Calendar overview 1197
preparing for a crusade .
|Konstanze takes over the reign of the two-year-old son Friedrich .|
|1197 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||645/646 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1740/41 (southern Buddhism); 1739/40 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||64th (65th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||559/560 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||593/594 (turn of the year November 12th / 13th)|
|Jewish calendar||4957/58 (September 14-15)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1507/08 (New Year April)
Syria: 1508/09 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1253/54 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Kingdom of Sicily / German controversy for the throne
- September 28th : After the surprising death of Henry VI. takes over the reign of the kingdom of Sicily for the almost three-year-old son Friedrich Empress Konstanze of Sicily . She has Friedrich von Spoleto brought to Palermo and tries to get closer to Pope Celestine III. , whom she asks for the removal of her deceased husband from the excommunication. In Germany it comes to the German throne dispute between the Staufer and the Guelph side. Friedrich's uncle Philipp von Schwaben tries to secure the empire for his nephew, while the English King Richard I proposes his nephew Otto von Braunschweig , the son of Duke Henry the Lion , as a candidate. Duke Bernhard III. von Sachsen from the Ascanian family is considered a promising candidate for the throne.
Other events in the Holy Roman Empire
- June 23 : Vladislav Heinrich succeeds his cousin Heinrich Břetislav III , who died on June 15 . elected Duke of Bohemia by the Bohemian nobility . In December his brother Ottokar I , who also claims the title of duke, invades Bohemia. In order to prevent the rise of political instability through constant power disputes within the Přemyslid family , Vladislav renounced the title and all associated privileges and inheritance claims in favor of his brother. After negotiations, on December 6th he was made the first Margrave of Moravia .
- July 26th : Norway in the Christian Middle Ages : In the Battle of Oslo, the Baglers under Nikolas Arnason suffer a severe defeat against the Birkebeiner under King Sverre and his son Håkon .
- April 28 : After the death of Rhys ap Gruffydd , his sons Gruffydd ap Rhys and Maelgwn ap Rhys fight for the throne , leading to the decline of the Welsh principality of Deheubarth . Gwenwynwyn intervenes on Maelsgwn's side in the fighting because he sees an opportunity to expand his Powys kingdom .
- Llywelyn from Iorwerth decisively defeats Dafydd from Owain and makes himself the prince of the kingdom of Gwynedd in North Wales. Dafydd is captured.
- Count Balduin IX. of Flanders allies with Richard the Lionheart against their common feudal lord, King Philip II of France . In July he begins an invasion of the Artois .
- April 23 : Peter II takes over government affairs in the Kingdom of Aragon when he comes of age . Together with Alfons VIII of Castile he wages war against Alfons IX. of León and Sancho VII of Navarre , who openly make pacts with the Muslim Almohads .
- Alfonso IX von León marries his distant cousin Berenguela of Castile .
- The Almohads under Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb al-Mansūr advance to Madrid and Guadalajara.
- The Bulgarian Tsar Peter IV from the Assen dynasty fell victim to a Boljar conspiracy after around one year of rule . He is succeeded by his younger brother Kalojan .
- September 10th : Henry of Champagne dies under mysterious circumstances when he falls from the window of a tower in Acre . Amalrich von Lusignan then married Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem, Henry's widow, and becomes iure uxoris King of Jerusalem .
- September 28th : The planned crusade of Henry VI. is canceled because of his premature death. The vanguard of the crusader army reached Acre on September 22nd . The German princes in the crusader army reject Reichshofmarschall Heinrich von Kalden as leader and elect Heinrich I von Brabant in his place. Under him they set up camp in Tire and begin a campaign against the Ayyubids , which is supposed to drive the Muslim pirates out of Beirut and to connect the Syrian coast between Tire and Tripoli . They occupy Sidon and reach Beirut on October 24th . They conquer Gibelet and thus restore the land connection to the county of Tripoli . Then they advance into the hinterland towards Damascus , where they besiege Toron Castle from November . During the siege, news of the emperor's death reached them. Konrad von Querfurt thus loses his leading position as Chancellor and the crusaders begin their journey back to secure their feudal rights in the empire against Heinrich's successor.
First documentary mentions
- First documentary mention of Balzenwil , Diersburg , Eckernförde , Gießen , Grabsleben , Ketzin , Langensteinbach , Liblar , Quendorf , Wiera and Schloss Schaumburg an der Lahn
Religion and culture
Papacy and church hierarchy
- End of January: William de Longchamp , Bishop of Ely , dies in Poitiers on the way to Rome . Eustace was elected as his successor on August 10th in Vaudreuil in Normandy , and immediately afterwards he traveled to Germany as King Richard's ambassador .
- Gottfried II is elected Bishop of Würzburg to succeed Heinrich von Berg , who died on April 4th, but dies on August 24th .
- Pope Celestine III tries to abdicate voluntarily in favor of Cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo, whom he has favored as his successor, but this is prevented by oppositional forces in the College of Cardinals .
- September 22nd : The Cathedral of Messina is opened by Archbishop Berardo in the presence of Emperor Henry VI. and his wife Konstanze , daughter of the Norman king Roger II of Sicily.
- The Basilica of San Nicola in Bari is completed and consecrated in the presence of Chancellor Konrad von Querfurt and a large number of bishops and dignitaries.
Foundations of monasteries
- The Marienberg monastery is founded.
- The floods of March 1197 destroyed the bridges in the city of Paris .
- A fire destroys almost the entire city of Münster in Westphalia.
- Regional famine in Aquitaine
- Amadeus IV. , Count of Maurienne and Savoy († 1253 )
- Oberto Pallavicino , Italian Signore († 1269 )
- Yusuf II. Al-Mustansir , Caliph of the Almohads († 1224 )
Date of death secured
- 28 / January 31 : William de Longchamp , Lord Chancellor of England and Bishop of Ely
- April 14th : Heinrich von Berg , Bishop of Passau and Bishop of Würzburg
- April 28 : Rhys ap Gruffydd , ruler of the South Welsh Principality of Deheubarth (* 1132 )
- June 15 : Heinrich Břetislav III. , Duke of Bohemia, Bishop of Prague
- July 1st : Gertrud , Duchess of Swabia and Queen of Denmark (* around 1154 )
- August 24 : Gottfried II , Bishop of Würzburg
- September 10 : Henry II , King of Jerusalem and Count of Champagne (* 1166 )
- September 18 : Petrus , Archbishop of Old Uppsala
- September 28 : Henry VI. , Roman-German Emperor, King of Sicily (* 1165 )
- November 1 : Jón Loftsson , Icelandic god and scholar (* 1124 )
- November 13th : Homobonus of Cremona , pious merchant, saint
- December 20 : Albert III. von Bogen , Count von Bogen and Windberg and Vogt vonprüfung, Oberaltaich and Windberg (* 1165 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Alain de Dinan , Breton knight (* around 1155 )
- Günter II. , Count of Käfernburg (* around 1132 )
- Heinrich II. , Count of Wildeshausen-Bruchhausen
- Margaret of France , (co-) queen of England, queen of Hungary (* around 1158 )
- al-Marghīnānī , Islamic lawyer
- Owain Cyfeiliog , Prince of the Welsh Principality of Powys (* around 1130 )
- Peter IV , Tsar of the Second Bulgarian Empire
Died around 1197
- Pseudo-Alexios II , Byzantine usurper
- Stephanie von Milly , mistress of Oultrejordain and influential woman in the Kingdom of Jerusalem