Calendar overview 1278
|Rudolf I von Habsburg defeated Ottokar II Přemysl in the battle of Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen .|
|1278 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||726/727 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1821/22 (southern Buddhism); 1820/21 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||640/641 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||676/677 (turn of the year 24/25 May)|
|Jewish calendar||5038/39 (September 18-19)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1588/89 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1589/90 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1334/35 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Campaigns of Rudolf I against Ottokar II. Přemysl
- 16 / March 17 : In the Gertrudisboulevard night penetrates Count William of Jülich with 469 armed horsemen in the wake through the open traitors Kölnmitteltor in the free imperial city of Aachen , in order for the Roman-German King Rudolf I of Habsburg , the conflict with the Bohemian King Ottokar II Přemysl is to collect due taxes.
- August 26th : Rudolf I's campaigns against Ottokar II Přemysl end with a decisive victory for the Habsburgs: Rudolf I , with the support of Ladislaus IV of Hungary, defeats the Bohemian King Ottokar II Přemysl in the battle of Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen . After the death of Ottokar, who was murdered by personal enemies immediately after the battle, Ottokar's widow Kunigunde von Machov made Otto the Tall One of Brandenburg the guardian of her son Wenzel in order to protect the Bohemian and Moravian territories from Rudolf's access. Heinrich IV of Breslau, however, disputes the guardianship of Otto. He occupies the County of Glatz and moves with troops to Prague.
- Immediately after the battle, Rudolf moves to Moravia , where the important cities and Bishop Bruno of Olomouc pay homage to him. In a manifesto he declares that he will offer Ottokar's bereaved protection.
- The peace negotiations will be concluded at the end of October, chaired by the Archbishop of Salzburg. While the Přemyslids had to give up their claims to the Austrian possessions, they received Bohemia and Moravia as imperial fiefs. The guardianship of Wenceslas was handed over to Otto von Brandenburg for five years. Rudolf is allowed to keep Moravia for this period in order to cover his war costs. Heinrich von Breslau receives the County of Glatz. To ensure peace, Rudolf's daughter Guta von Habsburg is married to Wenzel and Rudolf's son Rudolf to Wenzel's sister Agnes .
- After the death of Ottokar II in the battle of Marchfeld, Wenceslaus II becomes King of Bohemia. However, his guardian, the Brandenburg Margrave Otto IV. With the arrow , exercises the actual power .
Further events in the empire
- January 10 : In the battle of Frohse , the citizens of Magdeburg, allied with the Archdiocese of Magdeburg , defeat Margrave Otto IV of Brandenburg and take him prisoner.
- Günther von Käfernburg (VI.) Renounces all rights to the Georgenthal monastery .
Other events in Europe
- September 8th : Through the peace treaty of Lleida between the Count of Foix Roger Bernard III. and the Bishop of Urgell Pere d'Urtx , the Principality of Andorra is created.
- Motovun comes under the rule of the Republic of Venice .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- First documented mention of Auerbach , Boudry , Dudenhofen , Endersbach , Gerlafingen , Obergerlafingen , Kürnbach , Mutschelbach , Neukirch , Oberwil im Simmental , Ragenreute , Recherswil , Reutin , Schönhardt , Warth and Wembach
- Bernburg (Saale) receives city rights .
- King Rudolf I confirms the imperial city privileges of Ravensburg .
- The Sternburg brewery is first mentioned in a document.
- Giovanni Pisano works for his father Niccolò Pisano at the fountain in Perugia .
- around 1278: Konrad von Würzburg wrote the tournament of Nantes , which shows his fondness for the heraldic poetry .
- September 8th : The provincial chapter of Teutonia takes place in the Erfurt convent of the Dominicans (Predigerkirche) . Meister Eckhart has the opportunity to experience a mass event of his order for the first time, as around 200 brothers attend this event.
- In the Predigerkirche in Erfurt , the preserved cloister wing with the chapter house and refectory is covered.
- The Dominican Wilhelm von Moerbeke becomes Archbishop of Corinth.
- The Teutonic Order founds the Dünaburg , the nucleus of today's Daugavpils .
- Dance rage epidemic in Europe (religious mass madness with St. Vitus dance- like states)
nature and environment
Date of birth saved
- 11 / March 12 : Mary of Woodstock , English princess and nun († around 1332 )
- September 8 : Theobald de Verdon , English nobleman († 1316 )
- November 10 : Philip I of Taranto , Prince of Taranto, Despot of Epirus, Prince of Achaia and Titular Emperor of Constantinople († 1331 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Ferdinand of Mallorca , Infante of the Kingdom of Mallorca and titular prince of Achaia († 1316 )
- Constantine III , King of Armenia († 1308 )
- Lucy Thwing , English nobleman († 1346 )
- Philip I , Lord of Piedmont and Prince of Achaia († 1334 )
- Robert of Anjou ("the Wise"), King of Naples († 1343 )
- Ulrich von Ahelfingen , German nobleman († 1339 )
Born around 1278
- Thomas Plantagenet , English magnate and rebel († 1322 )
- 1278/ 1279 : . Heinrich VII of Luxembourg , German Kaiser and Count of Luxembourg († 1313 )
First half of the year
- March 16 : Wilhelm IV. , Count of Jülich (* 1210 )
- May 1st : Wilhelm II of Villehardouin , Prince of Achaia
- after June 22nd : Martin von Troppau , Dominican and chronicler
- June 30th : Pierre de la Brosse , chamberlain and favorite of King Philip III. from France
Second half of the year
- August 26 : Ottokar II. Přemysl , King of Bohemia, Duke of Austria, Duke of Styria and Duke of Carinthia and Carniola (* around 1232 )
- November 12th : Dietrich von Marburg , Bishop of Gurk
- November 13 : Barnim I , Duke of Slavia (Pomerania-Stettin) (* around 1210 / 18 )
- December 31 : Sambor II , Duke of East Pomerania (* 1208 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Anselm von Meissen , Bishop of Warmia (* 1210 )
- Boleslaw II , son of Duke Heinrich II of Lower Silesia (* around 1217 )
- Gérard de Grandson , Bishop of Verdun
- Heinrich I , Count of Vaudémont (* 1232 )
- Lanxi Daolong , Chinese Chan master and calligrapher (* 1213 )
- Niccolò Pisano , Italian architect (* around 1205 )