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Heads of State · Nekrolog

According to Giovanni Villani, Frederick II was suffocated with a pillow by his son Manfred;  II Villani illustrato: Firenze e l'Italia medievale nelle 253 immagini del ms.  Chigiano L VIII 296 della Biblioteca Vaticana, a cura di Chiara Frugoni, Città del Vaticano 2005, p. 136.
The interregnum in the Holy Roman Empire begins with the death of Frederick II .
Saint Louis before al-Mansura, miniature from Le livre des faits de Monseigneur Saint Louis, 15th century.  (Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France)
With the capture of the French King Louis IX. the sixth crusade fails .
1250 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 698/699 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1242/43
Buddhist calendar 1793/94 (southern Buddhism); 1792/93 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 65th (66th) cycle

Year of the Metal Dog庚戌 ( at the beginning of the year Earth Rooster 己酉)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 612/613 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 628/629
Islamic calendar 647/648 (turn of the year 4th / 5th April)
Jewish calendar 5010/11 (August 28-29)
Coptic calendar 966/967
Malayalam calendar 425/426
Seleucid era Babylon: 1560/61 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1561/62 (turn of the year October)

Spanish era 1288
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1306/07 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events


Robert of Artois is killed in the battle of al-Mansura
  • February 8 : After more than two months, the crusaders of the Sixth Crusade manage to cross the Nile at al-Mansura . After Robert I of Artois , the brother of the French King Louis IX. who led the vanguard to the other bank, he ignores the king's orders and uses the chance to launch a surprise attack on the camp of the Muslims who have not yet noticed the advance of the crusaders. The Ayyubids are completely taken by surprise by the ferocious attack of the heavily armored knights. Their commander, Fachr ad-Din Yusuf , is killed before he has a chance to put on his armor. Encouraged by his success, Robert lets himself be tempted to pursue the fleeing enemies into the city. There he falls into a trap of the Ayyubid army. He and his approximately 280 companions fell in hand-to-hand combat with elite Mamluks under the leadership of Rukn ad-Din Baibars .
  • February 11th : The Mamluks lead a counterattack that the crusade army can only repulse with great losses. The crusaders are further weakened by hunger and disease in the further course of the siege, but remain in front of al-Mansura.
  • February 28 : The new Sultan Turan Shah arrives in front of al-Mansura. In March Louis IX tries. To start negotiations with him. However, since he is aware of the weakened situation of the crusaders, he refuses to negotiate.
  • April 5 : The crusaders retreat towards Damiette . The Ayyubids take up the chase and overwhelm the now defeated crusade army. King Louis IX of France and all of his entourage are captured. Turan Shah orders most of the prisoners to be beheaded.
The Mamluks murder Sultan Turan Shah, right next to him the captured King Ludwig, French miniature, 14th century
  • May 2nd : Turan Shah tries to end the influence of the powerful Mamluks at his court. The Mamluk emirs, however, are warned in good time by his stepmother Shajar ad-Durr , who also fears for her life, and a group around Baibars murders the sultan and ends the rule of the Ayyubids in Egypt. The French King Louis IX. can buy his way out with a large ransom, a ten-year armistice and the return of Damiette .
  • May 6th : The French King Louis IX, captured in the sixth crusade . is released by the Mamluks who came to power in Egypt after a palace revolution . He goes from Damiette to Acre . Ludwig remains in the Holy Land and tries to consolidate the Kingdom of Jerusalem and to free all prisoners.
  • July 11 : An-Nasir Yusuf conquers Damascus and establishes a new Ayyubid sultanate in Syria. His offer of alliance to Louis IX. is rejected by this.
Renaud de Vichiers grand master's coat of arms

Holy Roman Empire

Friedrich II. With his falcon. From his book De arte venandi cum avibus (“About the art of hunting with birds”), Southern Italy between 1258 and 1266


Fresco depicting the murder of Erik Plovpenning in St. Bendts Church
  • Erik IV , King of Denmark , succeeds in the war against his brother Abel in conquering large parts of his duchy Schleswig . The latter then asks him to hold reconciliation talks in his royal seat of Schleswig .
  • August 10th : On the way to Schleswig Abel has his brother Erik IV murdered near Missunde and sunk his body in the Schlei .
  • November 1st : Abel ascends the Danish throne after he has found 24 knights who swear his innocence in the murder of his brother on the thing in Viborg . After his accession to the throne, he called back his son Waldemar , whom he had sent to study in Paris. On the journey home, he is captured by the Archbishop of Cologne , Konrad von Hochstaden .

Other events in Europe

First documentary mentions and city rights

science and technology

  • around 1250: Seafarers in the Mediterranean area develop the wind rose with a special graduation for the compass needle .

Culture and religion

Architecture and fine arts


Church hierarchy and religious order

Seal of Bishop Erlandsen on a document from 1251



Date of birth saved

Exact date of birth unknown

  • September: Robert II , Count of Artois and regent in the Kingdom of Naples († 1302 )

Born around 1250


January to April

In his Historia Anglorum (13th century),
Matthäus Paris noted some of the Crusaders who fell near al-Mansura with their coats of arms
Reclining figure of Sire Jocerand III. Most of the time in the Saint-Pierre church in Brancion

May to December

Sarcophagus of Frederick II in the Cathedral of Palermo

Exact date of death unknown

Died around 1250

  • Julian von Speyer , German-French choir master, composer and poet from the order of the Franciscans
  • The knitter , Middle High German poet and traveler (* around 1200 )

Web links

Commons : 1250  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files