest known)
Religion and culture
- February: The Bulgarian Tsar Boril convenes a church synod in the Bulgarian capital Tarnowo . There the Sinodik of Tsar Boril is worked out.
- Construction of the Gothic cathedral in Reims begins after a devastating fire last year.
- The Santa Maria de Caritate monastery and the Oberschönenfeld monastery are founded.
- Immigration of the three hundred rabbis to Jerusalem
Date of birth saved
- Around January 20 : Agnes of Bohemia , Bohemian princess and abbess of the Agnes Monastery in Prague's old town, Catholic saint († 1282 )
- June 15 : Frederick II the Arguable , Duke of Austria and Styria († 1246 )
- September 22nd : Ibn Challikān , Arab or Kurdish biographer and Islamic legal scholar († 1282 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Eleanor of Portugal , Queen of Denmark († 1231 )
- Heinrich (VII.) , Roman-German co-king, King of Sicily († 1242 )
Born around 1211
- John of Arsuf , Bailli and constable of the Kingdom of Jerusalem († 1258 )
- Casimir I , Duke of Kuyavian († 1267 )
Date of death secured
- February 2 : Adelheid von Meißen , Queen of Bohemia (* after 1160)
- February 5th : Florentius von der Lippe , Abbot of Marienfeld
- March 26 : Sancho I , King of Portugal (* 1154 )
- April 26 : Robert of Thornham , Anglo-Norman nobleman and military man
- May 3 : Aimery de Montréal , southern French nobleman, lord of Laurac and co-lord of Montréal as well as prominent opponent of the Albigensian crusade
- May 16 : Mieszko I , Duke of Silesia / Ratibor, Duke of Opole, Senior Duke of Poland
- August 9 : William de Braose , Cambro-Norman nobleman, Baron of the Welsh Marches (* 1144 / 53 )
- October 1st : Roger de Lacy , Anglo-Norman nobleman, Constable of Chester, in command of the Château Gaillard
- November 3 : Alpais , French hermit, Blessed (* 1155 / 1157 )
- November 29th : Páll Jónsson , Bishop of Skálholt in southern Iceland (* 1155 )
Exact date of death unknown
- June / July: Thomas Morosini , first Latin Patriarch of Constantinople
- Kai Chosrau I , Seljuk Sultan of Rum (* before 1177)
- William de Londres , Anglo-Norman nobleman
- Tsangpa Gyare Yeshe Dorje , Tibetan Trülku from the Drugpa Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, Gyelwang Drugpa (* 1161 )