Calendar overview 1275
Marco Polo reaches the Empire of China
and enters the service of Kublai Khan .
|1275 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||723/724 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1818/19 (southern Buddhism); 1817/18 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||637/638 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||673/674 (turn of the year June 26-27)|
|Jewish calendar||5035/36 (22/23 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1585/86 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1586/87 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1331/32 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Northern and Central Europe
- The conflict between the Swedish King Waldemar and his two brothers Magnus Ladulås and Erik, which has been smoldering for several years, ends in an open battle after the latter received support from the Danish King Erik Klipping . They defeat Waldemar's followers at the Battle of Hova that same year. After that, after Waldemar had forcibly abdicated, Magnus was elected King of Sweden and was crowned king in Uppsala in May . Waldemar flees to Norway with his wife. The battle for the crown continued for several years.
- June 24 : After his refusal certain imperial estates to King Rudolf return, is the Bohemian King Premysl Otakar II. On the Diet of Augsburg the imperial ban imposed.
Western and Southern Europe
- After the death of his eldest son Ferdinand de la Cerda , Alfonso X of Castile chose his second son Sancho IV as his successor, thereby overriding the claims of Ferdinand's children, which in later years would lead to war with France.
- Gottfried Magnuson becomes King of the Isle of Man and thus drives out the Scottish rulers after ten years , but has to give up the office to the returning Scots in the same year .
- Bohemond IV is after the death of his father Bohemond III. Count of Tripoli . At the same time he becomes titular prince of Antioch, although his father lost the principality of Antioch in 1268 .
- Marco Polo reaches the Chinese Empire and enters the service of Kublai Khan , who will use him for various missions until 1292 .
- The Kingdom of Singhasari on Java makes the ports of Palembang and Jambi as remnants of the once great Srivijaya subject to tribute.
City rights and first documentary mentions
- Bergedorf , Neustadt an der Weinstrasse and Schiedam were granted city rights.
- First mention of the places Agriswil , Amstetten (Württemberg) , Boms , Breitnau , Dettingen , Donzdorf , Dünaburg , Dürrenroth , Dürnau , Doppleschwand , Ebhausen , Egelsbach , Eichelberg , Erbach (Danube) , Feuerbach , Lungern , Großsteinhausen , Habkern , Hattenhofen , Hellsau , Hohengehren , Holzen , Karsee , Kirchensittenbach , Krumwälden , Lauperswil , Lausen , Luthern , Möglingen , Mühlingen , Oberthal , Ottenbach , Rabenshof , Saint-Brais , Salach , St. Gallenkappel , Schalkstetten , Schlierbach (Württemberg) , Schonach in the Black Forest , Uhingen , Vechigen , Waldstetten , Wannweil , Wißgoldingen , Wolfegg , Zell im Wiesental , Zepfenhan and Zell LU
- King Edward I of England obtained approval for a general property tax and for the collection of an export duty for wool, which would secure regular income in the near future and thus facilitate borrowing from Italian merchants.
science and technology
- March 4th : Chinese astronomers report a total solar eclipse .
- May 7th : Petrus de Alvernia is appointed rector of the University of Paris by the cardinal legate Simon von Brion .
- The nave of the Strasbourg cathedral is completed in a uniform and unusually fast construction phase (started in 1250 ).
- since 1275: Steinmecz's independent profession is mentioned in the sources.
- around 1275: Heinrich von Gent teaches as a master of theology at the University of Paris (until around 1292 )
- around 1275: Aegidius of Rome describes the development of the body in the uterus ( De formatione corporis in utero ) and assumes that both parents influence the characteristics of a child.
- around 1275: Deutschenspiegel and Schwabenspiegel (written by an Augsburg Franciscan ) are created.
- The Icelandic writer and skald Sturla Þórðarson begins to write the Sturlubók . The manuscript is an important historical source of the colonization of Iceland, but is no longer considered a reliable source today. The focus is on a genealogical list of the largely Norwegian settlers who took possession of the uninhabited island.
- May 7th : Agnes Countess of Württemberg , eldest daughter of Ulrich I , called the founder of Württemberg and Mechthild of Baden, marries Count Konrad von Öttingen († before 1279 ).
- March 16 : Siegfried von Westerburg becomes Archbishop of Cologne .
- April 18 : Consecration of Mönchengladbach Minster
- John XI. becomes Patriarch of Constantinople .
- At the general chapter of the Dominicans in Bologna it is decided to combine the monasteries of the individual parts of the country of the larger provinces in special associations, called nationes .
- Johannes von Erfurt is verifiable as a lecturer of the Franciscans in Erfurt .
- Foundation of the Cistercian monastery in Ebersecken
- The Liber decimationis of the Diocese of Constance comes into being.
nature and environment
- (Germany): It has been raining since the beginning of May, many rivers burst their banks because of the continuous rain , for example the Main or the Elbe on August 24th .
Date of birth saved
- February 28 : Konrad IV. Von Baierbrunn , Bavarian nobleman († 1333 )
- September 27 : John II , Duke of Brabant and Limburg († 1312 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Ferdinand II. De la Cerda , Infante of Castile († 1322 )
- Jón Halldórsson , Bishop of Skálholt in Iceland († 1339 )
- Musō Soseki , Japanese Zen master, political advisor, garden designer, man of letters and calligrapher († 1351 )
Born around 1275
- Bartholomew de Badlesmere , English nobleman, military man and rebel († 1322 )
- Durandus de San Porciano , Dominican ("doctor modernus") († 1334 )
- Edward Bruce , Irish high king († 1318 )
- Marsilius of Padua , politicians and philosopher († 1342 / 43 )
- Pietro Rainalducci , 1328-1330 as Nicholas V antipope to John XXII. († 1333 )
- Gediminas , Grand Duke of Lithuania († 1341 )
- Peter von Zittau , Bohemian writer and abbot of the Cistercian monastery Königsaal († 1339 )
First half of the year
- January 6th : Raimund von Peñafort , founder of the Spanish order (* 1175 )
- January 26 : Ulrich von Liechtenstein , German minstrel (* around 1200 )
- February 10 : Paio Peres Correia , Portuguese knight (* 1205 )
- after February 12th : Pribislaw I. , Herr zu Parchim-Richenberg (* 1224 )
- February 27 : Margaret of England , Queen of Scotland (* 1240 )
- March 24th : Beatrix of England , daughter of Henry III. of England (* 1242 )
- April 13 : Eleanor of England , Countess of Pembroke and Leicester, sister of King Henry III. (* around 1215 )
- May 27 : Fujiwara no Tameie , Japanese poet (* 1198 )
- May 29th : Sophie von Brabant , Duchess of Brabant (* 1224 )
- June: Bernhard IV. , German nobleman (* around 1230 )
Second half of the year
- July 2 : Eudes Rigaud , Archbishop of Rouen (* around 1200 )
- July 13th : John of Toledo , English Cistercian and cardinal
- August 15th : Lorenzo Tiepolo , Doge of Venice
- September 24th : Humphrey de Bohun , English magnate
- October 21 : Sancho of Aragón , Archbishop of Toledo (* around 1250 )
- November 26th : Aymon de Cruseilles , Bishop of Geneva
- November: John fitz John , English nobleman and rebel leader (* around 1240 )
- November: Otto I. von Minden , Prince-Bishop of Minden (* around 1225 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Alan Durward , Guardian of Scotland and Legal Counsel
- Beatrix of Sicily , Latin titular empress of Constantinople (* around 1252 )
- Bohemond VI. , Prince of Antioch and Count of Tripoli (* 1237 )
- Dietrich V./VII. , Count of Kleve (* around 1226 )
- Ferdinand de la Cerda , Crown Prince of Castile (* 1255 )
- Fernán Sánchez de Castro , Aragonese-Catalan nobleman and crusader
- Hartmann II. Von Grüningen , Count of Württemberg
- Herbord , Bishop of Lavant
- Julian Garnier , Count of Sidon
- Maria von Brienne , Latin Empress of Constantinople (* 1224 )
- Jia Sidao , Chinese chancellor under the emperors Lizong and Duzong (* 1213 )