|Gregory X. the only four-popes year to date begins.||
Jaume II proclaims the
Kingdom of Mallorca .
|1276 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||724/725 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1819/20 (southern Buddhism); 1818/19 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||638/639 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||674/675 (turn of the year June 14/15)|
|Jewish calendar||5036/37 (9/10 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1586/87 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1587/88 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1332/33 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- September 19 : The campaigns against Rudolf I Premysl Otakar II. Begin: Styrian and Carinthian nobles afford in Rein near Graz to Reiner oath , with whom she Rudolf von Habsburg swear allegiance. Ottokar II of Bohemia loses control of Styria and Carinthia .
- After the siege of Vienna between October 18 and November 25 by Rudolf von Habsburg , the city surrendered. Ottokar also loses control of Austria .
Other events in Europe
- November: King Edward I of England declares his vassal Llywelyn ap Gruffydd , the Prince of Wales and Gwynedd , a rebel. He is preparing a campaign against Llywelyn for the next year.
- Jaume II proclaims the Kingdom of Mallorca . This receives sovereignty over Montpellier .
- The Bylov (city law) is passed at the Norwegian Thing Meetings .
- Under the powerless King Ladislaus IV , a civil war raged in Hungary between the noble families of the Csák and the Kőszegi: Péter Csák and his troops destroyed the city of Veszprém .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- March 9 : An privilege of King Rudolf von Habsburg receives Augsburg the authority of the municipal law , becoming a free imperial city .
- First documentary mention of Anwil , Boltigen , Goldburghausen , Kaldenkirchen , Limpach , Lüterswil , Schwaan and Wolferborn
- Ratingen and Warstein receive city rights .
- Kaiserslautern and Germersheim become Free Imperial Cities .
- The Teutonic Order founds the Marienburg Order Castle .
science and technology
- Papermaking comes to Italy: One of the earliest paper mills in the West goes into operation in Fabriano .
- In the "Libros del saber de astronomía" (/ 1277 ) ( Alfonsine Tables ) initiated by Alfonso X. of Castile, some books ("chapters") deal with the construction of clocks such as the one with an astrolabe dial (see astrolabe ), which by mercury chambers arranged in a circle on a shaft are said to have been regulated.
- The Gaocheng Observatory is established.
- High-Gothic west facade of the Strasbourg cathedral with rich sculptures of the portals and a large rose window (13.5 m). The share of cathedral builder Erwin von Steinbach in this is controversial.
Four Pope Year
On 10 January pope dies Gregory X. With Pierre de Tarentaise is on 21 January under the name of Innocent V for the first time a Dominican pope. He is elected only one day after the beginning of the conclave , which meets for the first time according to the strict rules of his predecessor Gregor X. The cardinals are not allowed to leave the building before a new pope has been elected. Although the new Pope tended towards neutrality, he quickly came under the influence of Charles I of Anjou , who resided in Rome as a Roman senator. After almost six months, he dies on June 22nd .
The conclave in July proves to be quite arduous, since no successor for Innocent can be found. Finally, in his function as Senator of Rome, Charles of Anjou reminds of the conclave settlement of the Second Council of Lyon and takes over the direction of the conclave. He isolated the cardinals from the outside world and reduced their meals. Only when the blistering heat of the summer demands their victims among the cardinals - many collapse exhausted - the election falls on July 11th on Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi , who as legate for England a few years earlier was instrumental in ending the civil war there and reforming the English Church contributed. He ascends the papal throne under the name Hadrian V. Because he was not ordained a priest as a cardinal deacon, Hadrian repeals the conclave order of Gregory X., his only official act in writing, which can still be proven today. He died of heat stroke near Viterbo on August 18 .
Finally, after heated discussions in the conclave, on September 8th, the 60-year-old Peter Rebuli-Giuliani climbed as Johannes XXI. the chair of Peter. The influence of Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini tipped the balance in favor of his choice. John XXI. resides exclusively in Viterbo. The trained physician encourages study reform at universities and awards scholarships for particularly talented students. During his term of office - as already under Urban IV. And Clemens IV. - important philosophers, natural scientists and physicians worked at the papal curia. In order to resume his own studies, he had a private library built at the back of the Papal Palace in Viterbo.
- Raimundus Lullus founds the Miramar Mission School in Mallorca , where Christian preachers are taught Arabic in order to proselytize the Arab world .
- Siger of Brabant , the first and leading representatives of the so-called Latin Averroism is because heresy accused and loses his teaching position at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Paris .
- Hervaeus Natalis joins the Dominican Order in Morlaix , Brittany .
- Margaret of Hungary is beatified .
- In Vienna break within a short time on March 28 , April 16 and April 30 three times equal to fires , which total destroy around two thirds of the city .
Date of birth saved
- September 29 : Christopher II , King of Denmark († 1332 )
- October 18 : Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot , English nobleman († 1346 )
- October 19 : Hisaaki , Japanese Shogun († 1328 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Thomas Dagworth , English knight
- Fenena of Kujawy , Queen of Hungary († 1295 )
- Robert de Umfraville , English nobleman († 1325 )
- Rudolf II , Count von Herrenberg († 1316 )
- Nadschm ad-Dīn at-Tūfī , Hanbali scholar († 1316 )
- Wachtang III. , King of Georgia († 1308 )
- Yesun Timur Khan , Emperor of China († 1328 )
Born around 1276
- Maud de Clare , Anglo-Irish nobleman († 1327 )
- William Latimer, 2nd Baron Latimer , English nobleman, military man and administrator († 1327 )
Date of death secured
- January 4th : Johannes von Tralau , Bishop of Lübeck
- January 10th : Gregory X. , Pope (* 1210 )
- January 13th : Diether V. , ruler of the County of Katzenelnbogen
- January 24th : Walram II , Count of Nassau (* around 1220 )
- March 26 : Margarete von Henneberg , Countess (* 1234 )
- June 22nd : Innocent V , Pope (* 1225 )
- July 27 : James I , King of Aragon (* 1208 )
- July 28 : Arnold II , German abbot
Exact date of death unknown
- before January 5th: William Bardolf , English nobleman (* before 1206)
- May: Ludwig , heir to the French throne (* 1264 )
- June: Heinrich of Antioch , Prince (* around 1210 )
- Ahmad al-Badawī , Shafiite scholar, preacher and Sufi (* around 1199 )
- Jacob von Ibelin , Count of Jaffa and Lord of Ramla (* around 1249 )
- Lupold von Nordenberg , court official in the Holy Roman Empire and provost of Feuchtwangen
- Smbat Sparapet , Armenian chronicler (* 1208 )
- Joan de Stuteville , English nobleman
- Wassili Jaroslawitsch , Russian Grand Duke of Vladimir (* 1241 )
Died around 1276
- Gerhard von Borgo San Donnino , Italian representative of the spiritual within the Franciscan order
- Guido Guinizelli , Italian poet and politician (* 1230 )