Calendar overview 1194
|feudal oath on Emperor Heinrich VI. is Richard the Lionheart released.|
Tankred of Lecce ,
King of Sicily ,
|Heinrich VI. then lays claim to the kingdom.|
|1194 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||642/643 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1737/38 (southern Buddhism); 1736/37 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||64th (65th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||556/557 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||590/591 (turn of the year December 15/16)|
|Jewish calendar||4954/55 (September 16/17)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1504/05 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1505/06 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1250/51 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire / England / France
- February 2 : The English King Richard the Lionheart is released from his captivity at Trifels Castle after paying a high ransom and taking a feudal oath at the Reichstag in Mainz .
- July 3 : The battle of Fréteval is the first direct military encounter between the warring kings Philip II of France and Richard the Lionheart . In the event of his defeat, Philip loses his entire archive and the royal seal to Richard. He learns from the documents of the betrayal of his younger brother Johann Ohneland during his imprisonment in Germany.
Kingdom of Sicily
- February 20 : After the death of Tankred von Lecces , his underage son Wilhelm III. King of Sicily . But due to his marriage to Constance of Sicily , Emperor Heinrich VI. the royal throne and marches into Naples in August.
- On his second Italian move, Emperor Heinrich VI. ( Staufer ) Sicily ; on November 20 he moved to the conquered Palermo and is on December 25 for King of Sicily crowned. A day later, Constanze of Sicily gave birth to his son Friedrich .
City foundations and first documentary mentions
- Foundation of the city of Friedberg in Styria at the foot of the protective castle of the same name with part of the ransom for the release of Richard the Lionheart.
- Bärschwil , Bleienbach , Bretzwil , Büren , Büsserach , Busswil bei Melchnau , Diedenshausen , Lauwil , Liedertswil , Lotzwil , Lupsingen , Reisiswil , Rossemaison , Seltisberg , Thalmannsfeld and Zwingen are first mentioned in a document .
- Bayreuth is first mentioned as "Baierrute"
- First documentary mention of Matzen (Austria)
- First documented mention of Nienover Castle (today's Lower Saxony)
- The Islamization of India by the Arabs (started in 712 AD) reached its climax with the capture of Bihar .
Economy, culture and religion
- around 1194: In Venice one goes over to the minting of larger silver coins , which are generally known as groschen ( grosso ; Latin grossus = thick)
- after 1194: construction of the high Gothic cathedral of Chartres begins (until 1260 )
nature and environment
- The Yellow River divides its course and flows into the sea both north and south (most of the water) of the Shantung Peninsula.
Date of birth saved
- April 25 : Ezzelino da Romano , ruler in Verona, Padua, Vicenza and in the Treviso region, leader of the Ghibellines loyal to the emperor († 1259 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Agnellus of Pisa , Italian Franciscan († 1232 )
- Berengaria of Portugal , Queen of Denmark († 1221 )
- Margaret , Margravine of Namur († 1270 )
- Nachmanides , Jewish doctor, rabbi, philosopher and poet († 1270 )
- Rusudan , Queen of Georgia († 1245 )
Born around 1194
Date of death secured
- February 20 : Tankred of Lecce , King of Sicily and Naples (* around 1138 )
- March: Dietrich von Albeck , Bishop of Gurk
- April 3 : Bård Guttormsson , leader of the Birkebeiner in the Norwegian civil war (* around 1150 )
- April 3 : Sigurd Magnusson , Norwegian counter-king (* around 1180 )
- May 5 : Casimir II , Senior Duke of Poland, Duke in Wiślica, Sandomir, Mazovia and Kujawia (* 1138 )
- June 19 : Sigelo , Protonotary and Chancellor Heinrich VI.
- June 27th : Sancho VI. , King of Navarre (* 1133 )
- October 28 : Berno von Hildesheim , Bishop of Hildesheim
- November 15 : Margaret I , Countess of Flanders
- December 31 : Leopold V , Duke of Austria and Styria, participant in the Third Crusade (* 1157 )
- December: Raymond V , Count of Toulouse (* 1134 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Basil Vatatzes , Byzantine nobleman and general
- Gottfried II von Rancon , crusader
- Guido von Lusignan , King of Jerusalem and King of Cyprus
- Lothar von Hochstaden , Bishop of Liège and Imperial Chancellor
- Roger II Trencavel , Vice Count of Béziers, Carcassonne and Albi
- Witego de Purschitz , Truchsess of Bohemia, Burgrave of Glatz, founder of the Witigonen
- You Mao , Chinese poet and book collector (* 1127 )
Died around 1194
- Roger Frugardi , Lombard surgeon and surgeon from Salerno (* around 1140)