The nineties of the twelfth century belong to the period of the High Middle Ages in Europe . European art is shaped by the transition from Romanesque to Gothic , which began in France and has already established itself there. Court poetry developed in European literature, also starting from France .
- May 18, 1190: The Roman-German Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa defeated on the third crusade in the Battle of Iconium the rum - Seljuks under their Sultan Kılıç Arslan II.
- June 10, 1190: Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph during the crusade . Friedrich's son, Duke Friedrich VI. von Swabia , leads the rest of the disbanding army to Acre , which it reaches in October 1190.
- 1190: Foundation of the Teutonic Order in Akkon.
- January 20, 1191: Friedrich VI. dies during the siege of Acre .
- April 1191: Landing of the French King Philip II.
- June 1191 Richard the Lionheart lands in front of Acre. The Crusaders win back the city that becomes the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem .
- September 7, 1191: Richard the Lionheart defeats Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf .
- September 2, 1192: Armistice with Saladin.
- October 30, 1192: Richard the Lionheart leaves Palestine .
- April 3, 1193: Saladin dies in Damascus .
- 1198: Conversion of the Teutonic Order into a knightly order based in Acre.
Church and Pope
The decade is dominated by a violent conflict between the Empire and the Papacy . After the death of Pope Clement III. (March 25, 1191) becomes Celestine III. 85 years old on March 30, 1191, his successor. Henry VI. forces Celestine III to crown him emperor on April 14, 1191. 1193 excommunicated Celestine III. Leopold V of Austria for the capture of Richard the Lionheart .
Innocent III. becomes successor of Coelestin III. († January 8, 1198) and calls for the fourth crusade . After the death of Henry VI. (28 September 1197) begins Innocent III., A vigorous policy to strengthen the papal power position and the expansion of the Papal States to operate and attracts Reich in central Italy a ( Recovery ). In the German throne dispute , the Pope claims the decision on the double election of Otto IV and Philip of Swabia .
The Holy Roman Empire was shaped in the 1190s by plans for the Hohenstaufen great power, an inheritance plan of Henry VI. but fails because of the prince . After the death of Henry VI. In 1197 the Hohenstaufen empire loses power and the German throne dispute breaks out .
- May 18, 1190: Friedrich Barbarossa dies on the crusade. Successor as the German king is his son Heinrich VI.
- July 1190: Henry VI. make peace with Henry the Lion .
- 1191: Henry VI's first expedition to Italy . His attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Sicily fails.
- April 14, 1191: Henry VI. forces Pope Celestine III. to crown him emperor .
- 1194: Henry VI. reconciles with Henry the Lion.
- August 6, 1195: Heinrich the Lion dies in Braunschweig .
- 1194 to 1195: Henry VI's second Italian campaign. He conquered the Kingdom of Sicily.
- December 1196: The one-year-old son of Henry VI, Friedrich II , is elected king.
- September 28, 1197: Henry VI. dies of malaria in Messina while preparing a crusade .
- 1198: The Staufer Duke Philip of Swabia and the Guelph Otto IV are elected as rival kings.
In the 1190s, Leopold V was first Duke of Austria. During his reign, Richard the Lionheart was captured in Erdberg near Vienna on December 21, 1192. On March 28, 1193, Richard was given to Emperor Heinrich VI. delivered and transferred to Trifels Castle . Leopold was still in office until 1194. His successor was Friedrich I , followed by Leopold VI in 1198 . followed.
- 1191: After Henry VI on the first Italian campaign Pope Coelestin III. forced to crown him emperor, he gave up the tusculum, loyal to the emperor, to the Romans . The train to Sicily ends with the failed siege of Naples .
- 1192: Coelestin enfeoffs the Normans Tankred of Lecce with Sicily after Henry VI. has not recognized the papal suzerainty.
- 1194 to 1195: Henry VI's second Italian campaign.
- December 25, 1194: Henry VI. conquers the Norman Empire after Tankred's death and is crowned King of Sicily in Palermo . The election is not recognized by the Roman Curia . The Norman throne is brought to Germany.
- 1195: Henry VI. reorganizes the administration of imperial Italy: his brother Philipp von Schwaben becomes Margrave of Tuscany ( Tuszien ), Markward von Annweiler becomes Margrave of Ancona and Duke of Ravenna and Romagna .
- 1198: After the death of Henry VI. the papacy begins to draw imperial territory in central Italy ( recuperation ).
Richard the Lionheart was captured by Leopold of Austria on his way back from the Third Crusade in Vienna at the end of 1192 and passed on to Emperor Heinrich VI in 1193. delivered. After his release in 1194, he performed Heinrich VI. the fiefdom . The Anglo-French War also broke out in 1194 and lasted until 1199. Richard the Lionheart dies on April 6th, 1199. His successor is his brother Johann Ohneland .
- 1194 to 1199: Anglo-French War. Large parts of Normandy and the Vexin are lost to England, and the rights in the Archdiocese of Tours also go to Richard the Lionheart.
Cyprus had been a separate empire under Isaak Komnenos since 1184 . After the conquest by the Crusaders, the island becomes part of the occidental world with a coexistence of Byzantine and Frankish cultures.
- 1191: Richard the Lionheart conquers Cyprus and hands the island over to the Templars , then
- 1192: King Guido of Lusignan . After his death
- 1194: his brother and successor Amalrich becomes the actual founder of the state. He recognizes
- 1195: the feudal sovereignty of Henry VI. and is led by Bishop Konrad von Hildesheim
- 1197: crowned and united Cyprus with the Kingdom of Jerusalem .
- July 19, 1195: Last great victory of the Arabs on the Iberian Peninsula in the Battle of Alarcos .
- 1195: The Roman Curia imposes an interdict on Sancho I and Portugal .
- Alexios III overthrows his brother Emperor Isaac II in a coup d'état and has him blinded and imprisoned.
Starting from the old French literature, courtly poetry became established in Europe in the 1180s . The heyday of the so-called Middle High German Classic developed in Germany . Most literary works cannot be precisely dated.
In Germany wrote Hartmann von Aue to Erec , Gregorius , the poor Heinrich and Iwein . Exact dates beyond the relative chronology of his works are not possible, but Hartmann's work falls between 1180 and 1205. Heinrich von Veldeke died between 1190 and 1200 , who, together with Hartmann, is considered to be the founder of the courtly novel in Germany.
The minstrel Friedrich von Hausen died on the third crusade at Philomelium in Asia Minor . Reinmar the Old was in the service of Leopold V of Austria in Vienna around 1190 . Walther von der Vogelweide composed mini poetry and poetry at the court of Frederick I of Austria until 1198 , then at various courts. Around 1200 Heinrich von Morungen , Bligger von Steinach , Heinrich von Rugge and Albrecht von Johansdorf composed courtly poetry.
- Between 1190 and 1200: construction of the late Romanesque Limburg Cathedral began .
- 1194: Construction of Chartres Cathedral begins .
- 1194: Construction of Bourges Cathedral begins .
- 1197: The Messina Cathedral is consecrated.
Islamic Arab world
- May 18, 1190: The Sultan of Rum - Seljuks Kılıç Arslan II is defeated by the crusader army of the Roman-German Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa in the Battle of Iconium .
- 1191: With the siege of Acre , the Crusaders conquer the city.
- September 7, 1191: Saladin is defeated by Richard the Lionheart at the Battle of Arsuf .
- September 2, 1192: Armistice between Saladin and the Crusaders.
- April 3, 1193: Saladin dies in Damascus .
- 1197: With the loss of Beirut and Sidon , the entire coast to Antioch on the Orontes is lost to the Christians.
- Between 1190 and 1200: The Jewish philosopher Maimonides completed his main work Dalalat al-Ha'irin ('Leader of the Indecisive '; dating controversial).
- December 11, 1198: The Spanish-Arabic philosopher and Aristotle commentator Averroes (Ibn Ruschd) dies.
- 1192: Minamoto no Yoritomo is appointed Seii Taishogun by the Tennō . This is the beginning of the Kamakura shogunate .
- January 11, 1198: The Japanese Emperor ( Tennō ) Go-Toba is deposed by the Shogun . This is the end of the Heian period .
- 1192: After a victory over the Rajputs under Prithviraj III. Chauhan near Delhi , the Muslim Ghurids from Persia under Muhammad von Ghur in northern India begin with the conquest of northern India.
- 1199: With the destruction of Nalanda , the Muslims also defeat Buddhism .
- The big Ploetz . Founded by Dr. Carl Ploetz . Edited by 80 specialists. 34th edition, Komet, Cologne 1998. ISBN 3-89836-460-7
- Manfred Hergt, Hermann Kinder, Werner Hilgemann , Harald Bukor, Ruth Bukor, Werner Wildermuth (illustrations): Dtv-Atlas Weltgeschichte . From the beginning to the present. dtv paperback 8598, 2006, ISBN 978-3-423-08598-4 .