Calendar overview 1250
interregnum in the Holy Roman Empire begins with the death of Frederick II .
|Louis IX. the sixth crusade fails .|
|1250 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||698/699 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1793/94 (southern Buddhism); 1792/93 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||612/613 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||647/648 (turn of the year 4th / 5th April)|
|Jewish calendar||5010/11 (August 28-29)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1560/61 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1561/62 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1306/07 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- February 8 : After more than two months, the crusaders of the Sixth Crusade manage to cross the Nile at al-Mansura . After Robert I of Artois , the brother of the French King Louis IX. who led the vanguard to the other bank, he ignores the king's orders and uses the chance to launch a surprise attack on the camp of the Muslims who have not yet noticed the advance of the crusaders. The Ayyubids are completely taken by surprise by the ferocious attack of the heavily armored knights. Their commander, Fachr ad-Din Yusuf , is killed before he has a chance to put on his armor. Encouraged by his success, Robert lets himself be tempted to pursue the fleeing enemies into the city. There he falls into a trap of the Ayyubid army. He and his approximately 280 companions fell in hand-to-hand combat with elite Mamluks under the leadership of Rukn ad-Din Baibars .
- February 11th : The Mamluks lead a counterattack that the crusade army can only repulse with great losses. The crusaders are further weakened by hunger and disease in the further course of the siege, but remain in front of al-Mansura.
- February 28 : The new Sultan Turan Shah arrives in front of al-Mansura. In March Louis IX tries. To start negotiations with him. However, since he is aware of the weakened situation of the crusaders, he refuses to negotiate.
- April 5 : The crusaders retreat towards Damiette . The Ayyubids take up the chase and overwhelm the now defeated crusade army. King Louis IX of France and all of his entourage are captured. Turan Shah orders most of the prisoners to be beheaded.
- May 2nd : Turan Shah tries to end the influence of the powerful Mamluks at his court. The Mamluk emirs, however, are warned in good time by his stepmother Shajar ad-Durr , who also fears for her life, and a group around Baibars murders the sultan and ends the rule of the Ayyubids in Egypt. The French King Louis IX. can buy his way out with a large ransom, a ten-year armistice and the return of Damiette .
- May 6th : The French King Louis IX, captured in the sixth crusade . is released by the Mamluks who came to power in Egypt after a palace revolution . He goes from Damiette to Acre . Ludwig remains in the Holy Land and tries to consolidate the Kingdom of Jerusalem and to free all prisoners.
- July 11 : An-Nasir Yusuf conquers Damascus and establishes a new Ayyubid sultanate in Syria. His offer of alliance to Louis IX. is rejected by this.
- July: Renaud de Vichiers succeeds Guillaume de Sonnac, who fell on February 11 near al-Mansura, as Grand Master of the Templar Order .
Holy Roman Empire
- March 2 : Margrave Heinrich III. von Meißen concludes a settlement with Duchess Sophie von Brabant in the Thuringian War of Succession . Sophie hands over her son Heinrich to her cousin in the direction of Eisenach .
- December 13 : With the death of Emperor Frederick II , the heyday of the medieval German Empire ends . This is considered to be the beginning of the interregnum in the Holy Roman Empire , there is a decline in central power in favor of the princes and cities. Friedrich made his son Conrad IV his universal heir. Pope Innocent IV and with him the spiritual imperial princes expressly do not recognize this regulation.
- The Landin treaty marks the birth of the Uckermark . The contract is a strategic part of the expansive German state expansion to the east and north under the jointly ruling Ascanian margraves Johann I and Otto III. of Brandenburg . The Ascanians' contract partner is Duke Barnim I of Pomerania from the family of the Griffins , who in the barter transaction cedes the northern Uckermark to the Welse , Randow and Löcknitz for half of the Wolgast region to the Ascanians. This means that all of the former Ukranen and Retschanen areas belong to the Mark Brandenburg .
- Dietrich I. von Volmerstein follows his father Heinrich III. von Volmestein as a count at Castle Volmarstein .
- The gate tower of the Schwabentore in Freiburg im Breisgau is completed.
- Erik IV , King of Denmark , succeeds in the war against his brother Abel in conquering large parts of his duchy Schleswig . The latter then asks him to hold reconciliation talks in his royal seat of Schleswig .
- August 10th : On the way to Schleswig Abel has his brother Erik IV murdered near Missunde and sunk his body in the Schlei .
- November 1st : Abel ascends the Danish throne after he has found 24 knights who swear his innocence in the murder of his brother on the thing in Viborg . After his accession to the throne, he called back his son Waldemar , whom he had sent to study in Paris. On the journey home, he is captured by the Archbishop of Cologne , Konrad von Hochstaden .
Other events in Europe
- After the death of his uncle Erik XI. on February 2nd, the seven-year-old Waldemar is elected King of Sweden . The government remains in the hands of his father, the former administrator Birger Jarl .
First documentary mentions and city rights
- Greifswald , Markdorf , Schopfheim , Waiblingen and Weimar receive city rights .
- Florence has a democratic constitution (until 1260 ).
- Heimiswil , Noflen and Thierachern are first mentioned in a document.
science and technology
- around 1250: Seafarers in the Mediterranean area develop the wind rose with a special graduation for the compass needle .
Culture and religion
Architecture and fine arts
- January 21 : The Lords of Schaumburg and the City of Coburg start building the Franciscan monastery in Coburg .
- Construction work on the Marienkirche in Lübeck , the mother church of North German brick Gothic , begins.
- around 1250: The construction of the first church Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice begins.
- around 1250: In England the transition from the Early English Style to the Decorated Style takes place in the Gothic .
- from 1250: The Chimú culture begins to establish itself in South America .
- Around 1250: The Christian mystic Mechthild von Magdeburg begins, at the encouragement of her confessor Heinrich von Halle, to write The Flowing Light of God in Middle Low German about the delights and torments of her mystical experiences with God. Mechthild used in its seven sub Books comprehensive work images of the Song of Songs and minnesong to describe the mystic marriage of the soul with Christ. It is influenced, among others, by Bernhard von Clairvaux , David von Augsburg , Hildegard von Bingen and Gregor the Great . Mechthild's writings are considered to be one of the most impressive examples of German women's mysticism and show the level of women's education in the Middle Ages.
- 1250: The Liebesbestiarium ( Le Bestiaire d'Amour ) by Richard de Fournival arises.
Church hierarchy and religious order
- around 1250: The Frati Gaudenti fraternity is founded.
Date of birth saved
- April 8 : Johann von Damiette , French prince, Count of Nevers, Auxerre and Tonnerre and Count of Valois and Crépy († 1270 )
- August 15 : Matteo I. Visconti , city lord of Milan († 1322 )
- December 15 : Jamal ad-Dīn al-Hillī , Islamic theologian and legal scholar in Persia († 1325 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Agnes of Baden-Austria , Duchess of Carinthia and Countess of Heunburg († 1295 )
- Guglielmo da Brescia , Italian physician and professor († 1326 )
- John IV , Emperor of the Byzantine Empire († after 1290)
- Jom Tob ben Abraham from Seville , Spanish-Jewish scholar, Talmudist and religious philosopher († 1320 )
- Jean Lemoine , Bishop of Arras and papal legate († 1313 )
- Margaret de Clare , English nobleman († 1312 )
- Margaret of Burgundy , Countess of Tonnerre and Queen of Sicily and Naples († 1308 )
- Nichiji , Japanese Buddhist monk († around 1304)
- Ulrich II von Kapellen , Austrian district judge († 1301 )
Born around 1250
- Ascher ben Jechiel , medieval Talmudist who lived in Germany, France and Spain († 1327 )
- Domhnall, 6th Earl of Mar , Scottish nobleman († 1297 )
- Engelbert von Admont , abbot of Admont Abbey († 1331 )
- Guittone d'Arezzo , Italian poet († 1294 )
- Arnd von Gröpelingen , Bremen councilor († 1304 )
- Mordechai ben Hillel , German rabbi and authoritative decisor († 1298 )
- Rhys ap Maredudd , Lord of the Welsh Principality of Deheubarth († 1292 )
- Zawisch von Falkenstein , Bohemian nobleman († 1290 )
- 1250/ 1257 : Pietro d'Abano , Italian physician, philosopher, mathematician and astrologer († 1316 )
- 1250/ 1260 : Margareta Porete , French-speaking theological writer and Begine († 1310 )
- 1250/ 1260 Heinrich von Meißen called Frauenlobstraße , medium high German poet († 1318 )
- 1250/ 1265 : Bertrand de Got, under the name V. Clemens Pope in Rome and Avignon († 1314 )
January to April
- January: Gottfried II of Apremont , Lord of Apremont and Count of Saarbrücken as well as crusaders (* around 1210 )
- February 2nd : Erik XI. , King of Sweden (* 1216 )
- February 6 : Gottfried VI. , Vice-Count of Châteaudun, Lord of Mondoubleau and Saint-Calais, Crusader
- February 8 : Érard II of Brienne-Ramerupt , lord of Ramerupt and crusader
- February 8 : Fachr ad-Din Yusuf , diplomat and emir of the Mameluke Guard of Egypt (* before 1211)
- February 8 : William Longespée of Salisbury , English magnate and crusader (* around 1209 )
- February 8 : Robert de Vere , English crusader
- February 8 : Robert I , Count of Artois (* 1216 )
- February 8 : Raoul II. De Coucy , lord of Coucy, Marle and La Fèr and crusaders
- February 11th : Guillaume de Sonnac , Grand Master of the Templar Order and Crusader
- February 11 : Jean de Ronay , Vice-Master of the Hospitaller Order and Crusader
- February 11th : Jocerand de Brancion , French nobleman and crusader
- March 29th : Ludolf von Ratzeburg , Bishop of Ratzeburg and Catholic saint
- April 6th : Gaucher de Châtillon , Lord of Donzy, Saint-Aignan, Montmirail and Montja as well as crusaders (* around 1221 )
- April 6th : Guy de Château-Porcien , Bishop of Soissons
- April 6 : Hugo XI. , Lord of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Angoulême and Regent of Counties Penthièvre and Porhoët, crusader (* 1221 )
- after April 6: Jean Fuinon , Bailli of Jerusalem
- April 24th : Simon von Collazzone , Italian Franciscan (* around 1200 )
May to December
- May 2 : Turan Shah , Sultan of the Ayyubids in Egypt
- May 27 : Raniero Capocci , Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church (* around 1185 )
- May 29 : Robert of Lexinton , English clergyman and judge (* before 1198)
- June 7th : Wizlaw I , Prince of Rügen (* around 1180 )
- June 13 : Donnchadh, Earl of Carrick , Scottish nobleman
- June 18 : Theresa of Portugal , Queen of Léon and Blessed of the Roman Catholic Church (* 1178 )
- June 28th : Johannes Parenti , Minister General of the Franciscan Order
- July 6th : Peter Mauclerc , Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond (* 1191 )
- before August 9: Henry Hastings , English nobleman (* before 1205)
- July 25 : Humbert V , Lord of Beaujeu and Connétable of France (* 1189 )
- August 10 : Erik IV , King of Denmark and Duke of Schleswig (* 1216 )
- October 4th : Hermann VI. , Margrave of Verona and Baden, Duke of Austria (* around 1225 )
- September 1 : William Raleigh , Bishop of Norwich and Winchester
- September 21 : Marie de Ponthieu , Countess of Ponthieu and Montreuil
- November 15th : Gottfried IV. , Count of Ziegenhain and von Nidda
- December 13 : Friedrich II. , Roman-German King and Emperor, King of Sicily, King of Jerusalem (* 1194 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Arnulf von Löwen , Flemish Cistercian monk, abbot and lyricist (* around 1200 )
- Engelbert I. von Isenberg , Bishop of Osnabrück
- as-Salih Ismail , Ayyubid Sultan of Damascus (* around 1200 )
- Lorepa Wangchug Tsöndru , founder of the Lower Drugpa tradition of the Drugpa Kagyu School of Tibetan Buddhism (* 1187 )
- Al-Muzaffar Sulaiman , Emir of Yemen
Died around 1250
- 1249/1250 : Pierre de Courtenay , French knight and lord of Conches-en-Ouche and Mehun-sur-Yèvre (* around 1218 )
- Julian von Speyer , German-French choir master, composer and poet from the order of the Franciscans
- The knitter , Middle High German poet and traveler (* around 1200 )