Calendar overview 1240
|Alexander Nevsky , Prince of Novgorod , defeated the Swedes under Birger Jarl in the Battle of the Neva .|
|1240 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||688/689 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1783/84 (southern Buddhism); 1782/83 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||602/603 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||637/638 (turn of the year 22/23 July)|
|Jewish calendar||5000/01 (September 17/18)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1550/51 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1551/52 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1296/97 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Northern and Eastern Europe
- July 15 : Alexander Newski , Prince of Novgorod , defeats the Swedes under Birger Jarl in the Battle of the Neva .
- November 28 : Mongolian troops led by Batu Khan begin the siege of Kiev , one of the most important cities in the Principality of Halych-Volodymyr . The city walls are shot at with catapults . Prince Daniel Romanowitsch of Galicia fled to the west as the conquest of the city became apparent.
- December 6th : The Mongols conquer and destroy Kiev . Around 30,000 people were massacred, only around 2,000 left alive. Batu Khan then continued his conquest westward.
Ayyubids / Crusades
- End of May / beginning of June: al-Adil II , Sultan of the Ayyubids in Egypt , is deposed and captured by his own ministers in a palace revolt. His half-brother al-Salih Ayyub is invited to take the throne.
- Summer: As the new Egyptian sultan also claims rule over Damascus for himself, the local Sultan al-Salih Ismail and an-Nasir Dawud form an alliance with the crusade of the barons under Theobald von Champagne, which had arrived the previous year . They hand over Galilee to the Crusaders with several fortresses.
- September: Theobald von Champagne, tired of the political turmoil in the Holy Land, starts his journey home to France with a large part of the crusade army after the end of his vow of commitment and after visiting the holy places in Jerusalem .
- October 11th : A second crusade army from England under the leadership of Richard of Cornwall arrives in Acre.
- End of the year: Since the alliance with the Crusaders met with widespread rejection in the Arab world and large parts of the troops refused to fight alongside the Christians against Ayyub in Egypt, the Crusaders concluded a neutrality agreement with as-Salih Ayyub. In it all areas west of the Jordan via Jerusalem to Ascalon are given to them.
- The Coptic Egyptian scribe 'Abul Fada'il Ibn al-'Assal records the Fetha Negest code in writing. The author uses some apostolic writings for his laws and also earlier legal texts of Byzantine rulers.
Western and Southern Europe
- Raimund II. Trencavel invades the Languedoc with an army consisting largely of Faydits in order to win back the county of Carcassonne for himself. He conquered Aguilar Castle and Montréal and included Carcassonne . However, the royal seneschal, Guillaume des Ormes, succeeds in sending a request for help to the royal court in good time, so that the royal court becomes a relief army under the royal chamberlain Jean de Beaumont and the vice count Gottfried VI. Can send from Châteaudun to the south. Since the Counts of the South have refused to support him, Trencavel has to break the siege on October 11th in view of this threat and flee to Montréal, where he is now besieged in turn.
- In Andria in Apulia , the construction of the Castel del Monte begins on behalf of the Hohenstaufen emperor Friedrich II .
Holy Roman Empire
- The city of Munich passed from the possession of the Diocese of Freising to that of the House of Wittelsbach . Duke Otto II of Bavaria thus gains rule over the city.
- Rudolf I becomes Count of Habsburg after the news of the death of his father Albrecht IV has arrived from the Holy Land.
- After the death of Llywelyn from Iorwerth , his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn becomes Lord of Gwynedd in North Wales. However, he becomes a vassal of the English King Henry III. to whom the lesser Welsh princes must pay homage.
- August: Dafydd arrests his older illegitimate half-brother Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr and his son Owain Goch and imprisons them in Criccieth Castle to nip any disputes over the throne in the bud.
City rights, privileges and first documentary mentions
- Ofteringen and Ofteringen Castle are first mentioned in a document as the property of the Lords of Ofteringen .
- Baindt , Betschwanden , Chancy , Gansingen , Haslach im Kinzigtal , Häutligen , Hohenselchow , Lauterbrunnen , Leibstadt , Oberburg , Scherz and Schwanden are first mentioned in a document .
- Einbeck receives city rights .
- Frankfurt am Main is the first German city to receive the trade fair privilege . The city becomes the center of European trade in goods.
science and technology
- The University of Siena is founded.
- Emperor Friedrich II. Issues an ordinance that regulates medical studies. The curriculum consists of 3 years of logic, 5 years of medicine (including surgery and anatomy including autopsy of human bodies) and one year of practice with a doctor.
- After the death of Germanos II Nauplios in June, Methodios II , previously hegumen (abbot) of the Hyacinth Monastery, was appointed as his successor as Patriarch of Constantinople in exile in Nicaea . However, he dies after just three months. Then there is a three-year vacancy.
- around 1240: The Gerka Monastery is founded and settled from the Klaarkamp Monastery .
- around 1240: The Jewish prayer book Amsterdam Machsor is made.
nature and environment
- January 27 : Great Comet C / 1240 B1 appears and is observed over a period of several weeks in Japan, China and Europe. The comet reaches an apparent magnitude of 0 mag on February 2nd . Further observations are made on February 5th and 12th, and February 13th and 21st, when his tail is still faintly visible.
Exact date of birth unknown
- April: Simon VI. de Montfort , English nobleman and military man († 1271 )
- around October 5 : Margaret of England , Queen of Scotland († 1275 )
- Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia , Aragonese rabbi philosopher cabbalist and Mystic († 1291 / 1292 )
- Albrecht the Degenerate , Landgrave of Thuringia and Margrave of Meissen († 1314 )
- Niccolo di Boccasio, under the name Benedict XI. Pope († 1304 )
- Elisabeth of Cumania , Queen of Hungary († 1290 )
- Henry VI. , Count of Luxembourg and Arlon († 1288 )
- Alexander Lüneburg , councilor and mayor of Lübeck († 1302 )
- Magnus I , King of Sweden († 1290 )
- Peter III , King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona, King of Valencia, King of Sicily († 1285 )
- Song Duzong , Emperor of China († 1274 )
Born around 1240
- Abū l-Barakāt an-Nasafī , Hanafi lawyer and theologian from Transoxania († 1310 )
- Brynolf Algotsson , Bishop of Skara († 1317 )
- Andronikos II. Komnenus , Emperor and Grand Comnene of Trebizond († 1266 )
- Bernard de Castanet , Bishop of Albi († 1317 )
- Yunus Emre , Turkish poet and mystic (Sufi) of the Bektashi-Tariqa († 1321 )
- William Ferrers , English nobleman († 1287 )
- Johannes I von Blankenfelde , Berlin patrician and mayor († 1320 )
- John I Dukas Komnenos , ruler in Thessaly and Central Greece († before 1289)
- John fitz John , English nobleman and rebel leader († 1275 )
- Konrad I , Margrave of Brandenburg († 1304 )
- Luitgard , Countess Palatine of Tübingen and heiress of Horb († 1309 )
- Wilhelm von Tocco , Italian monk († around 1323 )
- William of Louth , English civil servant and clergyman († 1298 )
- 1240/1245: Arnolfo di Cambio , Italian architect and sculptor († 1302 / 1310 )
- 1240/1245: Dietrich von Freiberg , German philosopher, theologian and physicist, Dominican and provincial († after 1310)
First half of the year
- January 17th : Isabella Marshall, Countess of Pembroke , English noblewoman (* 1200 )
- January 23 : Albert of Pisa , General Minister of the Franciscan Order (* around 1200 )
- January: Pilgrim of Prague , Bishop of Prague
- April 11th : Llywelyn from Iorwerth , Prince of Gwynedd in North Wales (* 1173 )
- May 1st : Ekkehard Rabil , Bishop of Merseburg
- May 1 : Jacques de Vitry , Cardinal Bishop of Tusculum and Bishop of Acre (* around 1160 / 70 )
- May 24th : Skule Bårdsson , Jarl and the last anti-king of Norway (* around 1189 )
- June 24th : Heinrich I , Bishop of Meissen
- June: Germanos II. Nauplios , Patriarch of Constantinople in exile in Nikaia
Second half of the year
- August 4th : Ludmilla of Böhmen , Duchess of Bavaria (* around 1170 )
- around August 25 : Heinrich II. von Barmstede , Holstein nobleman
- August 31 : Raimund Nonnatus , Catalan saint and cardinal (* around 1202 )
- November 16 : Muhyī d-Dīn Ibn ʿArabī , Islamic mystic / Sufi and traveler from Moorish Spain (* 1165 )
- November 16 : Edmund Rich , English philosopher and theologian, Archbishop of Canterbury (* around 1174 )
- Autumn: Methodios II , Patriarch of Constantinople in exile in Nikaia
Exact date of death unknown
- Abraham ben Samuel ibn Chasdai , Jewish translator and poet in Barcelona
- Balian Garnier , Count of Sidon (* around 1195 )
- Johannes Dukas Batatzes , Byzantine aristocrat in the Nikaia Empire (* around 1215 )
- John FitzRobert , English nobleman and rebel (* around 1190 )
- Miroslawa von Pommerellen , Duchess of Pomerania
- Raziah , sultana in the Indian sultanate of Delhi (* 1205 )
- Serapion , monk of the Mercedarian order and martyr (* around 1175 )
- William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey , English nobleman (* 1166 )