The German builder Erwin von Steinbach
starts building the facade on Strasbourg Cathedral .
|1277 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||725/726 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1820/21 (southern Buddhism); 1819/20 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||639/640 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||675/676 (turn of the year 3rd / 4th June)|
|Jewish calendar||5037/38 (29/30 August)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1587/88 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1588/89 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1333/34 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
Hermann II von Lohn kidnaps Count Engelbert I von der Mark to his castle in Bredevoort on All Saints Day , where he dies on November 16 from the wounds he had suffered in the attack. Engelbert's son Eberhardt avenges his father's death the following year, Bredevoort Castle is destroyed, Hermann von Lohn has to undergo an atonement and loses his dynastic independence through his rule Lohn .
England / Wales
- Edward I of England wages a first campaign to subjugate his defiant vassal, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd , the Prince of Wales and Gwynedd . The King gathers three armies in Chester , Montgomery and Carmarthen , giving leadership to William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick , in Chester, Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer , in Montgomery, and Payn de Chaworth , Lord of Kidwelly in Carmarthen. Chaworth made an advance into the valley of the Tywi in January . In April and May he can induce the most important Welsh lords in South West Wales, Gruffydd ap Maredudd and Rhys ap Maredudd , who surrender to him in the hope of preserving the territories of their Welsh relatives and neighbors as a reward for their submission. On July 1 afford Rhys Wyndod and Rhys Fychan and Gruffydd Rhys and Cynan ap Maredudd fealty in Worcester the king. Chaworth occupied Dinefwr Castle , the old residence of the Princes of Deheubarth , as well as Llandovery , Carreg Cennen Castle and Ceredigion. He was eventually replaced by Edmund Crouchback , the king's brother, who began building Aberystwyth Castle on July 25th .
- Chester royal troops occupy Powys Fadog, where the Welsh garrison of Dinas Bran set the castle on fire in May before it can fall into English hands. Llywelyn's new castle at Dolforwyn in Mid Wales surrenders to Roger Mortimer's troops on April 8th after an eight-day siege . In occupied Builth , the rebuilding of Builth Castle begins as early as May .
- When the king and his army appear in Chester on July 15th , accompanied by Dafydd , Llywelyn's brother, who has lived in exile in England since 1274 after a failed conspiracy against his brother , Llywelyn's allies are already defeated or have surrendered.
- Llywelyn agrees to negotiate in September and on November 9 accepts his defeat in the Aberconwy Treaty .
Other events in Europe
- October 17th : Alberto I della Scala becomes lord of Verona after the murder of his brother Mastino I della Scala by a noble faction . He is the second ruler of the city from the House of Scaliger .
- By the Concordat of Tønsberg , a closed comparison between King Magnus Lagabøte of Norway and Jon Raude , Archbishop of Nidaros , until then existing privileges of the Church to be circumcised in the case law and subordinate to the Church of the crown.
Asia and Africa
- China : Around 50,000 supporters of the southern Song dynasty are fleeing the Mongols to Macau and colonizing the region for the first time.
- Yahya II. Al-Watiq becomes caliph of the Hafsid in Ifrīqiya .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- In a city privilege , Duke Albrecht I of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel confirmed extensive freedoms and rights to the city of Hameln . With this privilege , the Duke leaves the Jewish shelf to the city and thus an important source of finance. Every Jew living in Hameln is exempted from all services to the duke, but is obliged to "serve a citizen" to the city, such as guard duty and fortification work.
- Alzey and North received the town charter , Sopron is free royal city .
- Berghaupten , Gempen , Hellikon , Landiswil , Mauschbach and Ried bei Kerzers are first mentioned in a document .
- The Genoese appear with their galleys for the first time off the Flemish coast ( Bruges ). In addition to the arduous land route, the direct sea connection between Italy and the north-western European economic centers is gradually becoming effective.
- Erwin von Steinbach starts building the facade on Strasbourg Cathedral .
- The remaining part of the Gothic sacristy of Cologne Cathedral is built.
- 1277/ 1287 : Konrad von Würzburg writes the written Mannerist, floral style Marienpreisung The Golden wrought .
- March 7 : Étienne Tempier , Bishop of Paris , forbids a total of 219 teachings of Aristotle , Averroes and ( revoked 1325 ) Thomas Aquinas that determine natural events or directly contradict Bible statements . This ban will soon apply to all of Europe north of the Alps; Padua then became a stronghold of averroism (see Paris condemnations ).
- November 25th : Giovanni Caëtano-Orsini becomes Pope Nicholas III. as the successor to John XXI. who was slain by falling walls in his private library on May 14th .
- Aegidius of Rome (student of Thomas Aquinas in Paris until 1272 ) did not get a chair there until 1285 because of his advocacy of Aristotelianism against its condemnation .
- In Norway the Church is given rights and freedoms.
- 50 villages on the North Sea coast fell victim to a severe storm surge at Christmas.
Date of birth saved
- January 21 : Galeazzo I. Visconti , regent of Milan († 1328 )
- March 26 : Christine Ebner , German nun and mystic († 1356 )
- April 17th : Michael IX. , Byzantine co-emperor († 1320 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Bernhard V. zur Lippe , Prince-Bishop of Paderborn († 1341 )
- Henry VI. von Hohenberg , Prince Abbot of Fulda († 1353 )
- Margrethe Eriksdatter of Denmark , Queen of Sweden († 1341 )
- Sancho I , King of Mallorca († 1324 )
- Sempad of Armenia , King of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia († 1308 )
Born around 1277
- Gerhard IV. , Count of Holstein-Plön († 1323 )
- Isabella von Mar , wife of the Scottish King Robert I († 1296 )
- William Zouche , English nobleman († 1352 )
Date of death secured
- January 12th : Philippe de Toucy , regent of the Latin Empire of Constantinople
- January 15 : Konrad II. Von Sternberg , Archbishop of Magdeburg (* around 1225 )
- March 3rd : Folke Johansson , Archbishop of Uppsala
- March 23 : Eberhard I , Bishop of Worms
- March 26 : Albert von Mußbach , aristocratic canon in the prince-bishops of Speyer and Worms
- May 1st : Stefan Uroš I , King of Raszien (* around 1220 )
- May 12th : Rudolf I , Count of Tübingen
- May 14 : Nikolaus I , Herr zu Werle (* around 1210 )
- May 20 : John XXI. , Pope (* around 1205 )
- June 6th : Simon I , Bishop of Paderborn (* around 1196 )
- June 23 : Peder Bang , Bishop of Roskilde
- July 12th / 13th : Leo Thundorfer , Bishop of Regensburg (* around 1225 )
- September 22nd : Witiko VI. von Rosenberg , Bohemian nobleman
- September 29 : Balian of Arsuf , Lord of Arsuf, constable of Jerusalem, Bailli of Jerusalem (* 1239 )
- October 26th : Mastino I della Scala , Lord of Verona
- November 16 : Engelbert I , Count von der Mark
- December 13 : Johann I , Duke of Braunschweig and Lüneburg (* 1242 )
Exact date of death unknown
- June: Nicolas l'Aleman , Lord of Caesarea
- Baibars I , Sultan of Egypt and Syria (* 1233 )
- Boreš z Rýzmburka , Czech nobleman and politician (* around 1210 )
- Dietrich Luf I. , Count of Saarbrücken (* around 1228 )
- Hugues de Revel , Grand Master of the Order of St. John
- Irmgard von Braunshorn , German noblewoman (* around 1215 )
- Jakob Swetoslaw , Bulgarian Boljar and Despot
- Jacob von Batrun , nobleman in the county of Tripoli
- Johann von Batrun , Lord of Batrun
- Konstantin Tich Assen , Tsar of Bulgaria
- Madog ap Gruffydd , Lord of Powys Fadog
- Muhammad I. al-Mustansir , Caliph of the Hafsids in Ifriqiya
- an-Nawawī , Arab scholar (* 1233 )
- Robert V , Count of Auvergne and Boulogne
- Ulrich von Strasbourg , German theologian and Dominican (* around 1220 )
- Witiko I. von Krumau , Bohemian nobleman