Calendar overview 1191
|siege of Acre ends with the capture of the city by the Crusaders .||
crowns Henry VI.
to the Roman-German emperor .
|Richard the Lionheart beats Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf .|
|1191 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||639/640 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1734/35 (southern Buddhism); 1733/34 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||64th (65th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||553/554 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||586/587 (turn of the year 28/29 January)|
|Jewish calendar||4951/52 (September 20/21)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1501/02 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1502/03 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1247/48 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- May 6th : The English King Richard the Lionheart lands on his way to the Holy Land with his fleet in the port of Lemesos in Cyprus and marries his bride Berengaria of Navarre there on May 12th .
- When Isaac Comnenos arrives in front of Lemesos, Richard demands that he abdicate as Emperor of Cyprus. Isaac rejects this, but has to recognize that his troops are inferior to the Anglo-Norman invading army. Thereupon he decides to offer resistance from his fortresses in the Pentadactylos and especially from Kantara . Richard pursues Isaac's troops with an army of knights and defeats them at Tremetusia . He is supported not only by the few Catholics on the island of Cyprus, but above all by the noble families who have suffered under Isaac's rule over the past seven years. After the siege of the castle of Kantara, Isaac Komnenus is arrested and handed over to the Knights of St. John , who imprison him in the castle Margat in the north of the county of Tripoli .
- June 8 : Richard the Lionheart's army reaches Acre.
- July 12th : With the help of the armies of the third crusade, the crusaders recapture Acon after two years of siege .
- August: King Philip II of France leaves the Holy Land .
- September 7th : Richard the Lionheart defeats Saladin's army at the Battle of Arsuf .
- September 10th : Richard the Lionheart conquers Jaffa .
- After arriving in Palestine, Robert de Sablé joined the Knights Templar . In the same year he was elected Grand Master , an office that had been vacant since Gérard de Ridefort's death in 1189.
Holy Roman Empire
- April 15 : Pope Celestine III. crowns Henry VI in Rome . to the Roman-German Emperor and Constance of Sicily to the Empress. Heinrich's army then moves on to Apulia.
- May: On his Italian expedition , Heinrich's army begins the siege of Naples, which, however, has to be broken off in August due to the outbreak of epidemics.
- During an uprising in Salerno, Constanze of Sicily is captured by Tankred of Lecces .
- October: In the Treaty of Arras , Count Baldwin VIII of Flanders and King Philip II of France as well as Theresa of Portugal , widow of Philip of Flanders , who died on a crusade in the Holy Land, agree on the inheritance of the County of Flanders . Baldwin gives up parts of the inheritance, but on the other hand is recognized together with his wife Margarete , Philip's sister, as the rightful ruler of Flanders.
City foundations and first documentary mentions
- History of the city of Bern : Duke Berchthold V von Zähringen founds the city of Bern and develops it into his center of power.
- The places Alsdorf , Gomaringen , Hirschau , Mainwangen , Peseux NE and Villiers are first mentioned in a document.
- March 21 : Giacinto Boboni-Orsini is elected Pope in the 1191 papal election and takes the name Celestine III. on.
First half of the year
- January 14 : Berno , first bishop of Schwerin and apostle of the Abodrites
- January 20 : Friedrich VI. , Duke of Swabia, a leader of the Third Crusade (* 1167 )
- March 26th : Agnes von Loon , Duchess of Bavaria and Countess Palatine von Wittelsbach (* around 1150 )
- June 1st : John the Chanter , English clergyman
- June 1st : Philip I , Count of Flanders and Crusader
- June 30th : John I , Count of Ponthieu and crusader
Second half of the year
- June: Richard de Camville , English baron and brief regent of Cyprus
- July 3 : Albéric Clément , lord of Mez, Marshal of France and crusader (* around 1165 )
- July 7th : Johann I. von Arcis , crusader
- July 7th : Judith von Schwaben , Landgrave of Thuringia (* around 1133)
- July 27 : Rotrou IV , Count of Le Perche and crusader
- August 3 : al-Kāsānī , Islamic legal scholar
- August 5th : Rudolf von Zähringen , Archbishop of Mainz and Bishop of Liège (* around 1135 )
- August 13 : Philipp I von Heinsberg , Archbishop of Cologne and Arch Chancellor of Italy (* around 1130 )
- September 7th : Jacob of Avesnes , Lord of Avesnes and crusader
- September 9 : Konrad III. Otto , Margrave of Moravia and Duke of Bohemia (* around 1135 )
- October 15 : Rudolf I , Lord of Creil and Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis
- November: Raoul I. de Coucy , crusader
- December 15 : Welf VI. , Margrave of Tuscany, Duke of Spoleto; Founder of the Steingaden Monastery (* 1115 )
- December 25th : Reginald fitz Jocelin , English prelate (* around 1140)
Exact date of death unknown
- Adam I. de Beaumont , Grand Chamberlain of France
- Anséric II of Montréal , crusader
- Clement III. , Pope
- Erhard I. von Chacenay , crusader
- Gruffydd Maelor I , Welsh Prince
- Guido III. , Lord of Châtillon and crusader
- Hellin de Wavrin , Seneschal of Flanders and Crusader
- Heraclius of Caesarea , Archbishop of Caesarea and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
- Hugo V , Vice Count of Châteaudun and Crusader
- Mór Ní Tuathail , Irish noblewoman and Queen of Leinster (* around 1114 )
- Robert I. de Boves , crusader
- Robert V , Lord of Béthune and crusader
- Roger de Wavrin , Bishop of Cambrai
- Ruprecht III. , Count of Nassau and Crusader
- Schihab ad-Din Yahya Suhrawardi , Islamic mystic (* 1154 )
- Theobald V , Count of Blois and Crusader
- Wilhelm V , Margrave of Montferrat and crusader